A report on Laos

Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Paddy fields in Laos
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

Socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

- Laos

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Front page for March 26, 2018

The New York Times

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American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership.

American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership.

Front page for March 26, 2018
Front page for March 26, 2018
First published issue of New-York Daily Times, on September 18, 1851
Front page of The New York Times on July 29, 1914, announcing Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia
The Times Square Building, The New York Times publishing headquarters, 1913–2007
The New York Times newsroom, 1942
A speech in the newsroom after announcement of Pulitzer Prize winners, 2009
The New York Times headquarters, 620 Eighth Avenue

The papers revealed, among other things, that the government had deliberately expanded its role in the war by conducting airstrikes over Laos, raids along the coast of North Vietnam, and offensive actions were taken by the U.S. Marines well before the public was told about the actions, all while President Lyndon B. Johnson had been promising not to expand the war.

Phankham Viphavanh

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Phankham Viphavanh (ພັນຄຳ ວິພາວັນ; born 14 April 1951) is a Laotian politician, a member of the Politburo and the Executive Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.

U.S. Honest John missile warhead cutaway around 1960, showing M134 bomblets filled with Sarin

Cluster munition

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Form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.

Form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.

U.S. Honest John missile warhead cutaway around 1960, showing M134 bomblets filled with Sarin
Half of a surface-to-air missile site in North Vietnam blanketed in exploding bomblets dispersed by a U.S. cluster munition, Vietnam War
SD2 Butterfly Bomb circa 1940. Wings rotate as bomb falls, unscrewing the arming spindle connected to the fuze.
A US Vietnam era BLU-3 cluster bomblet
During the Winter War of 1939–1940, the Soviet Union dropped RRAB-3, nicknamed Molotov bread baskets, which scattered incendiary bomblets, on Finland.
A U.S. Navy Grumman A-6E Intruder drops CBU-59 cluster bombs over Iranian targets in 1988
A US Navy F/A-18C Hornet launches from USS Nimitz to a mission in Southern Iraq. Among other weapons, the plane carries CBU-100 "Rockeye" cluster bombs.
Monument to victims of the Niš cluster bombing
Unexploded cluster sub-munition, probably a BLU-26 type. Plain of Jars, Laos.
M77 submunition of type fired against Lebanon in 1986. Each MLRS rocket has 644 M77 packed in the warhead.
Ban Advocates from Afghanistan and Ethiopia demonstrating outside of the Dublin conference
Erik Thorstvedt leads a Norwegian parade celebrating the effectuation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, 31 July 2010. (Photo: Norsk Folkehjelp)
Nations subscribing to the Wellington Declaration, which led to the Convention on Cluster Munitions
Ugandan demonstrator at the May 2008 Dublin conference for the Convention on Cluster Munitions
USAF B-1 Lancer dropping CBU cluster bombs

During the Vietnam War, the US used cluster bombs in air strikes against targets in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

Provinces of Laos

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Laos, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is divided into 17 provinces (Lao ແຂວງ,, khoeng, qwang or khoueng) and one prefecture, the Vientiane capital city municipality (ນະຄອນຫຼວງ, nakhon louang, or Na Kone Luang Vientiane).

Shan woman from Lai-Hka, Shan State

Shan people

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The Shan people (, ရှမ်းလူမျိုး; ), also known as the Tai Long, or Tai Yai are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia.

The Shan people (, ရှမ်းလူမျိုး; ), also known as the Tai Long, or Tai Yai are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia.

Shan woman from Lai-Hka, Shan State
1889 photograph of a Shan woman
Shan flag
Shan nationalist emblem
Traditional Poi Sang Long novice ordination festival celebrated by one of the Shan communities in exile in Thailand

The Shan are the biggest minority of Burma (Myanmar) and primarily live in the Shan State of this country, but also inhabit parts of Mandalay Region,Sagaing Region, Kachin State, and Kayin State, and in adjacent regions of China (Dai people), Laos, Assam (Ahom people) and Thailand.

Vietnamese boat people awaiting rescue.

Vietnamese boat people

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Vietnamese boat people (Thuyền nhân Việt Nam), also known simply as boat people, refers to the refugees who fled Vietnam by boat and ship following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975.

Vietnamese boat people (Thuyền nhân Việt Nam), also known simply as boat people, refers to the refugees who fled Vietnam by boat and ship following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975.

