A report on Laos

Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Paddy fields in Laos
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

Socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

- Laos

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Khmer people

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Khmer people (ជនជាតិខ្មែរ, ) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia.

Khmer people (ជនជាតិខ្មែរ, ) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia.

A map of ethnic groups in Cambodia.
Preah Thong and Neang Neak are the national personification of Cambodia. They represent the symbolic birth of Cambodia’s civilization, culture and traditions.
Ancient Khmer script from the Chenla era.
Map of South-east Asia c. 900 AD, showing the Khmer Empire in red.
Angkor Wat in the 1900s.
Upper class Khmer ladies in the 1800s.
Court ladies of King Sisowath I, late 1800s.
Khmer dancers at Angkor Wat, 1920s.
Pchum Ben, also known as Ancestors Day
Khmer groom and bride
Khmer New Year celebration
Khmer elder washing Buddha statues
Khmer trot dance
Khmer traditional dancers
Young Khmer children
Group of young Khmer girls
Group of Khmers at a village meeting

They speak the Khmer language, which is part of the larger Austroasiatic-language family found in parts of Southeast Asia (including Vietnam, Laos and Malaysia), parts of central, eastern, and northeastern India, parts of Bangladesh in South Asia, in parts of Southern China and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean.

Insignia of People's Army of Vietnam

People's Army of Vietnam

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Military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Insignia of People's Army of Vietnam
General Võ Nguyên Giáp on the date of the PAVN's establishment in 1944. Chief of General Staff Hoàng Văn Thái wearing a pith helmet and holding the flag.
Vietnamese troops in Vietnam War, 1967
Infiltrators on the move in Laos down the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
Captured photo shows VC crossing a river in 1966.
PAVN's structure
Insignia of the General Staff
Vietnam Map with eight Military Districts and four Corps
PAVN soldiers during a parade in 2015.
PAVN military vehicles roundel.
PAVN reconnaissance troops in 2015.
25px
A Vietnam Coast Guard patrol vessel

Soon after the 1954 Geneva Accords, the 330th and 338th Divisions were formed by southern Viet Minh members who had moved north in conformity with that agreement, and by 1955, six more divisions were formed: the 328th, 332nd and 350th in the north of the North Vietnam, the 305th and the 324th near the DMZ, and the 335 Division of soldiers repatriated from Laos.

Leon Trotsky exhorting Red Army soldiers in the Polish–Soviet War

Marxism–Leninism

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Communist ideology which was the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.

Communist ideology which was the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.

Leon Trotsky exhorting Red Army soldiers in the Polish–Soviet War
Mao Zedong with Anna Louise Strong, the American journalist who reported and explained the Chinese Communist Revolution to the West
Enver Hoxha, who led the Sino-Albanian split in the 1970s and whose anti-revisionist followers led to the development of Hoxhaism
Vladimir Lenin, who led the Bolshevik faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
Tsar Nicholas II addressing the two chambers of the Duma at the Winter Palace after the failed 1905 Russian Revolution which exiled Lenin from Imperial Russia to Switzerland
Rosa Luxemburg, a Polish Marxist who supported Lenin's revolutionary defeatism
From 4 to 15 January 1919, the Spartacist uprising in the Weimar Republic featured urban warfare between the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and anti-communists, secretly aided by the Imperial German government led by the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)
Béla Kun, leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, speaks to supporters during the 1919 Hungarian Revolution
At his death on 21 January 1924, Lenin's political testament ordered the removal of Stalin as General Secretary because of his abusive personality
A 1929 metallurgical combine in Magnitogorsk demonstrates the Soviet Union's rapid industrialisation in the 1920s and 1930s
A Chinese Communist Party cadre-leader addresses survivors of the 1934–1935 Long March
Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Stalin established the post-war order of the world with geopolitical spheres of influence under their hegemony at the Yalta Conference
Josip Broz Tito's rejection in 1948 of Soviet hegemony upon the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia provoked Stalin to expel the Yugoslav leader and Yugoslavia from the Eastern Bloc
The Chinese Communist Revolution (1946–1949) concluded when Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949
The Sino–Soviet split facilitated Russian and Chinese rapprochement with the United States and expanded East–West geopolitics into a tri-polar Cold War that allowed Premier Nikita Khrushchev to meet with President John F. Kennedy in June 1961
Che Guevara and Fidel Castro (leader of the Republic of Cuba from 1959 until 2008) led the Cuban Revolution to victory in 1959
Daniel Ortega led the Sandinista National Liberation Front to victory in the Nicaraguan Revolution in 1990
Guerrillas of the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War
In Apartheid South Africa, a trilingual sign in English, Afrikaans and Zulu enforces the segregation of a Natal beach as exclusively "for the sole use of members of the white race group." The Afrikaner Nationalist Party cited anti-communism as a reason for the treatment of the black and coloured populations of South Africa.
Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, who sought to end the Cold War between the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact and the United States-led NATO and its other Western allies, in a meeting with President Ronald Reagan
Logo of the Pan-European Picnic, a peace demonstration in 1989
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
Map of current and former Communist states, most of which followed, as party or state–party ideology, or were inspired by Marxist–Leninist ideology and development:
1933 Soviet propaganda encouraging peasants and farmers to strengthen working discipline in collective farms in the Azeri Soviet Socialist Republic
A 1920 Bolshevik pro-education propaganda which reads the following: "In order to have more, it is necessary to produce more. In order to produce more, it is necessary to know more."
In establishing state atheism in the Soviet Union, Stalin ordered in 1931 the razing of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow

In the other four existing Marxist–Leninist socialist states, namely China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam, the ruling parties hold Marxism–Leninism as their official ideology, although they give it different interpretations in terms of practical policy.

Mainland Southeast Asia

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Continental portion of Southeast Asia.

Continental portion of Southeast Asia.

1886 map of Indochina, from the Scottish Geographical Magazine
Mekong River

It includes the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam.

The flag of the Viet Cong, adopted in 1960, is a variation on the flag of North Vietnam. Sometimes the lower stripe was green.

Viet Cong

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The flag of the Viet Cong, adopted in 1960, is a variation on the flag of North Vietnam. Sometimes the lower stripe was green.
Guerrilla forces from North Vietnam's Vietcong movement crossing a river in 1966 during the Vietnam War
Soldiers and civilians took supplies south on the Ho Chi Minh trail (1959)
Situation of the Communist forces in South Vietnam in early 1964
A photo from the U.S. Information Agency allegedly showing a 23-year-old Le Van Than, who had defected from the Communist forces and joined the South Vietnam Government side and was later recaptured by the Viet Cong and spent a month in a Viet Cong internment camp.
Brinks Hotel, Saigon, following a Viet Cong bombing on December 24, 1964. Two American officers were killed.
A Viet Cong prisoner captured in 1967 by the U.S. Army awaits interrogation.
A U.S. Air Force Douglas Skyraider drops a white phosphorus bomb on a Viet Cong position in South Vietnam in 1966.
Viet Cong soldiers captured by US Marines outside of Dong Ha, RVN 1968
Viet Cong soldier stands beneath a Viet Cong flag carrying his AK-47 rifle.
A U.S. propaganda leaflet urges Viet Cong to defect using the Chiêu Hồi Program.
Viet Cong soldiers carry an injured American POW to a prisoner swap in 1973. The VC uniform was a floppy jungle hat, rubber sandals, and green fatigues without rank or insignia.

The Viet Cong was an armed communist revolutionary organization in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.

Thomas More, whose Utopia portrayed a society based on common ownership of property

Communism

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Far-left philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order based on the idea of common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange—allocating products to everyone in the society.

Far-left philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order based on the idea of common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange—allocating products to everyone in the society.

Thomas More, whose Utopia portrayed a society based on common ownership of property
Countries of the world now (red) or previously (orange) having nominally Communist governments
The Vietnamese Communist Party's poster in Hanoi
A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai
Vladimir Lenin statue in Kolkata, West Bengal
1942 portrait of Joseph Stalin, the longest-serving leader of the Soviet Union
Detail of Man, Controller of the Universe, fresco at Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City showing Leon Trotsky, Friedrich Engels, and Karl Marx
Long Live the Victory of Mao Zedong Thought monument in Shenyang
Enrico Berlinguer, the secretary of the Italian Communist Party and main proponent of Eurocommunism
Rosa Luxemburg
Peter Kropotkin, main theorist of anarcho-communism
The hammer and sickle is a common theme of communist insignia
The hammer and sickle is a common theme of communist insignia. This is an example of a hammer and sickle and red star design from the flag of the Soviet Union.

