A report on LaosThailand and Lao people

Map showing linguistic family tree overlaid on a geographic distribution map of Tai-Kadai family. This map only shows general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes, not specific routes, which would have snaked along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, King Mongkut's signature
Lan Xang's zone of influence and neighbours, c. 1540
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Map showing geographic distribution of Tai-Kadai linguistic family. Arrows represent general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes along the rivers and over the lower passes.
The French forced the Siamese to renounce their claims to Lao territory in 1893, thus signalling the genesis of the modern Lao state.
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
Taksin the Great enthroned himself as a Thai king, 1767.
Offering of food to monks to make merit at a temple in Vientiane
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Coronation of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
A spirit house near Wat Kham Chanot, Udon Thani Province, Thailand
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship, Red Shirts, protest in 2010
A statue of Lord Brahma (background) at a temple in Vientiane.
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Thailand map of Köppen climate classification.
A dish of Tam mak hoong, ping gai, and khao nio, a very common Lao meal.
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
The population of Asian elephants in Thailand's wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000–3,000.
Paddy fields in Laos
Sappaya-Sapasathan, the current Parliament House of Thailand
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
King Bhumibol Adulyadej in a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2012
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
The HTMS Chakri Naruebet, an aircraft carrier of the Royal Thai Navy
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
A Royal Thai Air Force JAS 39 Gripen
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
A proportional representation of Thailand exports, 2019
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
Sathorn in Bangkok is a skyscraper-studded business district that is home to major hotels and embassies.
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
Development of real GDP per capita, 1890 to 2018
GDP per capita development in Laos
A proportional representation of Thailand's exports
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Thailand has long been one of the largest rice exporters in the world. Forty-nine percent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture.
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Scientists are working in the lab
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
The BTS Skytrain is an elevated rapid transit system in Bangkok
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
Population pyramid 2016
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
Hill tribes girls in the Northeast of Thailand
An example of Lao cuisine
Samanera of Theravada Buddhism, the most practised religion in Thailand.
Lao women wearing sinhs
Chulalongkorn University, established in 1917, is the oldest university in Thailand.
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
Thailand is a country where school uniform is mandatory.
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, the oldest and largest hospital in Thailand.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.
Thai women wearing sabai, Jim Thompson House
People floating krathong rafts during the Loi Krathong festival in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Scene from the Ramakien depicted on a mural at Wat Phra Kaew.
Two sculptures guarding the eastern gate to the main chapel of Wat Arun.
Sculptures of Phra Aphai Mani and the Mermaid from the epic poem Phra Aphai Mani, a work of Sunthorn Phu.
Khon show is the most stylised form of Thai performance.
Muay Thai, Thailand's signature sport
Lumpinee Boxing Stadium

At the heart of the Indochinese Peninsula, Laos is bordered by Myanmar and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southeast, and Thailand to the west and southwest.

- Laos

The country is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the extremity of Myanmar.

- Thailand

They are the majority ethnic group of Laos, making up 53.2% of the total population.

- Lao people

They are closely related to other Tai peoples, especially (or synonymous) with the Isan people, who are also speakers of Lao language, but native to neighboring Thailand.

- Lao people

The politically and culturally dominant Lao people make up 53.2% of the population, mostly in the lowlands.

- Laos

Vientiane was destroyed and a large number of Lao people were relocated to Khorat Plateau as a result.

- Thailand

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Overall

Kingdom of Lan Xang (green) in 1400 CE

Lan Xang

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Kingdom of Lan Xang (green) in 1400 CE
Statue of Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang kingdom
Mainland Southeast Asia in the early 15th century
Teal: Lan Xang
Purple: Lan Na
Orange: Sukhothai Kingdom
Blue Violet: Ayutthaya Kingdom
Red: Khmer Empire
Yellow: Champa
Blue: Đại Việt
Lan Xang and Mainland Southeast Asia in 1540 CE
Wat Visoun, as seen by Louis Delaporte c.1867
Wat Visoun, Luang Prabang
Statue of King Sai Setthathirath at Pha That Luang, Vientiane
Wat Xieng Thong, Luang Prabang
Seated Buddha figure from Lan Xang, 17th century
Pha That Luang and its place in Vientiane
Monk repainting a Nāga at Pha That Luang
The Khone Falls, on the Mekong River.

The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (ລ້ານຊ້າງຮົ່ມຂາວ lān sāng hôm khāo, ; "Million Elephants and White Parasols") existed as a unified kingdom from 1353 to 1707.

The kingdom is the precursor for the country of Laos and the basis for its national historic and cultural identity.

The geography Lan Xang would occupy had been originally settled by indigenous Austroasiatic-speaking tribes, such as Khmuic peoples and Vietic peoples which gave rise to the Bronze Age cultures in Ban Chiang (today part of Isan, Thailand) and the Đông Sơn culture as well as Iron Age peoples near Xiangkhoang Plateau on the Plain of Jars, Funan, and Chenla (near Vat Phou in Champasak Province).

Blue represents Lao army routes. Red represents Siamese army routes. Light blue represents Anouvong's flight to Vietnam.

