Late Middle Ages

late medievallate medieval periodlate mediaevallater Middle Ageslate-medievalLateMiddle Ages14th and 15th centuriesend of an eraEnglish later Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.wikipedia
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Early modern period

early moderncolonial eraearly modern era
The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern period (and in much of Europe, the Renaissance).
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

High Middle Ages

high medievalHighhigh medieval period
The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern period (and in much of Europe, the Renaissance).
The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and were followed by the Late Middle Ages, which ended around 1500 (by historiographical convention).

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
France and England experienced serious peasant uprisings, such as the Jacquerie and the Peasants' Revolt, as well as over a century of intermittent conflict, the Hundred Years' War.
West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, following its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453).

History of Europe

European historyModern European historyEurope
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
As Mongol power waned towards the Late Middle Ages, the Grand Duchy of Moscow rose to become the strongest of the numerous Russian principalities and republics and would grow into the Tsardom of Russia in 1547.

Kingdom of France

FranceFrenchFranco
It was among the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War.

Italian Renaissance

Renaissance ItalyRenaissanceFlorentine Renaissance
Following a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance began.
By the Late Middle Ages (circa 1300 onward), Latium, the former heartland of the Roman Empire, and southern Italy were generally poorer than the North.

Normans in Ireland

Hiberno-NormanOld EnglishHiberno-Normans
While England's attention was thus directed elsewhere, the Hiberno-Norman lords in Ireland were becoming gradually more assimilated into Irish society, and the island was allowed to develop virtual independence under English overlordship.
During the High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages the Hiberno-Normans constituted a feudal aristocracy and merchant oligarchy, known as the Lordship of Ireland.

Periodization

periodperiodisationhistorical epochs
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
It can be sub-divided into the Early, High and Late Middle Ages.

Hanseatic League

HanseaticHanseHansa
In addition, financial institutions, such as the Hanseatic League and the Fugger family, held great power, on both economic and political levels.
Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, and diminished slowly after 1450.

History of the world

modern historymodern erahuman history
The changes brought about by these developments have led many scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern history and of early modern Europe.
The Late Middle Ages were marked by difficulties and calamities.

Denmark

DanishKingdom of DenmarkConstituent country
The Swedes were reluctant members of the Danish-dominated union from the start.
Throughout the High and Late Middle Ages, Denmark also included Skåneland (the areas of Scania, Halland, and Blekinge in present-day south Sweden) and Danish kings ruled Danish Estonia, as well as the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.

Empire of Trebizond

TrebizondEmperor of TrebizondTrapezuntine Empire
1461: The Empire of Trebizond fell to the Turks
Trebizond already had a long history of autonomous rule before it became the center of a small empire in the Late Middle Ages.

Ireland

IrishIRLisland of Ireland
While England's attention was thus directed elsewhere, the Hiberno-Norman lords in Ireland were becoming gradually more assimilated into Irish society, and the island was allowed to develop virtual independence under English overlordship.
These missions continued until the late Middle Ages, establishing monasteries and centres of learning, producing scholars such as Sedulius Scottus and Johannes Eriugena and exerting much influence in Europe.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
At the same time, the County of Burgundy and the wealthy Burgundian Netherlands came into the Holy Roman Empire under Habsburg control, setting up conflict for centuries to come.
During the 13th century, a general structural change in how land was administered prepared the shift of political power towards the rising bourgeoisie at the expense of aristocratic feudalism that would characterize the Late Middle Ages.

Fall of Constantinople

conquest of Constantinoplesiege of ConstantinopleConstantinople
The absorption of Latin texts had started before the Renaissance of the 12th century through contact with Arabs during the Crusades, but the availability of important Greek texts accelerated with the Capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks, when many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the West, particularly Italy.
The conquest of the city of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire was a key event in the Late Middle Ages which also marks, for some historians, the end of the Medieval period.

Christendom

Christian worldChristian EuropeChristian
The limits of Christian Europe were still being defined in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Christendom ultimately was led into specific crisis in the late Middle Ages, when the kings of France managed to establish a French national church during the 14th century and the papacy became ever more aligned with the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

The Autumn of the Middle Ages

The Waning of the Middle AgesHerfsttij der MiddeleeuwenWaning of the Middle Ages
Yet it was his Dutch colleague, Johan Huizinga, who was primarily responsible for popularising the pessimistic view of the Late Middle Ages, with his book The Autumn of the Middle Ages (1919).
In the book, Huizinga presents the idea that the exaggerated formality and romanticism of late medieval court society was a defense mechanism against the constantly increasing violence and brutality of general society.

Swiss mercenaries

Swiss mercenarySwissmercenary
All over Europe, Swiss soldiers were in particularly high demand.
Swiss mercenaries (Reisläufer) were notable for their service in foreign armies, especially the armies of the Kings of France, throughout the Early Modern period of European history, from the Later Middle Ages into the Age of Enlightenment.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
Other city states in northern Italy also expanded their territories and consolidated their power, primarily Milan and Venice.
The Italian Renaissance marked the transition from the medieval period to the modern age as Europe recovered, economically and culturally, from the crises of the Late Middle Ages and entered the Early Modern Period.

Switzerland

SwissSwiss ConfederationSWI
All over Europe, Swiss soldiers were in particularly high demand.
The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy.

Chivalry

chivalricchivalrouschivalric code
Parallel to the military developments emerged also a constantly more elaborate chivalric code of conduct for the warrior class.
The code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, and courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility.

Crisis of the Late Middle Ages

crisis of the 14th century15th-century crisiscrisis
Collectively, those events are sometimes called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages.
William M. Bowsky) he "implies that the Black Death's pivotal role in late medieval society ... was now being challenged. Arguing on the basis of a neo-Malthusian economics, revisionist historians recast the Black Death as a necessary and long overdue corrective to an overpopulated Europe."

Kingdom of Sicily

SicilySicilianKing of Sicily
The War of the Sicilian Vespers had by the early 14th century divided southern Italy into an Aragon Kingdom of Sicily and an Anjou Kingdom of Naples.
Furthermore, many scholars believe that Sicily went into decline in the Late Middle Ages, though they do not agree about when this decline occurred.

Cannon

cannonsgunsartillery pieces
It was through the use of cannons as siege weapons that major change was brought about; the new methods would eventually change the architectural structure of fortifications.
Gunpowder made the formerly devastating Greek fire obsolete, and with the final fall of Constantinople—which was protected by what were once the strongest walls in Europe—on 29 May 1453, "it was the end of an era in more ways than one."

Iceland

IcelandicISLRepublic of Iceland
Iceland benefited from its relative isolation and was the last Scandinavian country to be struck by the Black Death.
Icelandic literature is popular, in particular the sagas and eddas that were written during the High and Late Middle Ages.