A report on Laos and People's Army of Vietnam

Insignia of People's Army of Vietnam
General Võ Nguyên Giáp on the date of the PAVN's establishment in 1944. Chief of General Staff Hoàng Văn Thái wearing a pith helmet and holding the flag.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Vietnamese troops in Vietnam War, 1967
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Infiltrators on the move in Laos down the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
Captured photo shows VC crossing a river in 1966.
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
PAVN's structure
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Insignia of the General Staff
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Vietnam Map with eight Military Districts and four Corps
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
PAVN soldiers during a parade in 2015.
Paddy fields in Laos
PAVN military vehicles roundel.
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
PAVN reconnaissance troops in 2015.
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
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Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
A Vietnam Coast Guard patrol vessel
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

Soon after the 1954 Geneva Accords, the 330th and 338th Divisions were formed by southern Viet Minh members who had moved north in conformity with that agreement, and by 1955, six more divisions were formed: the 328th, 332nd and 350th in the north of the North Vietnam, the 305th and the 324th near the DMZ, and the 335 Division of soldiers repatriated from Laos.

- People's Army of Vietnam

The Pathet Lao were backed militarily by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Viet Cong.

- Laos

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Overall

Clockwise from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng

ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive

Two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident

ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive

Civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị

Burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre

Vietnam War

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Clockwise from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng

ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive

Two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident

ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive

Civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị

Burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre
The Geneva Conference, 1954
Ba Cut in Can Tho Military Court 1956, commander of religious movement the Hòa Hảo, which had fought against the Việt Minh, Vietnamese National Army and Cao Dai movement throughout the first war
Map of insurgency and "disturbances", 1957 to 1960
U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam in Washington, 8 May 1957
The Ho Chi Minh trail, known as the Truong Son Road by the North Vietnamese, cuts through Laos. This would develop into a complex logistical system which would allow the North Vietnamese to maintain the war effort despite the largest aerial bombardment campaign in history
The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields.
President Kennedy's news conference of 23 March 1961
South Vietnam, Military Regions, 1967
Kennedy and McNamara
ARVN forces capture a Viet Cong
Ngô Đình Diệm after being shot and killed in a coup on 2 November 1963
Viet Cong fighters crossing a river
A U.S. B-66 Destroyer and four F-105 Thunderchiefs dropping bombs on North Vietnam during Operation Rolling Thunder
ARVN Forces and a US Advisor inspect a downed helicopter, Battle of Dong Xoai, June 1965
A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, moves a suspected Viet Cong during a search and clear operation held by the battalion 15 mi west of Da Nang Air Base, 1965.
Peasants suspected of being Viet Cong under detention of U.S. Army, 1966
Heavily bandaged woman burned by napalm, with a tag attached to her arm which reads "VNC Female" meaning Vietnamese civilian
A US "tunnel rat" soldier prepares to enter a Viet Cong tunnel.
Viet Cong soldier crouches in a bunker with an SKS rifle
ARVN forces assault a stronghold in the Mekong Delta.
Viet Cong before departing to participate in the Tet Offensive around Saigon-Gia Dinh
North Vietnamese regular army forces
The ruins of a section of Saigon, in the Cholon neighborhood, following fierce fighting between ARVN forces and Viet Cong Main Force battalions
Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin with U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson at the Glassboro Summit Conference where the two representatives discussed the possibilities of a peace settlement
Propaganda leaflet urging the defection of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese to the side of the Republic of Vietnam
ARVN and US Special Forces, September 1968
An alleged Viet Cong captured during an attack on an American outpost near the Cambodian border is interrogated.
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Soviet advisers inspecting the debris of a B-52 downed in the vicinity of Hanoi
American POWs recently released from North Vietnamese prison camps, 1973
Civilians in a NVA/Viet Cong controlled zone. Civilians were required to show appropriate flags, during the War of the flags
Memorial commemorating the 1974 Buon Me Thuot campaign, depicting a Montagnard of the Central Highlands, a NVA soldier and a T-54 tank
The capture of Hue, March 1975
Victorious PAVN troops at the Presidential Palace, Saigon
Anti-war demonstration in the US, 1967
Ho Chi Minh from the Việt Minh independence movement and Việt Cộng with East German sailors in Stralsund harbour, 1957
Leonid Brezhnev (left) was the Soviet Union's leader during the Vietnam War.
Soviet anti-air instructors and North Vietnamese crewmen in the spring of 1965 at an anti-aircraft training center in Vietnam
Vietnam People's Air Force pilots walk by their aircraft, the MiG-17. The development of the North Vietnamese Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) during the war was assisted by Warsaw Pact nations throughout the war. Between 1966 and 1972 a total of 17 flying aces was credited by the VPAF against US fighters.
Fidel Castro meeting with Võ Nguyên Giáp at the Vietnam Military History Museum
East German solidarity stamp depicting a Vietnamese mother and child with the text "Unconquerable Vietnam"
The Thai Queen's Cobra battalion in Phuoc Tho
An Australian soldier in Vietnam
Victims of the My Lai massacre
Napalm burn victims during the war being treated at the 67th Combat Support Hospital
Interment of victims of the Huế Massacre
Da Nang, South Vietnam, 1968
A nurse treats a Vietnamese child, 1967
Female Viet Cong guerrilla in combat
Master-Sergeant and pharmacist Do Thi Trinh, part of the WAFC, supplying medication to ARVN dependents
Memorial temple to Nguyễn Thị Định and the female volunteers of the Viet Cong whom she commanded. They came to call themselves the "Long-Haired Army".
A wounded African-American soldier being carried away, 1968
Guerrillas assemble shells and rockets delivered along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
UH-1D helicopters airlift members of a U.S. infantry regiment, 1966
North Vietnamese SAM crew in front of SA-2 launcher. The Soviet Union provided North Vietnam with considerable anti-air defence around installations.
Bombs being dropped by the B-52 Stratofortress long-range strategic bomber.
B-52 wreckage in Huu Tiep Lake, Hanoi. Downed during Operation Linebacker II, its remains have turned into a war monument.
Vietnamese refugees fleeing Vietnam, 1984
A bombed Buddha statue in Laos. U.S. bombing campaigns made Vietnam the single most bombed country in history.
Captured U.S.-supplied armored vehicles and artillery pieces
A young Marine private waits on the beach during the Marine landing, Da Nang, 3 August 1965
A marine gets his wounds treated during operations in Huế City, in 1968
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and General Westmoreland talk with General Tee on conditions of the war in Vietnam.
U.S. helicopter spraying chemical defoliants in the Mekong Delta, South Vietnam, 1969
Handicapped children in Vietnam, most of them victims of Agent Orange, 2004
Cemetery for ten unmarried girls who volunteered for logistical activities, who died in a B-52 raid at Đồng Lộc Junction, a strategic junction along the Ho Chi Minh trail
Stone plaque with photo of the "Thương tiếc" (Mourning Soldier) statue, originally, installed at the Republic of Vietnam National Military Cemetery. The original statue was demolished in April 1975.
The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields.

The Vietnam War (also known by other names) was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA), engaged in more conventional warfare with U.S. and South Vietnamese forces (Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN)).

South Vietnam

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Country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War.

Country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War.

About 1 million North Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during Operation "Passage to Freedom" (October 1954).
US President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam in Washington, 8 May 1957.
A woman casting her ballot in the 1967 elections in the Republic of Vietnam
Radio Vietnam broadcast hours cards, denoting times and frequencies of radio broadcasts in 1960 and 1962. Address: 3 Phan Dinh Phung St., Saigon
Map of South Vietnam

The regular North Vietnamese army and Việt-Cộng auxiliaries launched a major second combined-arms conventional invasion in 1975.