Lao rebellion (1826–1828)

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Attempt by King Anouvong (Xaiya Sethathirath V) of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang.

Attempt by King Anouvong (Xaiya Sethathirath V) of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang.

Blue represents Lao army routes. Red represents Siamese army routes. Light blue represents Anouvong's flight to Vietnam.
Southeast Asia c. 1707-1828 showing the Lao kingdoms of Vientiane, Luang Prabang, Champasak, and the principality of Phuan (Xieng Khuang)
Statues of Phra Ta and Phra Vo in modern city of Nong Bua Lamphu.
Wat Sisaket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.
Haw Phra Kaew, Vientiane. Former Royal Temple of the Emerald Buddha.
Buddha statues from Vientiane, damaged in the invasion
Victory Chedi, Wat Tung Sawang Chaiyaphum
Haw Phra Kaew in Vientiane in ruins clamied by forest wines, depicted by Louis Delaporte, the French Explorer of Mekong, in 1867.
Statue of "Grandma Mo" or Thao Suranari who is revered as one of Thailand's national heroines.

In January 1827 the Lao armies of the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak moved south and west across the Khorat Plateau, advancing as far as Saraburi, just three days march from the Siamese capitol of Bangkok.

The slave raids and forced population transfers conducted by Siam led to a demographic disparity between the areas that would ultimately become Thailand and Laos, and facilitated the "civilizing mission" of the French into Lao areas during the latter half of the nineteenth century.

Wat Si Saket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.

Anouvong

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Chao Anouvong (ເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌; เจ้าอนุวงศ์; ), or regnal name Xaiya Setthathirath V (ໄຊຍະເສດຖາທິຣາຊທີ່ຫ້າ; ไชยเชษฐาธิราชที่ห้า; ), (1767 – 1829), led the Lao rebellion (1826–28) as the last monarch of the Kingdom of Vientiane.

Chao Anouvong (ເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌; เจ้าอนุวงศ์; ), or regnal name Xaiya Setthathirath V (ໄຊຍະເສດຖາທິຣາຊທີ່ຫ້າ; ไชยเชษฐาธิราชที่ห้า; ), (1767 – 1829), led the Lao rebellion (1826–28) as the last monarch of the Kingdom of Vientiane.

Wat Si Saket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.
Chao Anouvong Park in Vientiane

However, the Emerald Buddha and several other important Buddha images were taken to Thonburi, and the sons and daughter of Ong Bun or King Siribounyasan were taken as hostages, along with several thousand Lao families, who were resettled in Saraburi, north of the Thai capital.

As a consequence of the warfare and population transfers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, there are now over 19 million ethnic Lao living in the Isan region of Thailand, while less than 6 million live in the independent country of Laos.

In 2010, to coincide with the 450th Anniversary celebrations of Vientiane, the Laos government created Chao Anouvong Park, complete with a large bronze statue of the locally revered ruler.

Lao language

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Map showing the general migration patterns and diversification of the Tai peoples and languages from the original Tai Urheimat of southeastern China.
Wat Phra That Phanom in Nakhon Phanom. Built in the 16th century over earlier Khmer ruins when Isan was part of Lan Xang, the temple is an important place of pilgrimage, attracting Lao from Laos as well as Isan to its temple festivals.
Temple mural of Wat Photaram in Maha Sarakham Province. Dating to the reign of Siamese Ruler Rama III (1788-1851), the writing is in the Tai Noi script, an old form of the Lao alphabet.
A bilingual Lao-French street sign in Vientiane. Although the influence of French on the Lao language has waned considerably, hundreds of words of French origin are used in Laos.
Lao script on a sign at Wat That Luang, Vientiane.
An example of the Tai Tham alphabet formerly used in Laos for religious literature.
A sutra in the Khom script. This Khmer script was used to write Buddhist, Brahmanic and ritual texts.

Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ, 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ, 'Lao language'), is a Kra–Dai language of the Lao people.

It is spoken in Laos, where it is the official language for around 7 million people, as well as in northeast Thailand, where it is used by around 23 million people, usually referred to as Isan.

Clockwise from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng

ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive

Two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident

ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive

Civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị

Burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre

Vietnam War

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Clockwise from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng

ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive

Two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident

ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive

Civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị

Burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre
The Geneva Conference, 1954
Ba Cut in Can Tho Military Court 1956, commander of religious movement the Hòa Hảo, which had fought against the Việt Minh, Vietnamese National Army and Cao Dai movement throughout the first war
Map of insurgency and "disturbances", 1957 to 1960
U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam in Washington, 8 May 1957
The Ho Chi Minh trail, known as the Truong Son Road by the North Vietnamese, cuts through Laos. This would develop into a complex logistical system which would allow the North Vietnamese to maintain the war effort despite the largest aerial bombardment campaign in history
The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields.
President Kennedy's news conference of 23 March 1961
South Vietnam, Military Regions, 1967
Kennedy and McNamara
ARVN forces capture a Viet Cong
Ngô Đình Diệm after being shot and killed in a coup on 2 November 1963
Viet Cong fighters crossing a river
A U.S. B-66 Destroyer and four F-105 Thunderchiefs dropping bombs on North Vietnam during Operation Rolling Thunder
ARVN Forces and a US Advisor inspect a downed helicopter, Battle of Dong Xoai, June 1965
A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, moves a suspected Viet Cong during a search and clear operation held by the battalion 15 mi west of Da Nang Air Base, 1965.
Peasants suspected of being Viet Cong under detention of U.S. Army, 1966
Heavily bandaged woman burned by napalm, with a tag attached to her arm which reads "VNC Female" meaning Vietnamese civilian
A US "tunnel rat" soldier prepares to enter a Viet Cong tunnel.
Viet Cong soldier crouches in a bunker with an SKS rifle
ARVN forces assault a stronghold in the Mekong Delta.
Viet Cong before departing to participate in the Tet Offensive around Saigon-Gia Dinh
North Vietnamese regular army forces
The ruins of a section of Saigon, in the Cholon neighborhood, following fierce fighting between ARVN forces and Viet Cong Main Force battalions
Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin with U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson at the Glassboro Summit Conference where the two representatives discussed the possibilities of a peace settlement
Propaganda leaflet urging the defection of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese to the side of the Republic of Vietnam
ARVN and US Special Forces, September 1968
An alleged Viet Cong captured during an attack on an American outpost near the Cambodian border is interrogated.
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Soviet advisers inspecting the debris of a B-52 downed in the vicinity of Hanoi
American POWs recently released from North Vietnamese prison camps, 1973
Civilians in a NVA/Viet Cong controlled zone. Civilians were required to show appropriate flags, during the War of the flags
Memorial commemorating the 1974 Buon Me Thuot campaign, depicting a Montagnard of the Central Highlands, a NVA soldier and a T-54 tank
The capture of Hue, March 1975
Victorious PAVN troops at the Presidential Palace, Saigon
Anti-war demonstration in the US, 1967
Ho Chi Minh from the Việt Minh independence movement and Việt Cộng with East German sailors in Stralsund harbour, 1957
Leonid Brezhnev (left) was the Soviet Union's leader during the Vietnam War.
Soviet anti-air instructors and North Vietnamese crewmen in the spring of 1965 at an anti-aircraft training center in Vietnam
Vietnam People's Air Force pilots walk by their aircraft, the MiG-17. The development of the North Vietnamese Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) during the war was assisted by Warsaw Pact nations throughout the war. Between 1966 and 1972 a total of 17 flying aces was credited by the VPAF against US fighters.
Fidel Castro meeting with Võ Nguyên Giáp at the Vietnam Military History Museum
East German solidarity stamp depicting a Vietnamese mother and child with the text "Unconquerable Vietnam"
The Thai Queen's Cobra battalion in Phuoc Tho
An Australian soldier in Vietnam
Victims of the My Lai massacre
Napalm burn victims during the war being treated at the 67th Combat Support Hospital
Interment of victims of the Huế Massacre
Da Nang, South Vietnam, 1968
A nurse treats a Vietnamese child, 1967
Female Viet Cong guerrilla in combat
Master-Sergeant and pharmacist Do Thi Trinh, part of the WAFC, supplying medication to ARVN dependents
Memorial temple to Nguyễn Thị Định and the female volunteers of the Viet Cong whom she commanded. They came to call themselves the "Long-Haired Army".
A wounded African-American soldier being carried away, 1968
Guerrillas assemble shells and rockets delivered along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
UH-1D helicopters airlift members of a U.S. infantry regiment, 1966
North Vietnamese SAM crew in front of SA-2 launcher. The Soviet Union provided North Vietnam with considerable anti-air defence around installations.
Bombs being dropped by the B-52 Stratofortress long-range strategic bomber.
B-52 wreckage in Huu Tiep Lake, Hanoi. Downed during Operation Linebacker II, its remains have turned into a war monument.
Vietnamese refugees fleeing Vietnam, 1984
A bombed Buddha statue in Laos. U.S. bombing campaigns made Vietnam the single most bombed country in history.
Captured U.S.-supplied armored vehicles and artillery pieces
A young Marine private waits on the beach during the Marine landing, Da Nang, 3 August 1965
A marine gets his wounds treated during operations in Huế City, in 1968
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and General Westmoreland talk with General Tee on conditions of the war in Vietnam.
U.S. helicopter spraying chemical defoliants in the Mekong Delta, South Vietnam, 1969
Handicapped children in Vietnam, most of them victims of Agent Orange, 2004
Cemetery for ten unmarried girls who volunteered for logistical activities, who died in a B-52 raid at Đồng Lộc Junction, a strategic junction along the Ho Chi Minh trail
Stone plaque with photo of the "Thương tiếc" (Mourning Soldier) statue, originally, installed at the Republic of Vietnam National Military Cemetery. The original statue was demolished in April 1975.
The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields.

The Vietnam War (also known by other names) was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U.S. service members also died in the conflict, and a further 1,626 remain missing in action.

As South Vietnam was formally part of a military alliance with the US, Australia, New Zealand, France, the UK, Pakistan, Thailand and the Philippines, the alliance was invoked during the war.