A report on Larynx

Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view
Sagittal section of the larynx and upper part of the trachea.
The basic parts of the human larynx.
Vocal cords abducted and adducted
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Image of endoscopy
Endoscopic image of an inflamed human larynx
Larynx. Deep dissection. Anterior view.
Larynx. Deep dissection. Posterior view.

Organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

- Larynx
Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view

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Overall

Conducting passages

Trachea

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Conducting passages
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Lymph nodes of the trachea.
Tracheal diverticulum as seen on axial CT imaging
Tracheal system of dissected cockroach. The largest tracheae run across the width of the body of the cockroach and are horizontal in this image. Scale bar, 2 mm.
The tracheal system branches into progressively smaller tubes, here supplying the crop of the cockroach. Scale bar, 2 mm.
thumb|Cross section of a trachea and esophagus
The sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles lie on top of the upper part of the trachea
The thyroid gland also lies on top of the trachea, and lies below the cricoid cartilage.
Cross-section
Cross-section of the trachea, with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells labelled
Magnified cross-section of the cartilage of the trachea.
Trachea
Coronal section of larynx and upper part of trachea
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

Anterolateral view of head and neck (cricoid cartilage labeled at center left)

Cricoid cartilage

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Only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea.

Only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea.

Anterolateral view of head and neck (cricoid cartilage labeled at center left)
Cricoid cartilage.
Larynx
The cartilages of the larynx. Posterior view.
Ligaments of the larynx. Posterior view.
Sagittal section of the larynx and upper part of the trachea.
Cricoid cartilage

It forms the back part of the voice box and functions as an attachment site for muscles, cartilages, and ligaments involved in opening and closing the airway and in producing speech.

The hyoid bone, present at the front of the neck, has a body and two sets of horns

Hyoid bone

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Horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage.

Horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage.

The hyoid bone, present at the front of the neck, has a body and two sets of horns
The lesser and greater horns of the hyoid
The hyoid bone sits above the thyroid cartilage
Muscles of the pharynx and cheek.
Muscles of the neck. Lateral view.

The hyoid bone provides attachment to the muscles of the floor of the mouth and the tongue above, the larynx below, and the epiglottis and pharynx behind.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

Esophagus

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Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red
The esophagus is constricted in three places.
A mass seen during an endoscopy and an ultrasound of the mass conducted during the endoscopy session.

During swallowing, the epiglottis tilts backwards to prevent food from going down the larynx and lungs.

Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds.

Vocal cords

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In humans, vocal cords, also known as vocal folds or voice reeds, are folds of throat tissues that are key in creating sounds through vocalization.

In humans, vocal cords, also known as vocal folds or voice reeds, are folds of throat tissues that are key in creating sounds through vocalization.

Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds.
Vocal folds (open)
Vocal folds (speaking)
The vocal folds in motion.
Vocal folds.
Coronal section of larynx and upper part of trachea.
The entrance to the larynx, viewed from behind.
Muscles of the larynx, seen from above.

They are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx.

Head and inner neck

Pharynx

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Part of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and above the oesophagus and trachea (the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs).

Part of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and above the oesophagus and trachea (the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs).

Head and inner neck
Upper respiratory system, with the nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx labeled at left
Details of torus tubarius
Pharyngitis is the painful swelling of the throat. The oropharynx shown here is very inflamed and red.
An illustration of the pharyngeal jaws of a moray eel
Everted pharynx of Alitta virens (also known as Nereis virens), lateral view
Pharynx of the flatworm Prorhynchus fontinalis
Pharynx of the flatworm Platydemus manokwari visible as the worm feeds on a snail.
Longitudinal section through the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans showing the position of the pharynx in the animal body.
Microscopic cross section through the pharynx of a larva from an unknown lamprey species.
Nose and nasal
Coronal section of right ear, showing auditory tube and levator veli palatini muscle
The entrance to the larynx, viewed from behind
Deep dissection of human larynx, pharynx and tongue seen from behind
The nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx or larynx can be seen clearly in this sagittal section of the head and neck.

The pharynx carries food and air to the esophagus and larynx respectively.

Human neck

Neck

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Part of the body on many vertebrates that connects the head with the torso.

Part of the body on many vertebrates that connects the head with the torso.

Human neck
Muscles in the human neck
Clear view of Adam's apple in profile.
Development of neck lines (lat.monillas) or "moon rings" due to excess fat.
The long neck is a distinguishing feature of the giraffe.

Visceral compartment accommodates the trachea, larynx, pharynx, thyroid and parathyroid glands.

The cartilages of the larynx.

Thyroid cartilage

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The cartilages of the larynx.
Thyroid cartilage

The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the nine cartilages that make up the laryngeal skeleton, the cartilage structure in and around the trachea that contains the larynx.

Course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

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Course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Passing under the subclavian artery, the right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a much shorter course than the left which passes under the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum.
Recurrent laryngeal nerve visible during resection of a goitre

The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, with the exception of the cricothyroid muscles.

View of the larynx from behind. The epiglottis is the structure at the top of the image.

Epiglottis

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Leaf-shaped flap in the throat that prevents food and water from entering the windpipe and the lungs.

Leaf-shaped flap in the throat that prevents food and water from entering the windpipe and the lungs.

View of the larynx from behind. The epiglottis is the structure at the top of the image.
Location of the epiglottis
A high rising epiglottis (with forward-facing surface being visible)
Cross-section of the larynx, with structures including the epiglottis labelled.
Cross-section of the larynx of a horse. The epiglottis here is shown as '2'.
Structures of the larynx as viewed during laryngoscopy. The leaf-like epiglottis is shown as number '3'. Other structures: 1=vocal folds, 2=vestibular fold, 3=epiglottis, 4=plica aryepiglottica, 5=arytenoid cartilage, 6=sinus piriformis, 7=dorsum of the tongue

The epiglottis is made of elastic cartilage covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx.