A report on Laos and Tonkin

Tonkin, 1771.
1873 map of the deltaic plain of Tonkin region (northern Vietnam).
Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
1894 map of Red River Delta in French protectorate of Tonkin.
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Administrative divisions of Tonkin 1929
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
Administrative divisions of Tonkin 1920
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Tonkin in the early 1900s
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
1899 Map of Tonkin
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Tonkin in the 1880s
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Military territories of Tonkin 1894
Paddy fields in Laos
Capture of Nam Định, 1883
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
French zouave officer in Tonkin, Spring 1885
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Hanoi around 1910
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
The French General Gouvernor's Palace in Hanoi
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Tonkin woman with black-painted teeth, ca. 1908
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

It is south of Yunnan (Vân Nam) and Guangxi (Quảng Tây) Provinces of China; east of northern Laos and west of the Gulf of Tonkin.

- Tonkin

Laos never held any importance for France other than as a buffer state between Thailand and the more economically important Annam and Tonkin.

- Laos

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Vietnam

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Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c. 800 BC
Vietnam's territories around 1838
The Grand Palais built for the 1902–1903 world's fair, when Hanoi was French Indochina's capital
Partition of French Indochina after the 1954 Geneva Conference
Three US Fairchild UC-123B aircraft spraying Agent Orange during the Operation Ranch Hand as part of a herbicidal warfare operation depriving the food and vegetation cover of the Việt Cộng, c. 1962–1971
Nature attractions in Vietnam, clockwise from top: Hạ Long Bay, Yến River and Bản-Giốc Waterfalls
Hoàng Liên Sơn mountain range, the range that includes Fansipan which is the highest summit on the Indochinese Peninsula.
Köppen climate classification map of Vietnam.
Nha Trang, a popular beach destination has a tropical savanna climate.
Native species in Vietnam, clockwise from top-right: crested argus, a peafowl, red-shanked douc, Indochinese leopard, saola.
Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities
The National Assembly of Vietnam building in Hanoi
Examples of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: T-54B tank, Sukhoi Su-27UBK fighter aircraft, Vietnam Coast Guard Hamilton-class cutter, and Vietnam People's Army chemical corps with Type 56.
A Communist Party propaganda poster in Hanoi
Historical GDP per capita development of Vietnam
Tree map showing Vietnam's exports
Vietnam's tallest skyscraper, the Landmark 81 located in Bình Thạnh, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).
Terraced rice fields in Sa Pa
A Vietnamese-made TOPIO 3.0 humanoid ping-pong-playing robot displayed during the 2009 International Robot Exhibition (IREX) in Tokyo.
Vietnamese science students working on an experiment in their university lab.
Hội An, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist destination.
HCMC–LT–DG section of the North–South Expressway.
Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the busiest airport in the country.
The port of Hai Phong is one of the largest and busiest container ports in Vietnam.
Sơn La Dam in northern Vietnam, the largest hydroelectric dam in Southeast Asia.
In rural areas of Vietnam, piped water systems are operated by a wide variety of institutions including a national organisation, people committees (local government), community groups, co-operatives and private companies.
Development of life expectancy in Vietnam since 1950
Vietnam population pyramid in 2019
District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Urbanisation in west Hanoi
Vietnamese calligraphy in Latin alphabet.
Vietnamese traditional white school uniform for girls in the country, the áo dài with the addition of nón lá, a conical hat.
Vietnamese dragon on Emperor Khải Định's c. 1917 scroll in British Library collection.
Ca trù trio performance in northern Vietnam
Some of the notable Vietnamese cuisine, clockwise from top-right: phở noodle, chè thái fruit dessert, chả giò spring roll and bánh mì sandwich.
Vietnam Television (VTV), the main state television station
Special Tết decoration in the country seen during the holiday
Mỹ Đình National Stadium in Hanoi.

Vietnam borders China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea.

Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries under the Padroado system were active in both Vietnamese realms of Đàng Trong (Cochinchina or Quinan) and Đàng Ngoài (Tonkin) in the 17th century.

South Vietnam

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Country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War.

Country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War.

