The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine. Death sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine points to her hungry mouth.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
France in the late 15th century: a mosaic of feudal territories
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, 15th century
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
Ruins of Beckov Castle in Slovakia
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Ottoman miniature of the siege of Belgrade in 1456
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
Battle of Aljubarrota between Portugal and Castile, 1385
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain. The background shows the Louvre castle in Paris, c. 1410; October as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Jan Hus
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
European output of manuscripts 500–1500. The rising trend in medieval book production saw its continuation in the period.
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
Urban dwelling house, late 15th century, Halberstadt, Germany.
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Dante by Domenico di Michelino, from a fresco painted in 1465
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
A musician plays the vielle in a fourteenth-century Medieval manuscript.
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Peasants in fields
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
Joan of Arc
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Charles I
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde

The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

- Middle Ages

The changes brought about by these developments have led many scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern history and of early modern Europe.

- Late Middle Ages
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

12 related topics

Alpha

Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.

Renaissance

Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.
Portrait of a Young Woman (c. 1480–85) (Simonetta Vespucci) by Sandro Botticelli
View of Florence, birthplace of the Renaissance
Coluccio Salutati
A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa 1494
Pieter Bruegel's The Triumph of Death (c. 1562) reflects the social upheaval and terror that followed the plague that devastated medieval Europe.
Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence and patron of arts (Portrait by Vasari)
Pico della Mirandola, writer of the famous Oration on the Dignity of Man, which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance".
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490) demonstrates the effect writers of Antiquity had on Renaissance thinkers. Based on the specifications in Vitruvius' De architectura (1st century BC), Leonardo tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man. (Museum Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice)
Anonymous portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus (c. 1580)
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, father of accounting, painted by Jacopo de' Barbari, 1495, (Museo di Capodimonte).
The world map by Pietro Coppo, Venice, 1520
Alexander VI, a Borgia Pope infamous for his corruption
Adoration of the Magi and Solomon adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours (1546) by Giulio Clovio marks the end of the Italian Renaissance of illuminated manuscript together with the Index Librorum Prohibitorum.
Leonardo Bruni
"What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god!" – from William Shakespeare's Hamlet.
Château de Chambord (1519–1547), one of the most famous examples of Renaissance architecture
Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I, by Albrecht Dürer, 1519
Erasmus of Rotterdam in 1523, as depicted by Hans Holbein the Younger
São Pedro Papa, 1530–1535, by Grão Vasco Fernandes. A pinnacle piece from when the Portuguese Renaissance had considerable external influence.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin
Theotokos and The Child, the late-17th-century Russian icon by Karp Zolotaryov, with notably realistic depiction of faces and clothing.
The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial, by Juan de Herrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo
A cover of the Lives of the Artists by Giorgio Vasari
Painting of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, an event in the French Wars of Religion, by François Dubois

The Renaissance is a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an effort to revive and surpass ideas and achievements of classical antiquity.

However, the beginnings of the period – the early Renaissance of the 15th century and the Italian Proto-Renaissance from around 1250 or 1300 – overlap considerably with the Late Middle Ages, conventionally dated to c. 1250–1500, and the Middle Ages themselves were a long period filled with gradual changes, like the modern age; and as a transitional period between both, the Renaissance has close similarities to both, especially the late and early sub-periods of either.

Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595

History of Europe

Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
The peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain, from The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry, c.1410
A Watt steam engine. The steam engine, fuelled primarily by coal, propelled the Industrial Revolution in 19th-century Northwestern Europe.
Map depicting the earliest human migration in prehistoric Europe.
The Treasury of Atreus, or Tomb of Agamemnon in Mycenae 1250 BC
The Parthenon, an ancient Athenian Temple on the Acropolis (hill-top city) fell to Rome in 176 BC
Europe in the year 301 BC
A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III
The Roman republic and its neighbours in 58 BC.
Cicero addresses the Roman Senate to denounce Catiline's conspiracy to overthrow the Republic, by Cesare Maccari
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, under the emperor Trajan
Map of the partition of the Roman Empire in 395, at the death of Theodosius I: the Western Roman Empire is shown in red and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) is shown in purple
A simplified map of migrations from the 2nd to the 5th century. See also the [[:File:World 820.png|map of the world in 820 AD]].
Map showing Europe in 526 AD with the three dominating powers of the west
Constantine I and Justinian I offering their fealty to the Virgin Mary inside the Hagia Sophia
Europe in the Early Middle Ages
Europe in 1000, with most European states already formed
Europe in 1204.
Europe in 1097, as the First Crusade to the Holy Land commences
The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade
"Christianization of Lithuania in 1387", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1889, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The spread of the "Black Death" from 1347 to 1351 through Europe
Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) maritime trade routes in the Mediterranean and Black Sea
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, the founder of accounting, by Jacopo de' Barbari (Museo di Capodimonte).
Cantino planisphere, 1502, earliest chart showing explorations by Vasco da Gama, Columbus and Cabral
The Ninety-Five Theses of German monk Martin Luther, which criticized the Catholic Church
Map of Europe in 1648
Europa regina, 1570 print by Sebastian Münster of Basel
Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law.
Animated map showing the evolution of Colonial empires from 1492 to the present
Contemporary woodcut depicting the Second Defenestration of Prague (1618), which marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt, which began the first part of the Thirty Years' War.
Maria Theresa being crowned Queen of Hungary in the St. Martin's Cathedral, Pressburg (Bratislava)
After the Peace of Westphalia, Europe's borders were still stable in 1708
Map of Europe in 1794 Samuel Dunn Map of the World
Expansion of Russia (1300–1945)
The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
London's chimney sky in 1870, by Gustave Doré
The storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution of 1789
Napoleon's army at the retreat from Russia at the Berezina river
Cheering the Revolutions of 1848 in Berlin
Beginning in 1821, the Greek War of Independence began as a rebellion by Greek revolutionaries against the ruling Ottoman Empire.
Breakup of Yugoslavia
Mikhail Bakunin speaking to members of the International Workingmen's Association at the Basel Congress in 1869
Paris Commune, 1871.
Giuseppe Garibaldi's redshirts during the Battle of Calatafimi, part of the Italian Unification.
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany
The Berlin Conference (1884) headed by Otto von Bismarck that regulated European colonization in Africa during the New Imperialism period
The Fourth Estate (painting) by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo.
Europe in 1916
Trenches and sand bags were defences against machine guns and artillery on the Western Front, 1914–1918
Detail from William Orpen's painting The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, showing the signing of the peace treaty by a minor German official opposite to the representatives of the winning powers.
Interwar Europe in 1923
People gathered at sport event in 1938 (Sweden).
Europeans from various countries relaxing in wave pool in Hungary in 1939 just before the Second World War. Visible inscriptions in numerous languages.
FAI milicia during Spanish Social Revolution
Starving Jewish children in Warsaw Ghetto (1940–1943).
The fight against German Nazis during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.
American and Soviet troops meet in April 1945, east of the Elbe River.
Western European colonial empires in Asia and Africa disintegrated after World War II (mostly dominated by British and France.)
East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961
Remains of the "Iron curtain" in Devínska Nová Ves, Bratislava (Slovakia).
Marshall Plan dollar amounts
Germans standing on top of the Berlin Wall at the Brandenburg Gate, November 1989; it would begin to be torn apart in the following days.
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

The history of Europe is traditionally divided into four time periods: prehistoric Europe (prior to about 800 BC), classical antiquity (800 BC to AD 500), the Middle Ages (AD 500 to AD 1500), and the modern era (since AD 1500).

The Late Middle Ages were marked by large population declines, as Europe was threatened by the Bubonic Plague, as well as invasions by the Mongol peoples from the Eurasian Steppe.

Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings during the Norman Conquest

High Middle Ages

The period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to the 1300s.

The period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to the 1300s.

Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings during the Norman Conquest
Miniature representing the delivery of the fortress of Uclés to the Master of Order of Santiago in 1174
France in the 12th century. The Angevin Empire held the red, pink and orange territories.
King Saint Stephen I of Hungary.
Poland under the rule of Duke Mieszko I between c. 960 - 992
The Pontic steppes, c. 1015
After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209
A map of medieval universities and major monasteries with library in 1250
Detail of a portrait of Hugh de Provence (wearing spectacles), painted by Tommaso da Modena in 1352
Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map.
Fresco from the Boyana Church depicting Emperor Constantine Tikh Asen. The murals are among the finest achievements of the Bulgarian culture in the 13th century.
Interior of Nôtre Dame de Paris
John the Apostle and Marcion of Sinope in an Italian illuminated manuscript, painting on vellum, 11th century
Musicians playing the Spanish vihuela, one with a bow, the other plucked by hand, in the Cantigas de Santa Maria of Alfonso X of Castile, 13th century
Men playing the organistrum, from the Ourense Cathedral, Spain, 12th century
The cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, whose construction began in 1163, is one of the finer examples of the High Middle Ages architecture

The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and were followed by the Late Middle Ages, which ended around AD 1500 (by historiographical convention).

