Laptop

laptop computerlaptopsnotebook computernotebooklaptop computersnotebook computersnotebooksconvertible laptopnotebook PCmobile
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or simply a notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.wikipedia
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Touchpad

trackpadtouch padtouchpads
Laptops combine all the input/output components and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, small speakers, a keyboard, hard disk drive, optical disc drive, pointing devices (such as a touchpad or trackpad), a processor, and memory into a single unit. From 1983 onward, several new input techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the touchpad (Gavilan SC, 1983), the pointing stick (IBM ThinkPad 700, 1992), and handwriting recognition (Linus Write-Top, 1987).
Touchpads are a common feature of laptop computers, and are also used as a substitute for a mouse where desk space is scarce.

Mobile computing

mobilemobile computermobile computers
Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use.
* Portable computers, compact, lightweight units including a full character set keyboard and primarily intended as hosts for software that may be parameterized, such as laptops/desktops, smartphones/tablets, etc.

Rugged computer

ruggedizedruggedruggedization
Examples of specialized models of laptops include rugged notebooks for use in construction or military applications, as well as low production cost laptops such as those from the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) organization, which incorporate features like solar charging and semi-flexible components not found on most laptop computers.
Typical environments for rugged laptops, tablet PCs and PDAs are public safety, field sales, field service, manufacturing, retail, healthcare, transportation/distribution and the military.

Electric battery

batterybatteriesbattery-powered
Laptops can be powered either from an internal battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter.
Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics such as laptops and smartphones.

Epson HX-20

HX-20
The first laptop-sized notebook computer was the Epson HX-20, invented (patented) by Suwa Seikosha's Yukio Yokozawa in July 1980, introduced at the COMDEX computer show in Las Vegas by Japanese company Seiko Epson in 1981, and released in July 1982.
The Epson HX-20 (also known as the HC-20) was the first laptop computer.

Clamshell design

clamshellflip phoneflip
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or simply a notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
The form factor was first used by the laptop manufacturer GRiD (who had the patents on the idea at the time) for their Compass model in 1982.

Dynabook

A "personal, portable information manipulator" was imagined by Alan Kay at Xerox PARC in 1968, and described in his 1972 paper as the "Dynabook".
The KiddiComp concept, envisioned by Alan Kay in 1968 while a PhD candidate, and later developed and described as the Dynabook in his 1972 proposal "A personal computer for children of all ages", outlines the requirements for a conceptual portable educational device that would offer similar functionality to that now supplied via a laptop computer or (in some of its other incarnations) a tablet or slate computer with the exception of the requirement for any Dynabook device offering near eternal battery life.

Computer keyboard

keyboardkeyboardsalphanumeric keyboard
Laptops combine all the input/output components and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, small speakers, a keyboard, hard disk drive, optical disc drive, pointing devices (such as a touchpad or trackpad), a processor, and memory into a single unit. A laptop, also called a notebook computer or simply a notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
Keyboards on laptops and notebook computers usually have a shorter travel distance for the keystroke, shorter over travel distance, and a reduced set of keys.

Portable computer

portableluggableportable computers
Portable computers, which later developed into modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications, such as in the military, for accountants, or for traveling sales representatives.
These "luggable" lacked the next technological advance, not requiring an external power source; that feature was introduced by the laptop.

Dulmont Magnum

The Dulmont Magnum was released in Australia in 1981–82, but was not marketed internationally until 1984–85.
The Dulmont Magnum was an early laptop computer designed initially by Australian power line equipment manufacturer Dulmison Pty Ltd and subsequently marketed by Dulmont Pty Ltd.

ThinkPad

IBM ThinkPadLenovo ThinkPadP series workstations
From 1983 onward, several new input techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the touchpad (Gavilan SC, 1983), the pointing stick (IBM ThinkPad 700, 1992), and handwriting recognition (Linus Write-Top, 1987).
ThinkPad is a line of business laptop computers and tablets designed, developed, and sold by Lenovo, and formerly IBM.

Gavilan SC

Gavilan
From 1983 onward, several new input techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the touchpad (Gavilan SC, 1983), the pointing stick (IBM ThinkPad 700, 1992), and handwriting recognition (Linus Write-Top, 1987). The Sharp PC-5000, Ampere and Gavilan SC released in 1983.
The Gavilan SC was a laptop computer, and was the first ever to be marketed as a "laptop".

Sharp PC-5000

PC 5000PC-5000
The Sharp PC-5000, Ampere and Gavilan SC released in 1983.
The Sharp PC-5000 was a pioneering laptop computer, announced by Sharp Corporation of Japan in 1983.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or simply a notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
A laptop computer (also called a notebook) is similar to a desktop, but is designed for portability.

Toshiba T1100

T1100Toshiba T1100 Plus
The Toshiba T1100 won acceptance not only among PC experts but the mass market as a way to have PC portability.
The T1100 was a laptop manufactured by Toshiba in 1985, and has subsequently been described by Toshiba as "the world's first mass-market laptop computer". Its technical specifications were comparable to the original IBM PC desktop, using floppy disks (it had no hard drive), a 4.77 MHz Intel 80C88 CPU (a variation of the Intel 8088), and a monochrome LCD capable of displaying 80x25 text and 640x200 CGA graphics.

