Laotian Civil War

Secret WarLaoscivil warSecret ArmySecret War in LaosSecret War" in LaosLaos crisisLaotian crisisLaotian Secret WarThe civil war inside Laos
The Laotian Civil War (1959–75) was a civil war in Laos fought between the Communist Pathet Lao (including many North Vietnamese of Lao ancestry) and the Royal Lao Government from 23 May 1959 to 2 December 1975.wikipedia
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Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in VietnamSecond Indochina War
It is associated with the Cambodian Civil War and the Vietnam War, with both sides receiving heavy external support in a proxy war between the global Cold War superpowers. The Kingdom of Laos was a covert theater for other belligerents during the Vietnam War.
The war, considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some, lasted 19 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, which ended with all three countries becoming communist in 1975.

Pathet Lao

Lao communistsLao communistLao Patriotic Front
The Laotian Civil War (1959–75) was a civil war in Laos fought between the Communist Pathet Lao (including many North Vietnamese of Lao ancestry) and the Royal Lao Government from 23 May 1959 to 2 December 1975.
The group was ultimately successful in assuming political power in 1975, after the Laotian Civil War.

Kingdom of Laos

LaosLaotianconstitutional monarchy
The Kingdom of Laos was a covert theater for other belligerents during the Vietnam War.
The monarchy survived until December 1975, when its last king, Savang Vatthana, surrendered the throne to the Pathet Lao, who abolished the monarchy in favor of a Marxist state called the Lao People's Democratic Republic, which has controlled Laos since.

Cambodian Civil War

Cambodiacivil war1970-75 Cambodian Civil War
It is associated with the Cambodian Civil War and the Vietnam War, with both sides receiving heavy external support in a proxy war between the global Cold War superpowers.
The conflict was part of the Second Indochina War (1955–1975) which also consumed the neighboring Kingdom of Laos, South Vietnam, and North Vietnam individually referred to as the Laotian Civil War and the Vietnam War respectively.

Insurgency in Laos

continuedHmongconflict
Over 40,000 people died in the conflict.
The insurgency in Laos refers to the ongoing, albeit sporadic, military conflict of the Third Indochina War between the Lao People's Army, and Vietnam People's Army opposed primarily by members of the former "Secret Army" or the Hmong people as well as various other ethnic lowland Lao insurgencies in Laos, who have faced governmental reprisals due to Royal Lao and Hmong support for the American-led, anti-communist campaigns in Laos during the Laotian Civil War—which is an extension to the war itself.

Royal Lao Army

Laotian National ArmyLaotian ArmyNational Lao Army
The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), in an attempt to disrupt these operations in northern Laos without direct military involvement, responded by training a guerrilla force of about thirty thousand Laotian hill tribesmen, mostly local Hmong (Meo) tribesmen along with the Mien and Khmu, led by Royal Lao Army General Vang Pao, a Hmong military leader.
The Royal Lao Army (French: Armée royale du Laos – ARL), also designated by its anglicized title RLA, was the Land Component of the Royal Lao Armed Forces (FAR), the official military of the Kingdom of Laos during the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos and the Laotian Civil War between 1960 and 1975.

Vong Savang

Crown Prince SavangCrown Prince Vong SavangPrince Savang
The Lao royal family were arrested by the Pathet Lao after the war and sent to labor camps, where most of them died in the late 1970s and 1980s, including King Savang Vatthana, Queen Khamphoui, and Crown Prince Vong Savang.
After the Laotian Civil War in 1975, he and his family were arrested by the Pathet Lao and sent to re-education camps, where they died.

Royal Thai Armed Forces

Thai militarymilitaryThai armed forces
The actual fighting in Laos involved the North Vietnamese Army, U.S. troops and Thai forces and South Vietnamese army forces directly and through irregular proxies in a struggle for control over the Laotian Panhandle.
Operations on foreign territory were either territorial wars (such as the Laos Civil War) or conflicts mandated by the United Nations.

