A report on Lao people

Map showing linguistic family tree overlaid on a geographic distribution map of Tai-Kadai family. This map only shows general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes, not specific routes, which would have snaked along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Lan Xang's zone of influence and neighbours, c. 1540
The French forced the Siamese to renounce their claims to Lao territory in 1893, thus signalling the genesis of the modern Lao state.
Offering of food to monks to make merit at a temple in Vientiane
A spirit house near Wat Kham Chanot, Udon Thani Province, Thailand
A statue of Lord Brahma (background) at a temple in Vientiane.
A dish of Tam mak hoong, ping gai, and khao nio, a very common Lao meal.

The Lao people are a Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, who speak the eponymous language of the Kra–Dai languages.

- Lao people

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Laos

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Socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

Socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Paddy fields in Laos
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

The politically and culturally dominant Lao people make up 53.2% of the population, mostly in the lowlands.

Isan

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Northeast Thailand or Isan (Isan/อีสาน, ; ອີສານ; also written as Isaan, Isarn, Issarn, Issan, Esan, or Esarn; from Pali īsānna or Sanskrit ईशान्य īśānya "northeast") consists of 20 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand.

Northeast Thailand or Isan (Isan/อีสาน, ; ອີສານ; also written as Isaan, Isarn, Issarn, Issan, Esan, or Esarn; from Pali īsānna or Sanskrit ईशान्य īśānya "northeast") consists of 20 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand.

Black ceramic jar, Ban Chiang culture, Thailand, 1200-800 BCE.
19th century map showing Isan region situated between Thailand, Laos and Cambodia
Isan under the French zone of influence.
Phanom Rung in Buriram.
Satellite image of Isan: the borders with Laos and Cambodia can be seen due to the greater deforestation within Isan.
Cities, mountains, and rivers of Isan
Phu Kra Dung is a well-known tourist destination in Isan.
Central Plaza, Khon Kaen
Pullman Khon Kaen Raja Orchid
Phi Ta Khon mask festival in Loei
Sakhon Nakhon Rajabhat University
Library, Ubon Ratchathani University
Loei Province
Traditional drums, Rocket Festival, Yasothon
Bung Fai Line Sribhumi, Suwannaphum, Roi Et Province
Pattern of Bung Fai Line Sribhumi which made by handle scissors cutting the line without the broken line, Suwannaphum, Roi Et Province
Library, Tung Sri Muang Temple, Ubon Ratchathani, illustrates the typical Isan style
80th Birthday Stadium in Khorat
The Mall Nakhon Ratchasima
Phu Kradueng
Thai depiction of Phra Isuan who is revered as guardian of Isan or 'the northeastern direction'.
The railway network, one of the major transportation systems of Isan.
Third Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge
Thai Airways Airbus A300 departing Khon Kaen
Upper, middle, and lower provinces of Isan
Royal Grandmother Statue Srinagarindra, Sakon Nakhon

The Lao Isan people are aware of their Lao ethnic origin, but Isan has been incorporated as a territory into the modern Thai state through over one hundred years of administrative and bureaucratic reforms, educational policy, and government media.

Kingdom of Lan Xang (green) in 1400 CE

Lan Xang

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Kingdom of Lan Xang (green) in 1400 CE
Statue of Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang kingdom
Mainland Southeast Asia in the early 15th century
Teal: Lan Xang
Purple: Lan Na
Orange: Sukhothai Kingdom
Blue Violet: Ayutthaya Kingdom
Red: Khmer Empire
Yellow: Champa
Blue: Đại Việt
Lan Xang and Mainland Southeast Asia in 1540 CE
Wat Visoun, as seen by Louis Delaporte c.1867
Wat Visoun, Luang Prabang
Statue of King Sai Setthathirath at Pha That Luang, Vientiane
Wat Xieng Thong, Luang Prabang
Seated Buddha figure from Lan Xang, 17th century
Pha That Luang and its place in Vientiane
Monk repainting a Nāga at Pha That Luang
The Khone Falls, on the Mekong River.

The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (ລ້ານຊ້າງຮົ່ມຂາວ lān sāng hôm khāo, ; "Million Elephants and White Parasols") existed as a unified kingdom from 1353 to 1707.

Thailand

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Country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513120 km2, with a population of almost 70 million.

Country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513120 km2, with a population of almost 70 million.

SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, King Mongkut's signature
Map showing geographic distribution of Tai-Kadai linguistic family. Arrows represent general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Taksin the Great enthroned himself as a Thai king, 1767.
Coronation of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship, Red Shirts, protest in 2010
Thailand map of Köppen climate classification.
The population of Asian elephants in Thailand's wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000–3,000.
Sappaya-Sapasathan, the current Parliament House of Thailand
King Bhumibol Adulyadej in a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2012
The HTMS Chakri Naruebet, an aircraft carrier of the Royal Thai Navy
A Royal Thai Air Force JAS 39 Gripen
A proportional representation of Thailand exports, 2019
Sathorn in Bangkok is a skyscraper-studded business district that is home to major hotels and embassies.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1890 to 2018
A proportional representation of Thailand's exports
Thailand has long been one of the largest rice exporters in the world. Forty-nine percent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture.
Scientists are working in the lab
The BTS Skytrain is an elevated rapid transit system in Bangkok
Population pyramid 2016
Hill tribes girls in the Northeast of Thailand
Samanera of Theravada Buddhism, the most practised religion in Thailand.
Chulalongkorn University, established in 1917, is the oldest university in Thailand.
Thailand is a country where school uniform is mandatory.
Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, the oldest and largest hospital in Thailand.
Thai women wearing sabai, Jim Thompson House
People floating krathong rafts during the Loi Krathong festival in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Scene from the Ramakien depicted on a mural at Wat Phra Kaew.
Two sculptures guarding the eastern gate to the main chapel of Wat Arun.
Sculptures of Phra Aphai Mani and the Mermaid from the epic poem Phra Aphai Mani, a work of Sunthorn Phu.
Khon show is the most stylised form of Thai performance.
Muay Thai, Thailand's signature sport
Lumpinee Boxing Stadium

Vientiane was destroyed and a large number of Lao people were relocated to Khorat Plateau as a result.

Distribution of Tai people

Tai peoples

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Tai people refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language.

Tai people refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language.

Distribution of Tai people
Tai-Dong people of Guizhou, China, in traditional dresses, similar to the existing tribe in northern provinces of Thailand
Map showing linguistic family tree overlaid on a geographic distribution map of Tai-Kadai family. This map only shows general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes, not specific routes, which would have snaked along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Image of Siamese mercenaries in Angkor Wat. Later the Siamese would form their own kingdom and become a major rival of Angkor.
Map of the Chinese plain at the start of the Warring States Period in the 5th century BC, showing the locations of the states of Chu, Wu, and Yue.
Distribution of languages in ancient East Asia proposed by J. Marshall Unger (2013), which includes pre-Austronesian / Austro-Tai.
thumb|Proposed genesis of Daic languages and their relation with Austronesian languages (Blench, 2018)<ref name="Blench 2018">{{Cite book |last=Blench |first=Roger |url=https://www.academia.edu/37593287 |title=Tai-Kadai and Austronesian Are Related at Multiple Levels and Their Archaeological Interpretation (Draft) |date=2018 |quote=The volume of cognates between Austronesian and Daic, notably in fundamental vocabulary, is such that they must be related. Borrowing can be excluded as an explanation |via=Academia.edu}}</ref>
Kra-Dai (Tai-Kadai) migration route according to James R. Chamberlain (2016).<ref>{{harvp|Chamberlain|2016|page=67}}</ref>
Tai-Kadai migration route according to Matthias Gerner's Northeast to Southwest Hypothesis.<ref>{{Cite conference |last=Gerner |first=Matthias |date=2014 |title=Project Discussion: The Austro-Tai Hypothesis. The 14th International Symposium on Chinese Languages and Linguistics (IsCLL-14) |url=http://iscll-14.ling.sinica.edu.tw/files-pdf/Papers/Session4/Gerner.pdf |conference=The 14th International Symposium on Chinese Languages and Linguistics (IsCLL -14) |page=158}}</ref>

There are a total of about 93 million people of Tai ancestry worldwide, with the largest ethnic groups being Dai, Thais, Isan, Tai Yai, Lao, Ahom, and Northern Thai peoples.

Lao language

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Map showing the general migration patterns and diversification of the Tai peoples and languages from the original Tai Urheimat of southeastern China.
Wat Phra That Phanom in Nakhon Phanom. Built in the 16th century over earlier Khmer ruins when Isan was part of Lan Xang, the temple is an important place of pilgrimage, attracting Lao from Laos as well as Isan to its temple festivals.
Temple mural of Wat Photaram in Maha Sarakham Province. Dating to the reign of Siamese Ruler Rama III (1788-1851), the writing is in the Tai Noi script, an old form of the Lao alphabet.
A bilingual Lao-French street sign in Vientiane. Although the influence of French on the Lao language has waned considerably, hundreds of words of French origin are used in Laos.
Lao script on a sign at Wat That Luang, Vientiane.
An example of the Tai Tham alphabet formerly used in Laos for religious literature.
A sutra in the Khom script. This Khmer script was used to write Buddhist, Brahmanic and ritual texts.

Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ, 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ, 'Lao language'), is a Kra–Dai language of the Lao people.

Wat Si Saket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.

Anouvong

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Chao Anouvong (ເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌; เจ้าอนุวงศ์; ), or regnal name Xaiya Setthathirath V (ໄຊຍະເສດຖາທິຣາຊທີ່ຫ້າ; ไชยเชษฐาธิราชที่ห้า; ), (1767 &ndash; 1829), led the Lao rebellion (1826–28) as the last monarch of the Kingdom of Vientiane.

Chao Anouvong (ເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌; เจ้าอนุวงศ์; ), or regnal name Xaiya Setthathirath V (ໄຊຍະເສດຖາທິຣາຊທີ່ຫ້າ; ไชยเชษฐาธิราชที่ห้า; ), (1767 &ndash; 1829), led the Lao rebellion (1826–28) as the last monarch of the Kingdom of Vientiane.

Wat Si Saket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.
Chao Anouvong Park in Vientiane

However, the Emerald Buddha and several other important Buddha images were taken to Thonburi, and the sons and daughter of Ong Bun or King Siribounyasan were taken as hostages, along with several thousand Lao families, who were resettled in Saraburi, north of the Thai capital.

Blue represents Lao army routes. Red represents Siamese army routes. Light blue represents Anouvong's flight to Vietnam.

Lao rebellion (1826–1828)

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Attempt by King Anouvong (Xaiya Sethathirath V) of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang.

Attempt by King Anouvong (Xaiya Sethathirath V) of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang.

Blue represents Lao army routes. Red represents Siamese army routes. Light blue represents Anouvong's flight to Vietnam.
Southeast Asia c. 1707-1828 showing the Lao kingdoms of Vientiane, Luang Prabang, Champasak, and the principality of Phuan (Xieng Khuang)
Statues of Phra Ta and Phra Vo in modern city of Nong Bua Lamphu.
Wat Sisaket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.
Haw Phra Kaew, Vientiane. Former Royal Temple of the Emerald Buddha.
Buddha statues from Vientiane, damaged in the invasion
Victory Chedi, Wat Tung Sawang Chaiyaphum
Haw Phra Kaew in Vientiane in ruins clamied by forest wines, depicted by Louis Delaporte, the French Explorer of Mekong, in 1867.
Statue of "Grandma Mo" or Thao Suranari who is revered as one of Thailand's national heroines.

In January 1827 the Lao armies of the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak moved south and west across the Khorat Plateau, advancing as far as Saraburi, just three days march from the Siamese capitol of Bangkok.

Ban Tha Lat, Mon inscription (9th CE), was found in 1968, in an area where other pieces of 
archaeological evidence testified to an ancient Mon presence. It is now at Ho Phra Kaeo Museum, Vientiane, Laos

Vientiane

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Capital and largest city of Laos.

Capital and largest city of Laos.

Ban Tha Lat, Mon inscription (9th CE), was found in 1968, in an area where other pieces of 
archaeological evidence testified to an ancient Mon presence. It is now at Ho Phra Kaeo Museum, Vientiane, Laos
Buddha sculptures at Pha That Luang
Haw Phra Kaew or Temple of the Emerald Buddha
Wat Si Muang
Buddha Park
Vientiane from Patuxai
Wattay International Airport
Older taxis in Vientiane are being replaced by newer Chinese-made cars, like this Soueast Lioncel.
Thanaleng Train Station

In the 11th and 12th centuries, the time when the Lao and Thai people are believed to have entered Southeast Asia from Southern China, the few remaining Khmers in the area were either killed, removed, or assimilated into the Lao civilization, which would soon overtake the area.

Isan people

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Ethno-regional group native to Northeastern Thailand with an estimated population of about 22 million.

Ethno-regional group native to Northeastern Thailand with an estimated population of about 22 million.

Red Shirt political stage. Many Isan people joined the movement, protesting the ouster of PM Thaksin in 2006 and subsequent nullifications of candidates and parties attached to him.
An ethnic Isan woman walking her water buffalo to pasture. Isan people are primarily engaged in wet-rice agriculture, despite arid conditions and a flat topography that makes it prone to flooding during heavy monsoons.

Like Central Thai (Siamese) and Lao, they belong to the linguistic family of Tai peoples.