Christianity – Percentage of population by country (2014 data)

Christendom

Culturally intertwined with.

Culturally intertwined with.

Christianity – Percentage of population by country (2014 data)
This T-and-O map, which abstracts the then known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. More detailed versions place Jerusalem at the center of the world.
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (AD 325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Spread of Christianity by AD 600 (shown in dark blue is the spread of Early Christianity up to AD 325)
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna.
Picture of Christ in Majesty contained in an illuminated manuscript.
There are few old ceramic icons, such as this St. Theodor icon which dates to ca. 900 (from Preslav, Bulgaria).
The structure of a typical Gothic cathedral.
Science, and particularly geometry and astronomy, was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. Since these Christians believed God imbued the universe with regular geometric and harmonic principles, to seek these principles was therefore to seek and worship God.
Relative geographic prevalence of Christianity versus Islam versus lack of either religion (2006).

The term usually refers to the Middle Ages and to the Early Modern period during which the Christian world represented a geopolitical power that was juxtaposed with both the pagan and especially the Muslim world.

Christendom ultimately was led into specific crisis in the late Middle Ages, when the kings of France managed to establish a French national church during the 14th century and the papacy became ever more aligned with the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

Petrarch conceived of the idea of a European "Dark Age" which later evolved into the tripartite periodization of Western history into Ancient, Post-classical and Modern.

Periodization

Process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified and named blocks of time.

Process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified and named blocks of time.

Petrarch conceived of the idea of a European "Dark Age" which later evolved into the tripartite periodization of Western history into Ancient, Post-classical and Modern.

The term Middle Ages also derives from Petrarch.

It can be sub-divided into the Early, High and Late Middle Ages.

World population, 10,000 BCE – 2,000 CE (vertical population scale is logarithmic)

Human history

Narrative of humanity's past.

Narrative of humanity's past.

World population, 10,000 BCE – 2,000 CE (vertical population scale is logarithmic)
Cave painting, Lascaux, France, c. 15,000 BCE
Monumental Cuneiform inscription, Sumer, Mesopotamia, 26th century BCE
Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
The Buddha
Persepolis, Achaemenid Empire, 6th century BCE
Pillar erected by India's Maurya Emperor Ashoka
Obelisk of Axum, Ethiopia
Maya observatory, Chichen Itza, Mexico
The Pantheon in Rome, Italy, originally a Roman temple, now a Catholic church
University of Timbuktu, Mali
Hagia Sophia, in Istanbul, is among the most recognizable symbols of the Byzantine civilization.
Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, founded 670 CE
Crusader Krak des Chevaliers, Syria
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.
Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris, France: is among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of Christendom.
A brass "Benin Bronze" from Nigeria
Chennakesava Temple, Belur, India
Battle during 1281 Mongol invasion of Japan
Angkor Wat temple, Cambodia, early 12th century
Moai, Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
Machu Picchu, Inca Empire, Peru
Gutenberg Bible, ca. 1450, produced using movable type
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490), Renaissance Italy
1570 world map, showing Europeans' discoveries
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), Turkey
Taj Mahal, Mughal Empire, India
Ming dynasty section, Great Wall of China
Watt's steam engine powered the Industrial Revolution.
Empires of the world in 1898
The first airplane, the Wright Flyer, flew, 1903.
World War I trench warfare
Atomic bombings: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, 1945
Civilians (here, Mỹ Lai, Vietnam, 1968) suffered greatly in 20th-century wars.
Last Moon landing: Apollo 17 (1972)
China urbanized rapidly in the 21st century (Shanghai pictured).

Post-classical history (the "Middle Ages," c. undefined 500–1500 CE) witnessed the rise of Christianity, the Islamic Golden Age (c.

