A report on Laos

Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Paddy fields in Laos
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

Socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

- Laos

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Pakse

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Multiple rows of golden statues of the Buddha seated, with yellow and red flowers, at Wat Phou Salao (Golden Buddha temple), in Pakse.
Mekong bridge, Pakse

Pakse (or Pakxe; French: Paksé; Laotian: ປາກເຊ 'mouth of the river'; ปากเซ) is the capital and most populous city of the southern Laotian province of Champasak, and the second most populous city in Laos.

Annamite Range in Hương Sơn District, Hà Tĩnh Province, Việt Nam

Annamite Range

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Annamite Range in Hương Sơn District, Hà Tĩnh Province, Việt Nam
Landscape south of the Annamite Mountain Range near Hoi Yen, Quảng Nam Province, Việt Nam

The Annamite Range or the Annamese Mountains (Chaîne annamitique; ພູ ຫລວງ Phou Luang; Dãy (núi) Trường Sơn) is a major mountain range of eastern Indochina, extending approximately 1100 km through Laos, Vietnam, and a small area in northeast Cambodia.

Xiangkhouang

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Plain of Jars, girls of Houang
Map shows ethnicities distribution of Indochina peninsula in 1926, includes Laotian and Vietnamese communities settled in Xiangkhouang before 1945.
Phonsavan
A spoon seller, Ban Napia
Plain of Jars archaeological site 1
The ruins of Wat Piawat Temple and its large Buddha statue (which survived and remains to this day), which was almost completely destroyed during the First and Second Indochina Wars
Hmong girls
Bullfight, Hmong New Year
Phuan girls in traditional clothing

Xiangkhouang (Lao: ຊຽງຂວາງ, meaning 'Horizontal City') is a province of Laos on the Xiangkhoang Plateau, in the nation's northeast.

ASEAN

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Political and economic union of 10 member states in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration between its members and countries in Asia-Pacific.

Political and economic union of 10 member states in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration between its members and countries in Asia-Pacific.

Map showing the member states of ASEAN.
ASEAN leaders sign the declaration of the ASEAN Economic Community during the 27th ASEAN Summit in Kuala Lumpur, 2015
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocks) in no particular order
Royal Thai Embassy, Helsinki, flying its own national flag as well as ASEAN's flag
Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte poses for a photo with the ASEAN foreign ministers during the 50th anniversary of the group's foundation on 8 August 2017.
Haze over Borneo, 2006
The flags of the ASEAN member states in Jakarta, Indonesia
The Secretariat of ASEAN in Jakarta
ASEAN Tourism Forum 2019 - Traditional Vietnam woman cloth parade
ASEAN Tourism Awards 2019 - Gzhel costumes Vietnam style
Nguyễn Ngọc Thiện, Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Vietnam at the ASEAN Tourism Awards 2019 in Ha Long Bay
Children from Thai Hai Reserve Area of Ecological Houses-on-stilts Ethnic Village at the ASEAN Tourism Forum 2019 in Ha Long Bay, Viet Nam; organised by TTG Events,
Closing Ceremony of Visit Vietnam Year 2018 & Gala Celebrating the Success of ATF 2019
ASEAN
ASEAN Plus Three
ASEAN Plus Six

Laos and Myanmar (formerly Burma) joined two years later on 23 July 1997.

Sisavang Vatthana on 3 November 1959, shortly after his accession upon the death of his father on 29 October.

Sisavang Vatthana

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The last king of the Kingdom of Laos and the 6th Prime Minister of Laos serving from 29 October to 21 November 1951.

The last king of the Kingdom of Laos and the 6th Prime Minister of Laos serving from 29 October to 21 November 1951.

Sisavang Vatthana on 3 November 1959, shortly after his accession upon the death of his father on 29 October.
French General Salan and Prince Savang in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953

His rule ended with the takeover by the Pathet Lao in 1975, after which he and his family were sent to a re-education camp by the new government.

Vang in 2004

Vang Pao

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Major general in the Royal Lao Army.

Major general in the Royal Lao Army.

Vang in 2004

Vang, an ethnic Hmong, was born on 8 December 1929, in a Hmong village named Nonghet, located in Central Xiangkhuang Province, in the northeastern region of Laos, where his father, Neng Chu Vang, was a county leader.

Kaysone Phomvihane in 1978

Kaysone Phomvihane

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The first leader of the Communist Lao People's Revolutionary Party from 1955 until his death in 1992.

The first leader of the Communist Lao People's Revolutionary Party from 1955 until his death in 1992.