A French governor-general (toàn quyền) in Hanoi administered all the five parts of Indochina (Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina, Laos, and Cambodia) while Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ) was under a French governor (thống đốc), but the difference from the other parts with most indigenous intelligentsia and wealthy were naturalized French (Tourane now Đà Nẵng in the central third of Vietnam also enjoyed this privilege because this city was a concession too.) The northern third of Vietnam (then the colony (thuộc địa) of Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ) was under a French resident general (thống sứ).

Clockwise from top: After the fall of Dien Bien Phu supporting Laotian troops fall back across the Mekong River into Laos; French Marine commandos wade ashore off the Annam coast in July 1950; M24 Chaffee American light tank used by French in Vietnam; Geneva Conference on 21 July 1954; A Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat from Escadrille 1F prepares to land on operating in the Gulf of Tonkin.

First Indochina War

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The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954.

The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954.

Clockwise from top: After the fall of Dien Bien Phu supporting Laotian troops fall back across the Mekong River into Laos; French Marine commandos wade ashore off the Annam coast in July 1950; M24 Chaffee American light tank used by French in Vietnam; Geneva Conference on 21 July 1954; A Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat from Escadrille 1F prepares to land on operating in the Gulf of Tonkin.
French Indochina (1913)
Võ Nguyên Giáp and Hồ Chí Minh (1945)
Japanese troops lay down their arms to British troops in a ceremony in Saigon after the surrender of Japan.
Commander of the C.L.I. (Corps Léger d'Intervention) arriving in Indochina.
Telegram from Hồ Chí Minh to U.S. President Harry S. Truman requesting support for independence (Hanoi, February 28, 1946)
Hồ Chí Minh and Marius Moutet shaking hands after signing modus vivendi 1946 after Fontainebleau Agreements
French Marine commandos wade ashore off the Annam coast
A map of dissident activities in Indochina in 1950
General Trình Minh Thế
French foreign airborne 1st BEP firing with an FM 24/29 light machine gun during an ambush (1952)
A Bearcat naval fighter aircraft of the Aéronavale drops napalm on Việt Minh Division 320th's artillery during Operation Mouette (November 1953)
Map of the war in 1954: Orange = Areas under Việt Minh control. Purple = Areas under French control. White-dotted hatch = Areas of Việt Minh guerrilla encampment and fighting.
Captured French soldiers, escorted by Vietnamese troops, walk to a prisoner-of-war camp in Dien Bien Phu
The 1954 Geneva Conference
Student demonstration in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements
French Foreign Legion patrol question a suspected member of the Việt Minh.
China supplied the Việt Minh with hundreds of Soviet-built GAZ-51 trucks during the 1950s.
Anti-communist Vietnamese refugees moving from a French LSM landing ship to the USS Montague (AKA-98) during Operation Passage to Freedom in 1954
Bois Belleau (aka USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24)) transferred to France in 1953
A 1952 F4U-7 Corsair of the 14.F flotilla which fought at Dien Bien Phu
French-marked USAF C-119 flown by CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu in 1954
A poster celebrating the 60th anniversary of the French recognition of North Vietnamese independence
French Indochina medal, law of August 1, 1953

The conflict pitted a range of forces, including the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps, led by the government of France and supported by the former emperor Bảo Đại's Vietnamese National Army against the People's Army of Vietnam and Việt Minh (part of the Communist Party), led by Võ Nguyên Giáp and Hồ Chí Minh.

Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in northern Vietnam, although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia.

The flag of the Viet Cong, adopted in 1960, is a variation on the flag of North Vietnam. Sometimes the lower stripe was green.

