A report on Laos

Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Paddy fields in Laos
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

Socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

- Laos

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A session of the 10th East Asia Summit, 2015.

East Asia Summit

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Regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian, South Asian and Oceanian regions, based on the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism.

Regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian, South Asian and Oceanian regions, based on the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism.

A session of the 10th East Asia Summit, 2015.
{{flagicon|AUS}} Australia
{{flagicon|BRU}} Brunei
{{flagicon|CAM}} Cambodia
{{flagicon|CHN}} China
{{flagicon|IND}} India
{{flagicon|IDN}} Indonesia
{{flagicon|JPN}} Japan
{{flagicon|MAS}} Malaysia
{{flagicon|MYA}} Myanmar
{{flagicon|NZL}} New Zealand
{{flagicon|PHL}} Philippines
{{flagicon|RUS}} Russia
{{flagicon|SIN}} Singapore
{{flagicon|KOR}} South Korea
{{flagicon|THA}} Thailand
{{flagicon|USA}} United States
{{flagicon|VIE}} Vietnam
{{flagicon|AUS}} Australia
{{flagicon|BRU}} Brunei
{{flagicon|IND}} India
{{flagicon|MAS}} Malaysia
{{flagicon|PHL}} Philippines
{{flagicon|NZL}} New Zealand
{{flagicon|PHL}} Philippines
{{flagicon|SIN}} Singapore
{{flagicon|KOR}} South Korea
{{flagicon|THA}} Thailand

The decision to hold the EAS was reached during the 2004 ASEAN Plus Three summit and the initial 16 members determined at the ASEAN Plus Three Ministerial Meeting held in Laos at the end of July 2005.

Annam (French protectorate)

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French protectorate encompassing Central Vietnam.

French protectorate encompassing Central Vietnam.

Administrative divisions of the French Protectorate of Annam in 1920.
Map showing the Southward conquest by Vietnamese over 900 years
Administrative divisions of the French Protectorate of Annam in 1920.
Map of the An Nam Empire by Jean-Louis Taberd
Postcard of the Annam Tower, built in Marseilles for the 1906 Colonial Exhibition
An Indochinese primary school completion certificate (Bằng-Cấp Tiểu-Học Cụ-Thề Đông-Pháp) issued by the National Ministry of Education of the Nguyễn dynasty in the year 1939. It has a modern French design but displays traditional symbols like the seal of the minister and the usage of Classical Chinese alongside Romanised Vietnamese.

The name has also been applied to the Annamite Range (la Chaîne Annamitique), a 1100 km mountain range with a height ranging up to 2958 m that divides Vietnam and Laos.

South entrance to the cave

Tam Pa Ling Cave

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South entrance to the cave
TPL2 mandible

Tam Pa Ling (Cave of the Monkeys) is a cave in the Annamite Mountains in north-eastern Laos.

Flag of the South Vietnamese army

Army of the Republic of Vietnam

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The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN; ; Armée de la république du Viêt Nam) were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 to the Fall of Saigon in April 1975.

The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN; ; Armée de la république du Viêt Nam) were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 to the Fall of Saigon in April 1975.

Flag of the South Vietnamese army
Flag of the South Vietnamese army
The TDND 5 airborne unit fought several battles including Dien Bien Phu.
Early unmodified ARVN M113 during the Vietnam War
Two United States soldiers and one South Vietnamese soldier waterboard a captured North Vietnamese prisoner of war near Da Nang, 1968.
M41 Walker Bulldog was used by the ARVN
ARVN Rangers fighting in Saigon during the Tet Offensive, 1968.
ARVN Special Forces equipped with M1 Carbines
Ithaca 37
Claymore anti-personnel mine in use in Vietnam
M18 and Mk 20 grenade launchers
V-100 and M107 at the Huế military museum
ARVN M48s in April 1972
M8 Greyhound at Zone 5 Military Museum, Danang.
ARVN Operations, 1965
ARVN troops with suspected VC member, 1965
A Douglas A-1 Skyraider, A1E, drops napalm on a target spotted by an O-1 Bird Dog.
WAFC (Women's Armed Forces Corps) division in the National Armed Forces Day parade, Saigon, June 19, 1971
The flag of Army of the Republic of Vietnam's Armored Cavalry Regiment, used between 1957 and 1975.
The flag of Security Force of Capital Special Zone, used between 1965 and 1975.
The flag of the South Vietnamese Military Police Corps, used between 1955 and 1975.
The flag of the ARVN's Artillery Forces, used between 1951 and 1975.
The flag of ARVN Military Engineering Forces, used between 1955 and 1975.