About 1 million North Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during Operation "Passage to Freedom" (October 1954).
US President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam in Washington, 8 May 1957.
A woman casting her ballot in the 1967 elections in the Republic of Vietnam
Radio Vietnam broadcast hours cards, denoting times and frequencies of radio broadcasts in 1960 and 1962. Address: 3 Phan Dinh Phung St., Saigon
Map of South Vietnam

A French governor-general (toàn quyền) in Hanoi administered all the five parts of Indochina (Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina, Laos, and Cambodia) while Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ) was under a French governor (thống đốc), but the difference from the other parts with most indigenous intelligentsia and wealthy were naturalized French (Tourane now Đà Nẵng in the central third of Vietnam also enjoyed this privilege because this city was a concession too.) The northern third of Vietnam (then the colony (thuộc địa) of Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ) was under a French resident general (thống sứ).

Clockwise from top: After the fall of Dien Bien Phu supporting Laotian troops fall back across the Mekong River into Laos; French Marine commandos wade ashore off the Annam coast in July 1950; M24 Chaffee American light tank used by French in Vietnam; Geneva Conference on 21 July 1954; A Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat from Escadrille 1F prepares to land on operating in the Gulf of Tonkin.

First Indochina War

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The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954.

The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954.

Clockwise from top: After the fall of Dien Bien Phu supporting Laotian troops fall back across the Mekong River into Laos; French Marine commandos wade ashore off the Annam coast in July 1950; M24 Chaffee American light tank used by French in Vietnam; Geneva Conference on 21 July 1954; A Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat from Escadrille 1F prepares to land on operating in the Gulf of Tonkin.
French Indochina (1913)
Võ Nguyên Giáp and Hồ Chí Minh (1945)
Japanese troops lay down their arms to British troops in a ceremony in Saigon after the surrender of Japan.
Commander of the C.L.I. (Corps Léger d'Intervention) arriving in Indochina.
Telegram from Hồ Chí Minh to U.S. President Harry S. Truman requesting support for independence (Hanoi, February 28, 1946)
Hồ Chí Minh and Marius Moutet shaking hands after signing modus vivendi 1946 after Fontainebleau Agreements
French Marine commandos wade ashore off the Annam coast
A map of dissident activities in Indochina in 1950
General Trình Minh Thế
French foreign airborne 1st BEP firing with an FM 24/29 light machine gun during an ambush (1952)
A Bearcat naval fighter aircraft of the Aéronavale drops napalm on Việt Minh Division 320th's artillery during Operation Mouette (November 1953)
Map of the war in 1954: Orange = Areas under Việt Minh control. Purple = Areas under French control. White-dotted hatch = Areas of Việt Minh guerrilla encampment and fighting.
Captured French soldiers, escorted by Vietnamese troops, walk to a prisoner-of-war camp in Dien Bien Phu
The 1954 Geneva Conference
Student demonstration in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements
French Foreign Legion patrol question a suspected member of the Việt Minh.
China supplied the Việt Minh with hundreds of Soviet-built GAZ-51 trucks during the 1950s.
Anti-communist Vietnamese refugees moving from a French LSM landing ship to the USS Montague (AKA-98) during Operation Passage to Freedom in 1954
Bois Belleau (aka USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24)) transferred to France in 1953
A 1952 F4U-7 Corsair of the 14.F flotilla which fought at Dien Bien Phu
French-marked USAF C-119 flown by CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu in 1954
A poster celebrating the 60th anniversary of the French recognition of North Vietnamese independence
French Indochina medal, law of August 1, 1953

Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in northern Vietnam, although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia.

Annam (French protectorate)

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French protectorate encompassing Central Vietnam.

French protectorate encompassing Central Vietnam.

Administrative divisions of the French Protectorate of Annam in 1920.
Map showing the Southward conquest by Vietnamese over 900 years
Administrative divisions of the French Protectorate of Annam in 1920.
Map of the An Nam Empire by Jean-Louis Taberd
Postcard of the Annam Tower, built in Marseilles for the 1906 Colonial Exhibition
An Indochinese primary school completion certificate (Bằng-Cấp Tiểu-Học Cụ-Thề Đông-Pháp) issued by the National Ministry of Education of the Nguyễn dynasty in the year 1939. It has a modern French design but displays traditional symbols like the seal of the minister and the usage of Classical Chinese alongside Romanised Vietnamese.

In the history of Vietnam, the designation is one of several given by the Chinese to the Tonkin, the core territory of modern-day Vietnam surrounding the city of Hanoi, which included land from the Gulf of Tonkin to the mountains which surround the plains of the Red River.

The name has also been applied to the Annamite Range (la Chaîne Annamitique), a 1100 km mountain range with a height ranging up to 2958 m that divides Vietnam and Laos.