Kaysone Phomvihane in 1978
Materials used by Kaysone Phomvihane in an oath-taking ceremony in 1948
Kaysone Phomvihane Museum
Kaysone Phomvihane on the new 2000 kip

He served as the first Prime Minister of the Lao People's Democratic Republic from 1975 to 1991 and then as the second President from 1991 to 1992.

Royal Lao Army Service Banner (1952-1975)

Royal Lao Army

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The Land Component of the Royal Lao Armed Forces (FAR), the official military of the Kingdom of Laos during the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos and the Laotian Civil War between 1960 and 1975.

The Land Component of the Royal Lao Armed Forces (FAR), the official military of the Kingdom of Laos during the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos and the Laotian Civil War between 1960 and 1975.

Royal Lao Army Service Banner (1952-1975)
An Auto Defense de Choc (ADC) Hmong guerrilla company assembles at Phou Vieng, Spring 1961.
RLA Willys M38 MC jeep and a Jeepster Commando hardtop SUV parked at Luang Prabang airfield, 1967.
RLA M35 truck carrying Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1973.
Royal Lao Armed Forces cap badge 1961-75

Intended to be used on internal security operations to bolster the local colonial constabulary force, the "Indigenous Guard" (Garde Indigène), the 1er BCL did not see much action until after March 9, 1945, when the Japanese Imperial Army forcibly seized control of French Indochina from France, including Laos.

French colonial empire

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The French colonial empire (Empire colonial français) comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

The French colonial empire (Empire colonial français) comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

French colonial empire 17th century-20th century
Map of the first (green) and second (blue) French colonial empires
The French colonial empire in the Americas comprised New France (including Canada and Louisiana), French West Indies (including Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Dominica, St. Lucia, Grenada, Tobago and other islands) and French Guiana.
French North America was known as 'Nouvelle France' or New France.
1767 Louis XV Colonies Françoises (West Indies) 12 Diniers copper Sous (w/1793 "RF" counterstamp)
Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers in 1857 by Ernest Francis Vacherot
French and other European settlements in Colonial India
The British invasion of Martinique in 1809
Animated map showing the growth and decline of the first and second French colonial empires
Queen Pōmare IV in 1860. Tahiti was made a French protectorate in 1842, and annexed as a colony of France in 1880.
The last photograph of Napoleon III (1872)
French trading post on Gorée, an island offshore of Senegal
The French expedition in Syria led by General Beaufort d'Hautpoul, landing in Beyrouth on 16 August 1860
The French conquest of Algeria
The Presidential Palace of Vietnam, in Hanoi, was built between 1900 and 1906 to house the French Governor-General of Indochina.
Central and east Africa, 1898, during the Fashoda Incident
The captured rebels of Raiatea, 1897
Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
French colonial troops, led by Colonel Alfred-Amédée Dodds, a Senegalese mulatto, conquered and annexed Dahomey in 1894.
The gradual loss of all Vichy territory to Free France and the Allies by 1943. [[:File:Vichy france map.png|Legend.]]
Captured French soldiers from Dien Bien Phu, escorted by Vietnamese troops, walk to a prisoner-of-war camp
Capture of Saigon by Charles Rigault de Genouilly on 18 February 1859, painted by Antoine Morel-Fatio
Napoleon III receiving the Siamese embassy at the palace of Fontainebleau in 1864
Map of the first (green) and second (blue) French colonial empires

The Thai king granted authority over Cambodia to France, in exchange for two provinces of Laos, which were ceded by Cambodia to Thailand.

Map showing linguistic family tree overlaid on a geographic distribution map of the Tai family. This map only shows general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes, not specific routes, which would have snaked along the rivers and over the lower passes.

Tai languages

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The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages (ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration: or ), are a branch of the Kra–Dai language family.

The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages (ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration: or ), are a branch of the Kra–Dai language family.

Map showing linguistic family tree overlaid on a geographic distribution map of the Tai family. This map only shows general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes, not specific routes, which would have snaked along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Southwestern Tai languages
Sites surveyed in Zhang (1999), subgrouped according to Pittayaporn (2009):
 N,
 M,
 I,
 C,
 B,
 F,
 H,
 L,
 P
Distribution of Central and Northern Tai languages (Zhuang, Tay-Nung and Bouyei included)
Tai alphabets. The phrase is kind elephant rider.
Graphical summary of the development of Tai scripts from a Shan perspective, as reported in Sai Kam Mong's Shan Script book.

The Tai languages include the most widely spoken of the Tai–Kadai languages, including Standard Thai or Siamese, the national language of Thailand; Lao or Laotian, the national language of Laos; Myanmar's Shan language; and Zhuang, a major language in the Southern Chinese province of Guangxi.