After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

Tad Fane waterfall, situated in the Bolaven Plateau. The water drops about 120 m.

Bolaven Plateau

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Tad Fane waterfall, situated in the Bolaven Plateau. The water drops about 120 m.
Tad Lo, Bolaven Plateau, Laos
Logging truck on the Bolaven Plateau, southern Laos. June 2009
Coffee processing on the Bolaven Plateau

The Bolaven Plateau is an elevated region in southern Laos.

Pha That Luang

Pha That Luang

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Pha That Luang
Pha That Luang and its situation in Vientiane
King Jayavarman VII of the Khmer Empire.
Pha That Luang stupa
View of the stupa inside the temple
The national symbol of Laos at sunset
The naga inside the temple
Thatluang Festival (2010)
Thatluang Festival (2010)
That Luang stupa at night
That Luang

Pha That Luang (ທາດຫຼວງ or ພຣະທາດຫລວງ; 'Great Stupa') is a gold-covered large Buddhist stupa in the centre of the city of Vientiane, Laos.

Samsenethai

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Samsenethai(ສາມແສນໄທ) also called Oun Huan(ອຸ່ນເຮືອນ) was the second king of Lan Xang in Laos.

Communist states in Europe before the Tito–Stalin split of 1948

Eastern Bloc

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The group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America under the influence of the Soviet Union that existed during the Cold War .

The group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America under the influence of the Soviet Union that existed during the Cold War .

Communist states in Europe before the Tito–Stalin split of 1948
Soviet Union stamp of 1950, depicting the flags and peoples of the Eastern Bloc.
The Big Three (British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Premier of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin) at the Yalta Conference, February 1945
World War II Polish Prime Minister Stanisław Mikołajczyk fled Poland in 1947 after facing arrest and persecution
Political situation in Europe during the Cold War
Germans watching Western supply planes at Berlin Tempelhof Airport during the Berlin Airlift
Countries which once had overtly Marxist–Leninist governments in bright red and countries the USSR considered at one point to be "moving toward socialism" in dark red
Communist countries and Soviet republics in Europe with their representative flags (1950s)
Trybuna Ludu 14 December 1981 reports martial law in Poland
Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, once the most dominant landmark in Baku, was demolished in the 1930s under Stalin
Berlin Wall in 1975
Prominent examples of urban design included Marszałkowska Housing Estate (MDM) in Warsaw
During World War II, 85% of buildings in Warsaw were destroyed by German troops
A line for the distribution of cooking oil in Bucharest, Romania in May 1986
Reconstruction of a typical working class flat interior of the khrushchyovka
Propaganda poster showing increased agricultural production from 1981 to 1983 and 1986 in East Germany
A Robotron KC 87 home computer made in East Germany between 1987 and 1989
Per capita GDP in the Eastern Bloc from 1950 to 2003 (1990 base Geary-Khamis dollars) according to Angus Maddison
GDP per capita of the Eastern Bloc in relations with GDPpc of United States during 1900–2010
East German Plattenbau apartment blocks
Czechoslovaks carry their national flag past a burning Soviet tank in Prague
The Cold War in 1980 before the Iran–Iraq War
Otto von Habsburg, who played a leading role in opening the Iron Curtain
Erich Honecker
Changes in national boundaries after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc
European countries by total wealth (billions USD), Credit Suisse, 2018
A map of communist states (1993–present)
The "three worlds" of the Cold War era between April–August 1975:
1st World: Western Bloc led by the United States and its allies
2nd World: Eastern Bloc led by the Soviet Union, China and their allies
3rd World: Non-Aligned and neutral countries

In Asia, the Soviet Bloc comprised the Mongolian People's Republic, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the People's Republic of Kampuchea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China.

Nan province

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One of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in upper northern Thailand.

One of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in upper northern Thailand.

Phra That Chae Haeng, Nan province
Orchid Tree flower
Map of 15 districts
Community fishing, Nan River
Wat Phumin, Nan
Rte 1256 snaking towards Doi Phu Kha National Park
Wat Phrathat Bueng Sakat, Pua District
Phi Pan Nam Range, Na Muen District
Temple frescoes, Wat Nong Bua, Tha Wang Pha

To the north and east it borders Sainyabuli of Laos.

Landlocked countries: 42 landlocked (green), 2 doubly landlocked (purple)

Landlocked country

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Country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basins.

Country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basins.

Landlocked countries: 42 landlocked (green), 2 doubly landlocked (purple)
Bolivia's loss of its coastline in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) remains a major political issue

The Mekong is an international waterway so that landlocked Laos has access to the South China Sea (since Laos became independent from French Indochina). However, it is not navigable above the Khone Phapheng Falls.