Vietnamese boat people awaiting rescue.
A family of Vietnamese refugees rescued by a US Navy ship.
Rescued Vietnamese being given water.
East Sea - crewmen of the amphibious cargo ship USS Durham (LKA-114) take Vietnamese refugees from a small craft, April 1975
Escape boat saved by the Cap Anamur in late April 1984, placed in Troisdorf
Memorial and tribute of Vietnamese refugees in Hamburg
Bronze plaque in the Port of Hamburg dedicated by Vietnamese refugees giving thanks to Rupert Neudeck and the rescue ship Cap Anamur
Vietnamese refugees arrive in Hamburg, summer of 1986 on the rescue ship Cap Anamur II
Bunk beds used by Vietnamese refugees inside the rescue ship Cap Anamur II
Greeting Vietnamese refugees from the rescue ship Cap Anamur II in 1986
South Vietnamese Boat People Memorial, in Brisbane, QLD, dedicated 2 December 2012, executed by Phillip Piperides

Within the same year, communist forces gained control of Cambodia and Laos, thus engendering a steady flow of refugees fleeing all three countries.

Ancient Hoabinhians were found to have resembled modern tribal groups of Mainland Southeast Asia.

Hoabinhian

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Lithic techno-complex of archaeological sites associated with assemblages in Southeast Asia from late Pleistocene to Holocene, dated to c.10,000–2000 BCE.

Lithic techno-complex of archaeological sites associated with assemblages in Southeast Asia from late Pleistocene to Holocene, dated to c.10,000–2000 BCE.

Ancient Hoabinhians were found to have resembled modern tribal groups of Mainland Southeast Asia.

Archaeological sites in Terengganu, Sumatra, Thailand, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia have been identified as Hoabinhian, although the quality and quantity of descriptions vary and the relative significance of the Hoabinhian component at these sites can be difficult to determine.

Kerry Danes (right) in 2018

Kerry and Kay Danes

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Kerry Danes (right) in 2018
Huay Xai, Laos border crossing to Thailand
View of Vientiane from Patuxai
Picture of a blue sapphire (for illustration purposes only)
Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge, border crossing near Vientiane
Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs Alexander Downer in 2003
Kay Danes (2007)

Kerry Arthur Danes (a former Australian Army soldier born 21 October 1958 Longreach, Queensland) and wife Kay Frances Danes née Stewart (born 20 October 1967 Wynnum, Queensland) were imprisoned in Laos as civilians on 23 December 2000 and later convicted of embezzlement, tax evasion and destruction of evidence.

APTA members

Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement

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The Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), previously

The Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), previously

APTA members

Lao People's Democratic Republic (original member, 1975)

British and Belgian officers stand beside an unexploded German shell in Flanders, during the First World War

Unexploded ordnance

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Unexploded ordnance (UXO, sometimes abbreviated as UO), unexploded bombs (UXBs), and explosive remnants of war (ERW or ERoW) are explosive weapons (bombs, shells, grenades, land mines, naval mines, cluster munition, and other munitions) that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, sometimes many decades after they were used or discarded.

Unexploded ordnance (UXO, sometimes abbreviated as UO), unexploded bombs (UXBs), and explosive remnants of war (ERW or ERoW) are explosive weapons (bombs, shells, grenades, land mines, naval mines, cluster munition, and other munitions) that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, sometimes many decades after they were used or discarded.

British and Belgian officers stand beside an unexploded German shell in Flanders, during the First World War
Dud shell lodged in a tree, Argonne Forest, First World War
1943 poster by Abram Games warning against leaving blinds on firing ranges
A man holding an unexploded mortar shell during a United Nations Mine Action Service demonstration in Mogadishu
An EOD technician removing sand from a mortar shell during a demonstration.
Clearing of explosives on a road in Afghanistan.
Unexploded BLU-26 "bombie" in Laos
Bomb crater left after an approximately 1000 lb (0.4 tonne) US Air Force UXO exploded without warning in southern Laos in the year 2000.
Corroded but live Iraqi artillery shell dating from the Gulf War (1990–1991)
Discarded RGD-5 hand grenade (live but unfuzed) in Northern Kuwait dating from 1991.
Disposal of a 4,000 lb blockbuster bomb dropped by the RAF during World War II. Found in the Rhine near Koblenz, 4 December 2011. A linear shaped charge has been placed on top of the casing
A British NCO prepares to dispose of an unexploded bomb during the First World War.
Demining of UXO in Palau

Laos is considered the world's most heavily bombed nation per capita.