Afterwards, only a small number of communist governments remained, namely China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam.

Blue represents Lao army routes. Red represents Siamese army routes. Light blue represents Anouvong's flight to Vietnam.

Lao rebellion (1826–1828)

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Attempt by King Anouvong (Xaiya Sethathirath V) of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang.

Attempt by King Anouvong (Xaiya Sethathirath V) of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang.

Blue represents Lao army routes. Red represents Siamese army routes. Light blue represents Anouvong's flight to Vietnam.
Southeast Asia c. 1707-1828 showing the Lao kingdoms of Vientiane, Luang Prabang, Champasak, and the principality of Phuan (Xieng Khuang)
Statues of Phra Ta and Phra Vo in modern city of Nong Bua Lamphu.
Wat Sisaket, Vientiane. Completed by King Anouvong in 1824.
Haw Phra Kaew, Vientiane. Former Royal Temple of the Emerald Buddha.
Buddha statues from Vientiane, damaged in the invasion
Victory Chedi, Wat Tung Sawang Chaiyaphum
Haw Phra Kaew in Vientiane in ruins clamied by forest wines, depicted by Louis Delaporte, the French Explorer of Mekong, in 1867.
Statue of "Grandma Mo" or Thao Suranari who is revered as one of Thailand's national heroines.

The slave raids and forced population transfers conducted by Siam led to a demographic disparity between the areas that would ultimately become Thailand and Laos, and facilitated the "civilizing mission" of the French into Lao areas during the latter half of the nineteenth century.

States that had communist governments in red, states that the Soviet Union believed at one point to be moving toward socialism in orange and other socialist states in yellow. Not all of the bright red states remained Soviet allies.

Socialist state

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Sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.

Sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.

States that had communist governments in red, states that the Soviet Union believed at one point to be moving toward socialism in orange and other socialist states in yellow. Not all of the bright red states remained Soviet allies.
This is a combined map of all countries that declared themselves socialist states under any definition at some point in their history, color-coded for the number of years they said they were socialist:
Over 70 years
60–70 years
50–60 years
40–50 years
30–40 years
20–30 years
10–20 years
Under 10 years

Similarly, direct references to communism in the Lao People's Democratic Republic are not included in its founding documents, although it gives direct power to the governing ruling party, the Marxist–Leninist Lao People's Revolutionary Party.

French protectorate of Laos

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A French government official and Lao children in Luang Prabang, 1887
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c.1900
Market in Luang Prabang c.1900
A typical example of French colonial architecture (now a health centre) in Luang Prabang
Statue of Sisavang Vong, King of Luang Prabang 1904–46, King of Laos 1946–59 (In the grounds of the Royal Palace Museum, Luang Prabang)

The French protectorate of Laos (Protectorat français du Laos) was a French protectorate in Southeast Asia of what is today Laos between 1893 and 1953—with a brief interregnum as a Japanese puppet state in 1945—which constituted part of French Indochina.

Prime Minister of Laos

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<center>Khamtai Siphandone {{small|served 1991–1998}} born 1924 (age {{age|1924|2|8}})</center>
<center>Bounnhang Vorachith {{small|served 2001–2006}} born 1937 (age {{age|1937|8|15}})</center>
<center>Thongsing Thammavong {{small|served 2010–2016}} born 1944 (age {{age|1944|4|12}})</center>
<center>Thongloun Sisoulith {{small|served 2016–2021}} born 1945 (age {{age|1945|11|10}})</center>
<center>Bouasone Bouphavanh {{small|served 2006–2010}} born 1954 (age {{age|1954|6|3}})</center>

The Prime Minister of the Lao People's Democratic Republic, formerly the chairman of the Council of Government of the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is the head of government of Laos.