Dell Inspiron laptops

Dell Inspiron Gaming Series (Pandora)Dell's InspironInspiron
Despite these setbacks, the laptop computer market continues to expand, introducing a number of laptops like Acer's Aspire and TravelMate, Asus' Transformer Book, VivoBook and Zenbook, Dell's Inspiron, Latitude and XPS, HP's EliteBook, Envy, Pavilion and ProBook, Lenovo's IdeaPad and ThinkPad and Toshiba's Portégé, Satellite and Tecra that incorporate the use of laptop computers.
The Dell Inspiron series of laptop computer s was introduced in 2000 as a consumer oriented line, available to the general public through electronics and department stores (and now Dell's website), contrasting to the business/enterprise-oriented Dell Latitude series of laptop computers, and are usually ordered from Dell directly via the website, phone, or mail-order.

Zenbook

Despite these setbacks, the laptop computer market continues to expand, introducing a number of laptops like Acer's Aspire and TravelMate, Asus' Transformer Book, VivoBook and Zenbook, Dell's Inspiron, Latitude and XPS, HP's EliteBook, Envy, Pavilion and ProBook, Lenovo's IdeaPad and ThinkPad and Toshiba's Portégé, Satellite and Tecra that incorporate the use of laptop computers.
Zenbook (also known as ZenBook) are a family of ultrabooks – low-bulk laptop computers – produced by Asus.

Asus Vivo

Asus VivoBook E SeriesVivoAsus VivoTab RT
Despite these setbacks, the laptop computer market continues to expand, introducing a number of laptops like Acer's Aspire and TravelMate, Asus' Transformer Book, VivoBook and Zenbook, Dell's Inspiron, Latitude and XPS, HP's EliteBook, Envy, Pavilion and ProBook, Lenovo's IdeaPad and ThinkPad and Toshiba's Portégé, Satellite and Tecra that incorporate the use of laptop computers.
The Asus Vivo lineup consists of laptops (VivoBooks), All-in-Ones (Vivo AiO), desktops (VivoPC), Stick PCs (VivoStick), Mini PCs (VivoMini), smartwatches (VivoWatch), computer mouse (VivoMouse) and tablets (VivoTab).

PowerNow!

AMD PowerNow!
Some CPUs, such as the 1990 Intel i386SL, were designed to use minimum power to increase battery life of portable computers and were supported by dynamic power management features such as Intel SpeedStep and AMD PowerNow! in some designs.
AMD PowerNow! is AMD's dynamic frequency scaling and power saving technology for laptop processors.

Linux

GNU/LinuxLinLinux operating system
Devices of this form are commonly called a 'traditional laptop' or notebook, particularly if they have a screen size of 11 to 17 inches measured diagonally and run a full-featured operating system like Windows 10, macOS, or Linux.
The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US.

Seiko Epson

EpsonSeiko Epson CorporationEpson America
The first laptop-sized notebook computer was the Epson HX-20, invented (patented) by Suwa Seikosha's Yukio Yokozawa in July 1980, introduced at the COMDEX computer show in Las Vegas by Japanese company Seiko Epson in 1981, and released in July 1982.
Headquartered in Suwa, Nagano, Japan, the company has numerous subsidiaries worldwide and manufactures inkjet, dot matrix and laser printers, scanners, desktop computers, business, multimedia and home theatre projectors, large home theatre televisions, robots and industrial automation equipment, point of sale docket printers and cash registers, laptops, integrated circuits, LCD components and other associated electronic components.

X86

x86 architectureIntel x8680x86
2-in-1s are distinguished from mainstream tablets as they feature an x86-architecture CPU (typically a low- or ultra-low-voltage model), such as the Intel Core i5, run a full-featured desktop OS like Windows 10, and have a number of typical laptop I/O ports, such as USB 3 and Mini DisplayPort.
As of 2018, the majority of personal computers and laptops sold are based on the x86 architecture, while other categories—especially high-volume mobile categories such as smartphones or tablets—are dominated by ARM; at the high end, x86 continues to dominate compute-intensive workstation and cloud computing segments.

Microsoft Surface

SurfaceSurface-seriesSurface Pro
Microsoft Surface Pro-series devices and Surface Book are examples of modern 2-in-1 detachables, whereas Lenovo Yoga-series computers are a variant of 2-in-1 convertibles.
It comprises six generations of hybrid tablets, 2-in-1 detachable notebooks, a convertible desktop all-in-one, an interactive whiteboard, and various accessories all with unique form factors.

Mobile operating system

mobile platformsmobilemobile operating systems
Similarly, a number of hybrid laptops run a mobile operating system, such as Android.
While computers such as typical laptops are 'mobile', the operating systems usually used on them are not considered mobile ones, as they were originally designed for desktop computers that historically did not have or need specific mobile features.

ARM architecture

ARMNEONARMv7
While the older Surface RT and Surface 2 have the same chassis design as the Surface Pro, their use of ARM processors and Windows RT do not classify them as 2-in-1s, but as hybrid tablets.
These characteristics are desirable for light, portable, battery-powered devicesincluding smartphones, laptops and tablet computers, and other embedded systems.