A report on Larynx and Vagus nerve

Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view
Plan of the upper portions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
Sagittal section of the larynx and upper part of the trachea.
H&E stained fibers of the vagus nerve (bottom right) innervate the sinoatrial node tissue (middle left)
The basic parts of the human larynx.
Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial nerves labeled.
Vocal cords abducted and adducted
Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery
Image of endoscopy
The arch of the aorta, and its branches
Endoscopic image of an inflamed human larynx
Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull, and the brain
Larynx. Deep dissection. Anterior view.
The tracheobronchial lymph glands
Larynx. Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive
Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view
Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ
The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses
The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia
The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum, seen from behind
The thyroid gland and its relations
The thymus of a full-term fetus, exposed in situ
Deep dissection of vagus nerve
Vagus nerve – dissection

Muscles of the larynx (speech).

- Vagus nerve

The larynx is innervated by branches of the vagus nerve on each side.

- Larynx
Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view

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Overall

Conducting passages

Trachea

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Conducting passages
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Lymph nodes of the trachea.
Tracheal diverticulum as seen on axial CT imaging
Tracheal system of dissected cockroach. The largest tracheae run across the width of the body of the cockroach and are horizontal in this image. Scale bar, 2 mm.
The tracheal system branches into progressively smaller tubes, here supplying the crop of the cockroach. Scale bar, 2 mm.
thumb|Cross section of a trachea and esophagus
The sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles lie on top of the upper part of the trachea
The thyroid gland also lies on top of the trachea, and lies below the cricoid cartilage.
Cross-section
Cross-section of the trachea, with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells labelled
Magnified cross-section of the cartilage of the trachea.
Trachea
Coronal section of larynx and upper part of trachea
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

To its sides run the carotid arteries and inferior thyroid arteries; and to its sides on its back surface run the recurrent laryngeal nerves in the upper trachea, and the vagus nerves in the lower trachea.

Course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

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Course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Passing under the subclavian artery, the right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a much shorter course than the left which passes under the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum.
Recurrent laryngeal nerve visible during resection of a goitre

The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, with the exception of the cricothyroid muscles.

Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. ("Laryngeal" labeled at lower right.)

Superior laryngeal nerve

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Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. ("Laryngeal" labeled at lower right.)
The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum. Seen from behind.

The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve.

It descends on the larynx, beneath the sternothyroid muscle, to supply the cricothyroid muscle.

Human neck

Neck

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Part of the body on many vertebrates that connects the head with the torso.

Part of the body on many vertebrates that connects the head with the torso.

Human neck
Muscles in the human neck
Clear view of Adam's apple in profile.
Development of neck lines (lat.monillas) or "moon rings" due to excess fat.
The long neck is a distinguishing feature of the giraffe.

Visceral compartment accommodates the trachea, larynx, pharynx, thyroid and parathyroid glands.

Vascular compartment is paired and consists of the two carotid sheaths found on each side of the trachea. Each carotid sheath contains the vagus nerve, common carotid artery and internal jugular vein.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

Esophagus

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Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red
The esophagus is constricted in three places.
A mass seen during an endoscopy and an ultrasound of the mass conducted during the endoscopy session.

During swallowing, the epiglottis tilts backwards to prevent food from going down the larynx and lungs.

Its smooth muscle is innervated by involuntary nerves (sympathetic nerves via the sympathetic trunk and parasympathetic nerves via the vagus nerve) and in addition voluntary nerves (lower motor neurons) which are carried in the vagus nerve to innervate its striated muscle.

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe

Lung

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most animals, some fish and some snails.

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most animals, some fish and some snails.

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe
Cross-sectional detail of the lung
Thick elastic fibres from the visceral pleura (outer lining) of lung
TEM image of collagen fibres in a cross sectional slice of mammalian lung tissue.
A lobule of the lung enclosed in septa and supplied by a terminal bronchiole that branches into the respiratory bronchioles. Each respiratory bronchiole supplies the alveoli held in each acinus accompanied by a pulmonary artery branch.
Alveoli and their capillary networks.
3D Medical illustration showing different terminating ends of bronchioles.
The lungs as main part of respiratory tract
3D rendering of a high-resolution CT scan of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.
Lungs during development, showing the early branching of the primitive bronchial buds
The effect of the respiratory muscles in expanding the rib cage.
Tissue death of the lung due to a pulmonary embolism
3D still image of constricted airways as in bronchial asthma.
Lung tissue affected by emphysema using H&E stain.
On inhalation, air travels to air sacs near the back of a bird. The air then passes through the lungs to air sacs near the front of the bird, from where the air is exhaled.
The cross-current respiratory gas exchanger in the lungs of birds. Air is forced from the air sacs unidirectionally (from left to right in the diagram) through the parabronchi. The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it in the diagram). Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue.
The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) retains its larval form with gills into adulthood
Book lungs of spider (shown in pink)
thumb|Chest CT (axial lung window)
thumb|Chest CT (coronal lung window)

Input from the parasympathetic nervous system occurs via the vagus nerve.

The larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs that make up the respiratory tract, begin to form during the fourth week of embryogenesis from the lung bud which appears ventrally to the caudal portion of the foregut.

Muscles of larynx. Side view. Right lamina of thyroid cartilage removed.

Cricothyroid muscle

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Muscles of larynx. Side view. Right lamina of thyroid cartilage removed.
The veins of the thyroid gland.
The fascia and middle thyroid veins.
Side view of the larynx, showing muscular attachments.

The cricothyroid muscle is the only tensor muscle of the larynx aiding with phonation.

This muscle is the only laryngeal muscle innervated by the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve known as the superior laryngeal nerve.