A report on Polarization (waves)Light and Laser

Circular polarization on rubber thread, converted to linear polarization
A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light. The longer wavelengths (red) and the shorter wavelengths (blue) are separated.
Red (660 & 635 nm), green (532 & 520 nm) and blue-violet (445 & 405 nm) lasers
cross linear polarized
The electromagnetic spectrum, with the visible portion highlighted
A laser beam used for welding
A "vertically polarized" electromagnetic wave of wavelength λ has its electric field vector E (red) oscillating in the vertical direction. The magnetic field B (or H) is always at right angles to it (blue), and both are perpendicular to the direction of propagation (z).
Electric field oscillation
Beam of sun light inside the cavity of Rocca ill'Abissu at Fondachelli-Fantina, Sicily
A helium–neon laser demonstration. The glow running through the center of the tube is an electric discharge. This glowing plasma is the gain medium for the laser. The laser produces a tiny, intense spot on the screen to the right. The center of the spot appears white because the image is overexposed there.
Due to refraction, the straw dipped in water appears bent and the ruler scale compressed when viewed from a shallow angle.
Spectrum of a helium–neon laser. The actual bandwidth is much narrower than shown; the spectrum is limited by the measuring apparatus.
Hong Kong illuminated by colourful artificial lighting.
Lidar measurements of lunar topography made by Clementine mission.
Pierre Gassendi.
Laserlink point to point optical wireless network
Christiaan Huygens.
Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) of the MESSENGER spacecraft
Thomas Young's sketch of a double-slit experiment showing diffraction. Young's experiments supported the theory that light consists of waves.
Aleksandr Prokhorov
Animation showing four different polarization states and three orthogonal projections.
Charles H. Townes
A circularly polarized wave as a sum of two linearly polarized components 90° out of phase
LASER notebook: First page of the notebook wherein Gordon Gould coined the acronym LASER, and described the elements required to construct one. Manuscript text: "Some rough calculations on the feasibility / of a LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated / Emission of Radiation. /
Conceive a tube terminated by optically flat / [Sketch of a tube] / partially reflecting parallel mirrors..."
Graph showing the history of maximum laser pulse intensity throughout the past 40 years.
Color pattern of a plastic box showing stress-induced birefringence when placed in between two crossed polarizers.
Wavelengths of commercially available lasers. Laser types with distinct laser lines are shown above the wavelength bar, while below are shown lasers that can emit in a wavelength range. The color codifies the type of laser material (see the figure description for more details).
Paths taken by vectors in the Poincaré sphere under birefringence. The propagation modes (rotation axes) are shown with red, blue, and yellow lines, the initial vectors by thick black lines, and the paths they take by colored ellipses (which represent circles in three dimensions).
A 50 W FASOR, based on a Nd:YAG laser, used at the Starfire Optical Range
A stack of plates at Brewster's angle to a beam reflects off a fraction of the s-polarized light at each surface, leaving (after many such plates) a mainly p-polarized beam.
A 5.6 mm 'closed can' commercial laser diode, such as those used in a CD or DVD player
Stress in plastic glasses
Close-up of a table-top dye laser based on Rhodamine 6G
Photomicrograph of a volcanic sand grain; upper picture is plane-polarized light, bottom picture is cross-polarized light, scale box at left-center is 0.25 millimeter.
The free-electron laser FELIX at the FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein
Effect of a polarizer on reflection from mud flats. In the picture on the left, the horizontally oriented polarizer preferentially transmits those reflections; rotating the polarizer by 90° (right) as one would view using polarized sunglasses blocks almost all specularly reflected sunlight.
Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other high energy density physics experiments.
One can test whether sunglasses are polarized by looking through two pairs, with one perpendicular to the other. If both are polarized, all light will be blocked.
The US–Israeli Tactical High Energy weapon has been used to shoot down rockets and artillery shells.
The effects of a polarizing filter (right image) on the sky in a photograph
Laser application in astronomical adaptive optics imaging
Colored fringes in the Embassy Gardens Sky Pool when viewed through a polarizer, due to stress-induced birefringence in the skylight
Circular polarization through an airplane plastic window, 1989

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

- Laser

The primary properties of light are intensity, propagation direction, frequency or wavelength spectrum and polarization.

- Light

Transverse waves that exhibit polarization include electromagnetic waves such as light and radio waves, gravitational waves, and transverse sound waves (shear waves) in solids.

- Polarization (waves)

Temporal (or longitudinal) coherence implies a polarized wave at a single frequency, whose phase is correlated over a relatively great distance (the coherence length) along the beam.

- Laser

Especially impacted are technologies such as lasers, wireless and optical fiber telecommunications, and radar.

- Polarization (waves)

Emission can also be stimulated, as in a laser or a microwave maser.

- Light
Circular polarization on rubber thread, converted to linear polarization

1 related topic with Alpha



Electromagnetic radiation

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In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consists of waves of the electromagnetic (EM) field, propagating through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consists of waves of the electromagnetic (EM) field, propagating through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

Shows the relative wavelengths of the electromagnetic waves of three different colours of light (blue, green, and red) with a distance scale in micrometers along the x-axis.
In electromagnetic radiation (such as microwaves from an antenna, shown here) the term "radiation" applies only to the parts of the electromagnetic field that radiate into infinite space and decrease in intensity by an inverse-square law of power, so that the total radiation energy that crosses through an imaginary spherical surface is the same, no matter how far away from the antenna the spherical surface is drawn. Electromagnetic radiation thus includes the far field part of the electromagnetic field around a transmitter. A part of the "near-field" close to the transmitter, forms part of the changing electromagnetic field, but does not count as electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. This 3D animation shows a plane linearly polarized wave propagating from left to right. The electric and magnetic fields in such a wave are in-phase with each other, reaching minima and maxima together.
Representation of the electric field vector of a wave of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation.
James Clerk Maxwell
Electromagnetic spectrum with visible light highlighted
Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric absorption and scattering (or opacity) of various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation

It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

Electromagnetic waves can be polarized, reflected, refracted, diffracted or interfere with each other.

In addition to infrared lasers, sufficiently intense visible and ultraviolet lasers can easily set paper afire.