The Late Middle Ages were marked by difficulties and calamities.

Map of the world by Paolo Patrini during the turn of the 18th century

Early modern period

Map of the world by Paolo Patrini during the turn of the 18th century
A Japanese depiction of a Portuguese trading carrack. Advances in shipbuilding technology during the Late Middle Ages would pave the way for the global European presence characteristic of the early modern period.
Cishou Temple Pagoda, built in 1576: the Chinese believed that building pagodas on certain sites according to geomantic principles brought about auspicious events; merchant-funding for such projects was needed by the late Ming period.
A painting depecting the Qing Chinese celebrating a victory over the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan. This work was a collaboration between Chinese and European painters.
The Great Wave off Kanagawa, c. 1830 by Hokusai, an example of art flourishing in the Edo Period
Map of the Gunpowder Empires, the Mughal Empire being the orange one.
The Mughal ambassador Khan'Alam in 1618 negotiating with Shah Abbas the Great of Iran.
Robert Clive and Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, 1757 by Francis Hayman
Ottoman Empire 1481–1683
Ferdinand Pauwels – Martin Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door
Gutenberg reviewing a press proof (a colored engraving created probably in the 19th century)
15th century Hanging Houses in Cuenca, Spain from the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period.
Battle of Vienna, 12 September 1683
Bourgeoisie takes more and more importance throughout the modern era.
Cossacks became the backbone of the early Russian Army.
The Cantino planisphere (1502), the oldest surviving Portuguese nautical chart showing the results of the explorations of Vasco da Gama to India, Columbus to Central America, Gaspar Corte-Real to Newfoundland and Pedro Álvares Cabral to Brazil. The meridian of Tordesillas, separating the Portuguese and Spanish halves of the world is also depicted
Axum and Adal circa 1500.
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia
World Colonization of 1492 (Early Modern World), 1550, 1660, 1754 (Age of Enlightenment), 1822 (Industrial revolution), 1885 (European Hegemony), 1914 (World War I era), 1938 (World War II era), 1959 (Cold War era) and 1974, 2008 (Recent history).
Waldseemüller map with joint sheets, 1507
Model for the Three Superior Planets and Venus from Georg von Peuerbach, Theoricae novae planetarum.
"If there is something you know, communicate it. If there is something you don't know, search for it." An engraving from the 1772 edition of the Encyclopédie; Truth (center) is surrounded by light and unveiled by the figures to the right, Philosophy and Reason
Engraved world map (including magnetic declination lines) by Leonhard Euler from his school atlas "Geographischer Atlas bestehend in 44 Land-Charten" first published 1753 in Berlin
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830). The French Revolution inspired a wave of revolutions across Europe. Liberalism and Nationalism were popular ideas that challenged Absolute Monarchies in the 19th century.
Gold fueled European exploration of the Americas. Explorers reported Native Americans in Central America, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia were to have had large amounts.
Silver, valued as a precious metal, has been used to make expensive ornaments, fine jewelry, high-value tableware and utensils (silverware), and currency coins.
Spices were among the most luxurious products, the most common being black pepper, cinnamon (and the cheaper alternative cassia), cumin, nutmeg, ginger and cloves.

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

However, "Renaissance" is properly used in relation to a diverse series of cultural developments that occurred over several hundred years in many different parts of Europe—especially central and northern Italy—and it spans the transition from late medieval civilisation to the opening of the early modern period.

Holy Roman Empire

Political entity in Western, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Political entity in Western, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