Lao people

LaoLaotianLaotians
The Laotian Civil War (1959–75) was a civil war in Laos fought between the Communist Pathet Lao (including many North Vietnamese of Lao ancestry) and the Royal Lao Government from 23 May 1959 to 2 December 1975.
The Laotian Civil War was disastrous for the country, however, over the years the country has since relaxed many of its restrictions, which has opened up the country to trade and business resulting in Laos notably having the second fastest growing economy in Asia in recent years.

Yao people

YaoDaoMien
The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), in an attempt to disrupt these operations in northern Laos without direct military involvement, responded by training a guerrilla force of about thirty thousand Laotian hill tribesmen, mostly local Hmong (Meo) tribesmen along with the Mien and Khmu, led by Royal Lao Army General Vang Pao, a Hmong military leader.
During the Laotian Civil War, the Yao tribes of Laos had a good relationship with U.S. forces and were dubbed to be an "efficient friendly force".

Vientiane

Vientiane, LaosVientiane PrefectureVientane
Several attempts were made to establish coalition governments, and a "tri-coalition" government was finally seated in Vientiane. The CIA's covert operation's clandestine army would give way, harrying the PAVN and Pathet Lao as they retreated; Raven FACs would direct massive air strikes against the communists by USAF jets and RLAF T-28s to prevent the capture of the Laotian capitals of Vientiane and Luang Prabang.
As the Laotian Civil War broke out between the Royal Lao Government and the Pathet Lao, Vientiane became unstable.

North American T-28 Trojan

T-28 TrojanT-28AT-28
The CIA's covert operation's clandestine army would give way, harrying the PAVN and Pathet Lao as they retreated; Raven FACs would direct massive air strikes against the communists by USAF jets and RLAF T-28s to prevent the capture of the Laotian capitals of Vientiane and Luang Prabang.
T-28s were supplied to the Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF) in support of ARVN ground operations, seeing extensive service during the Vietnam War in RVNAF hands, as well as the Secret War in Laos.

Hmong people

HmongMiaoH'Mông
The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), in an attempt to disrupt these operations in northern Laos without direct military involvement, responded by training a guerrilla force of about thirty thousand Laotian hill tribesmen, mostly local Hmong (Meo) tribesmen along with the Mien and Khmu, led by Royal Lao Army General Vang Pao, a Hmong military leader.
Introduced by Doua Vu and Assembly Member Sarah Reyes, District 31 (Fresno), the bill encouraged changes in secondary education curriculum to include information about the Secret War and the role of Hmong people in the war.

Vang Pao

General Vang PaoCIA asset Hmong General Vang PaoHmong "Secret Army
The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), in an attempt to disrupt these operations in northern Laos without direct military involvement, responded by training a guerrilla force of about thirty thousand Laotian hill tribesmen, mostly local Hmong (Meo) tribesmen along with the Mien and Khmu, led by Royal Lao Army General Vang Pao, a Hmong military leader. Under command of General Vang Pao, they fell back to Long Tieng.
During the 1960s/70s, he commanded the Secret Army, also known as the Hmong Army, a highly-effective Central Intelligence Agency-trained and supported force that fought against the Pathet Lao and People's Army of Vietnam.

Air America (airline)

Air AmericaCATproprietary
This army, supported by the CIA proprietary airline Air America, Thailand, the Royal Lao Air Force, and a covert air operation directed by the United States ambassador to Laos, fought the People's Army of Vietnam, the National Liberation Front (NLF), and their Pathet Lao allies to a seesaw stalemate, greatly aiding U.S. interests in the war in Vietnam.
Air America planes carried drugs during the CIA's secret war in Laos, though there is debate about whether Air America and the CIA were actively involved or merely allowed others to transport drugs.

North Vietnam

Democratic Republic of VietnamNorth VietnameseNorth
The Laotian Civil War (1959–75) was a civil war in Laos fought between the Communist Pathet Lao (including many North Vietnamese of Lao ancestry) and the Royal Lao Government from 23 May 1959 to 2 December 1975.
The conflict spread to neighboring countries and North Vietnam supported the Pathet Lao in Laos and the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia against their respective US-backed governments.