Viet Cong

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The flag of the Viet Cong, adopted in 1960, is a variation on the flag of North Vietnam. Sometimes the lower stripe was green.
Guerrilla forces from North Vietnam's Vietcong movement crossing a river in 1966 during the Vietnam War
Soldiers and civilians took supplies south on the Ho Chi Minh trail (1959)
Situation of the Communist forces in South Vietnam in early 1964
A photo from the U.S. Information Agency allegedly showing a 23-year-old Le Van Than, who had defected from the Communist forces and joined the South Vietnam Government side and was later recaptured by the Viet Cong and spent a month in a Viet Cong internment camp.
Brinks Hotel, Saigon, following a Viet Cong bombing on December 24, 1964. Two American officers were killed.
A Viet Cong prisoner captured in 1967 by the U.S. Army awaits interrogation.
A U.S. Air Force Douglas Skyraider drops a white phosphorus bomb on a Viet Cong position in South Vietnam in 1966.
Viet Cong soldiers captured by US Marines outside of Dong Ha, RVN 1968
Viet Cong soldier stands beneath a Viet Cong flag carrying his AK-47 rifle.
A U.S. propaganda leaflet urges Viet Cong to defect using the Chiêu Hồi Program.
Viet Cong soldiers carry an injured American POW to a prisoner swap in 1973. The VC uniform was a floppy jungle hat, rubber sandals, and green fatigues without rank or insignia.

The Viet Cong was an armed communist revolutionary organization in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.

According to Trần Văn Trà, the Viet Cong's top commander, and the post-war Vietnamese government's official history, the Viet Cong followed orders from Hanoi and were part of the People's Army of Vietnam, or North Vietnamese army.

Vietnam

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Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c. 800 BC
Vietnam's territories around 1838
The Grand Palais built for the 1902–1903 world's fair, when Hanoi was French Indochina's capital
Partition of French Indochina after the 1954 Geneva Conference
Three US Fairchild UC-123B aircraft spraying Agent Orange during the Operation Ranch Hand as part of a herbicidal warfare operation depriving the food and vegetation cover of the Việt Cộng, c. 1962–1971
Nature attractions in Vietnam, clockwise from top: Hạ Long Bay, Yến River and Bản-Giốc Waterfalls
Hoàng Liên Sơn mountain range, the range that includes Fansipan which is the highest summit on the Indochinese Peninsula.
Köppen climate classification map of Vietnam.
Nha Trang, a popular beach destination has a tropical savanna climate.
Native species in Vietnam, clockwise from top-right: crested argus, a peafowl, red-shanked douc, Indochinese leopard, saola.
Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities
The National Assembly of Vietnam building in Hanoi
Examples of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: T-54B tank, Sukhoi Su-27UBK fighter aircraft, Vietnam Coast Guard Hamilton-class cutter, and Vietnam People's Army chemical corps with Type 56.
A Communist Party propaganda poster in Hanoi
Historical GDP per capita development of Vietnam
Tree map showing Vietnam's exports
Vietnam's tallest skyscraper, the Landmark 81 located in Bình Thạnh, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).
Terraced rice fields in Sa Pa
A Vietnamese-made TOPIO 3.0 humanoid ping-pong-playing robot displayed during the 2009 International Robot Exhibition (IREX) in Tokyo.
Vietnamese science students working on an experiment in their university lab.
Hội An, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist destination.
HCMC–LT–DG section of the North–South Expressway.
Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the busiest airport in the country.
The port of Hai Phong is one of the largest and busiest container ports in Vietnam.
Sơn La Dam in northern Vietnam, the largest hydroelectric dam in Southeast Asia.
In rural areas of Vietnam, piped water systems are operated by a wide variety of institutions including a national organisation, people committees (local government), community groups, co-operatives and private companies.
Development of life expectancy in Vietnam since 1950
Vietnam population pyramid in 2019
District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Urbanisation in west Hanoi
Vietnamese calligraphy in Latin alphabet.
Vietnamese traditional white school uniform for girls in the country, the áo dài with the addition of nón lá, a conical hat.
Vietnamese dragon on Emperor Khải Định's c. 1917 scroll in British Library collection.
Ca trù trio performance in northern Vietnam
Some of the notable Vietnamese cuisine, clockwise from top-right: phở noodle, chè thái fruit dessert, chả giò spring roll and bánh mì sandwich.
Vietnam Television (VTV), the main state television station
Special Tết decoration in the country seen during the holiday
Mỹ Đình National Stadium in Hanoi.

Vietnam borders China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea.

The Vietnam People's Armed Forces consists of the Vietnam People's Army (VPA), the Vietnam People's Public Security and the Vietnam Self-Defence Militia.

Flag of the South Vietnamese army

Army of the Republic of Vietnam

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The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN; ; Armée de la république du Viêt Nam) were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 to the Fall of Saigon in April 1975.

The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN; ; Armée de la république du Viêt Nam) were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 to the Fall of Saigon in April 1975.

Flag of the South Vietnamese army
Flag of the South Vietnamese army
The TDND 5 airborne unit fought several battles including Dien Bien Phu.
Early unmodified ARVN M113 during the Vietnam War
Two United States soldiers and one South Vietnamese soldier waterboard a captured North Vietnamese prisoner of war near Da Nang, 1968.
M41 Walker Bulldog was used by the ARVN
ARVN Rangers fighting in Saigon during the Tet Offensive, 1968.
ARVN Special Forces equipped with M1 Carbines
Ithaca 37
Claymore anti-personnel mine in use in Vietnam
M18 and Mk 20 grenade launchers
V-100 and M107 at the Huế military museum
ARVN M48s in April 1972
M8 Greyhound at Zone 5 Military Museum, Danang.
ARVN Operations, 1965
ARVN troops with suspected VC member, 1965
A Douglas A-1 Skyraider, A1E, drops napalm on a target spotted by an O-1 Bird Dog.
WAFC (Women's Armed Forces Corps) division in the National Armed Forces Day parade, Saigon, June 19, 1971
The flag of Army of the Republic of Vietnam's Armored Cavalry Regiment, used between 1957 and 1975.
The flag of Security Force of Capital Special Zone, used between 1965 and 1975.
The flag of the South Vietnamese Military Police Corps, used between 1955 and 1975.
The flag of the ARVN's Artillery Forces, used between 1951 and 1975.
The flag of ARVN Military Engineering Forces, used between 1955 and 1975.

After the fall of Saigon to North Vietnam's People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), the ARVN was dissolved.

After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

Flag of the Pathet Lao

Pathet Lao

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Flag of the Pathet Lao
Pathet Lao at Xam Neua in 1953
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, Laos, 1973

The Pathet Lao (ປະເທດລາວ ), officially the Lao People's Liberation Army, was a communist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid-20th century.

During the civil war, it was effectively organized, equipped and even led by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN).

Kingdom of Laos

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Landlocked country in Southeast Asia at the heart of the Indochinese Peninsula.

Landlocked country in Southeast Asia at the heart of the Indochinese Peninsula.

North Vietnamese troops march through Laos, 1967

The country was governed as a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953.

During the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos, the Pathet Lao were backed militarily by the NVA and Vietcong.

Insurgency in Laos

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Ongoing low-intensity conflict between the Laotian government on one side and former members of the "Secret Army", Laotian royalists, and rebels from the Hmong and lowland Lao ethnic minorities on the other.

Ongoing low-intensity conflict between the Laotian government on one side and former members of the "Secret Army", Laotian royalists, and rebels from the Hmong and lowland Lao ethnic minorities on the other.

These groups have faced reprisals from the Lao People's Army and Vietnam People's Army for their support of the U.S.-led, anti-communist military campaigns in Laos during the Laotian Civil War, which the insurgency is an extension of itself.

The Center for Public Policy Analysis

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Established in Washington, D.C. in 1988 and describes itself as a non-profit, non-partisan, think tank and research organization.

Established in Washington, D.C. in 1988 and describes itself as a non-profit, non-partisan, think tank and research organization.

The organization is described as an "outspoken supporter" and human rights proponent for ethnic, minority Laotian and Hmong people in Laos and Vietnam.

The role of Vietnam People's Army (VPA), and VPA owned companies, in illegal logging in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Laos, and Cambodia continues to be documented by the CPPA and other human rights and environmental NGOs and advocates.