Kong Le

Kông Lae
On 9 August 1960, Captain Kong Le and his Special Forces-trained Neutralist paratroop battalion were able to seize control of the administrative capital of Vientiane in a virtually bloodless coup, while Prime Minister Tiao Samsanith, government officials, and military leaders met in the royal capital, Luang Prabang.
Once established on the Plain as the Forces Armee Neutraliste (Neutral Armed Forces), this third side in the Laotian Civil War would begin to splinter as neutralists began to favor either the Communist or Royalist forces.

Souvanna Phouma

Prince Souvanna PhoumaH.E. Souvanna Phouma, Prime Minister of Kingdom of Laos 1962-1975Prince '''Souvanna Phouma
The following years were marked by a rivalry between the neutralists under Prince Souvanna Phouma, the right wing under Prince Boun Oum of Champassak, and the left-wing Lao Patriotic Front under Prince Souphanouvong and half-Vietnamese future Prime Minister Kaysone Phomvihane.
He was one of the Three Princes, whom Sisavang Vatthana appointed to form a coalition government between the rightists and Pathet Lao but it collapsed, and the Laotian Civil War began.

Royal Lao Air Force

Royal Laotian Air ForceLaotian AviationLaotian
The CIA's covert operation's clandestine army would give way, harrying the PAVN and Pathet Lao as they retreated; Raven FACs would direct massive air strikes against the communists by USAF jets and RLAF T-28s to prevent the capture of the Laotian capitals of Vientiane and Luang Prabang. This army, supported by the CIA proprietary airline Air America, Thailand, the Royal Lao Air Force, and a covert air operation directed by the United States ambassador to Laos, fought the People's Army of Vietnam, the National Liberation Front (NLF), and their Pathet Lao allies to a seesaw stalemate, greatly aiding U.S. interests in the war in Vietnam.
The Royal Lao Air Force (French: Aviation Royale Laotiènne – AVRL), best known to the Americans by its English acronym RLAF, was the air force component of the Royal Lao Armed Forces (FAR), the official military of the Royal Lao Government and the Kingdom of Laos during the Laotian Civil War between 1960 and 1975.

Sisavang Vatthana

Savang VatthanaKingSavāngvatthanā
The Lao royal family were arrested by the Pathet Lao after the war and sent to labor camps, where most of them died in the late 1970s and 1980s, including King Savang Vatthana, Queen Khamphoui, and Crown Prince Vong Savang.
From this point the Pathet Lao refused to join any offers of coalition or national elections and the Laotian Civil War began.

Operation Millpond

Laotian crisis
The Operation Millpond B-26s had been scheduled to strike at Kong Le, but the strike was stayed by an event on the far side of the world.
Operation Millpond, which operated from 13 March 1961 through August 1961, was an American covert operation designed to introduce air power into the Laotian Civil War.

Plain of Jars

Plaine des JarresMegalithic Jar Sites in Xiengkhuang - Plain of JarsPlaine de Jarres
There was a second major theater of action on and near the northern Plain of Jars.
Between 1964 and 1973, the Plain of Jars was heavily bombed by the U.S. Air Force (see Secret War) operating against North Vietnamese and Pathet Lao communist forces.

Long Tieng

Long ChiengLong ChengLima Site 20
Under command of General Vang Pao, they fell back to Long Tieng.
During the Laotian Civil War, it served as a town and airbase operated by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States.

Battle of Luang Namtha

Luang NamthaNamtharetreated across the border
See also Battle of Luang Namtha
The Battle of Luang Namtha, fought between January 1962 and May 1962, was an important engagement of the Laotian Civil War.

Luang Prabang

Luang PhrabangLuang Prabang DistrictLouang Phrabang
The CIA's covert operation's clandestine army would give way, harrying the PAVN and Pathet Lao as they retreated; Raven FACs would direct massive air strikes against the communists by USAF jets and RLAF T-28s to prevent the capture of the Laotian capitals of Vientiane and Luang Prabang. On 9 August 1960, Captain Kong Le and his Special Forces-trained Neutralist paratroop battalion were able to seize control of the administrative capital of Vientiane in a virtually bloodless coup, while Prime Minister Tiao Samsanith, government officials, and military leaders met in the royal capital, Luang Prabang.
During the Laotian Civil War of the 1950s, 60s, and 70s, a secret American airbase was located at Luang Prabang and it was the scene of fighting.