The change of territory of the Holy Roman Empire superimposed on present-day state borders
The double-headed eagle with coats of arms of individual states, the symbol of the Holy Roman Empire (painting from 1510)
The change of territory of the Holy Roman Empire superimposed on present-day state borders
A map of the Carolingian Empire (a.k.a. Francia, the Frankish Empire) within Europe circa 814 CE.
The Holy Roman Empire during the Ottonian Dynasty
The Holy Roman Empire between 972 and 1032
The Hohenstaufen-ruled Holy Roman Empire and Kingdom of Sicily. Imperial and directly held Hohenstaufen lands in the Empire are shown in bright yellow.
The Reichssturmfahne, a military banner during the 13th and early 14th centuries
Lands of the Bohemian Crown since the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV
An illustration from Schedelsche Weltchronik depicting the structure of the Reich: The Holy Roman Emperor is sitting; on his right are three ecclesiastics; on his left are four secular electors.
The Holy Roman Empire when the Golden Bull of 1356 was signed
Innsbruck, most important political centre under Maximilian, seat of the Hofkammer (Court Treasury) and the Court Chancery, which functioned as "the most influential body in Maximilian's government". Painting of Albrecht Dürer (1496)
Maximilian I paying attention to an execution instead of watching the betrothal of his son Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile. The top right corner shows Cain and Abel. Satire against Maximilian's legal reform, associated with imperial tyranny. Created on behalf of the councilors of Augsburg. Plate 89 of Von der Arztney bayder Glück by the Petrarcameister.
Personification of the Reich as Germania by Jörg Kölderer, 1512. The "German woman", wearing her hair loose and a crown, sitting on the Imperial throne, corresponds both to the self-image of Maximilian I as King of Germany and the formula Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (omitting other nations). While usually depicted during the Middle Age as subordinate to both imperial power and Italia or Gallia, she now takes central stage in Maximilian's Triumphal Procession, being carried in front of Roma.
The Holy Roman Empire during the 16th century
Carta itineraria europae by Waldseemüller, 1520 (dedicated to Emperor Charles V)
The Holy Roman Empire around 1600, superimposed over current state borders
Religion in the Holy Roman Empire on the eve of the Thirty Years' War
The Empire after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
The Empire on the eve of the French Revolution, 1789
The crown of the Holy Roman Empire (2nd half of the 10th century), now held in the Schatzkammer (Vienna)
The Seven Prince-electors (Codex Balduini Trevirorum, c. 1340)
A map of the Empire showing division into Circles in 1512
Vienna, circa 1580 by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg
Front page of the Peace of Augsburg, which laid the legal groundwork for two co-existing religious confessions (Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism) in the German-speaking states of the Holy Roman Empire

The Kingdom of Bohemia was a significant regional power during the Middle Ages.

During the 13th century, a general structural change in how land was administered prepared the shift of political power towards the rising bourgeoisie at the expense of the aristocratic feudalism that would characterize the Late Middle Ages.

Konrad von Limpurg as a knight being armed by his lady in the Codex Manesse (early 14th century)

Chivalry

Informal and varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220.

Informal and varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220.

Konrad von Limpurg as a knight being armed by his lady in the Codex Manesse (early 14th century)
God Speed by English artist Edmund Leighton, 1900: depicting an armoured knight departing for war and leaving his beloved
Reconstruction of a Roman cavalryman (eques)
Knights of Christ by Jan van Eyck
Depiction of chivalric ideals in Romanticism (Stitching the Standard by Edmund Blair Leighton: the lady prepares for a knight to go to war)

It was associated with the medieval Christian institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlemen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.

The code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, and courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility.

Clockwise, from top left: the Battle of La Rochelle, the Battle of Agincourt, the Battle of Patay, and Joan of Arc at the Siege of Orléans

Hundred Years' War

Clockwise, from top left: the Battle of La Rochelle, the Battle of Agincourt, the Battle of Patay, and Joan of Arc at the Siege of Orléans
Homage of Edward I of England (kneeling) to Philip IV of France (seated), 1286. As Duke of Aquitaine, Edward was also a vassal to the French King (illumination by Jean Fouquet from the Grandes Chroniques de France in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris).
Animated map showing progress of the war (territorial changes and the most important battles between 1337 and 1453).
Battle of Sluys from a BNF manuscript of Froissart's Chronicles, Bruges, c. 1470.
Battle of Crécy, 1346, from the Grandes Chroniques de France. British Library, London
Edward III counting the dead on the battlefield of Crécy
Black Monday (1360), hailstorms and lightning ravage the English army at Chartres
France at the Treaty of Brétigny, English holdings in light red
Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan
The Franco-Castilian Navy, led by Admirals
de Vienne and Tovar, managed to raid the English coasts for the first time since the beginning of the Hundred Years' War.
France in 1388, just before signing a truce. English territories are shown in red, French royal territories are dark blue, papal territories are orange, and French vassals have the other colours.
Assassination of Louis I, Duke of Orléans in Paris in 1407
Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the Battle of Agincourt of 1415
Clan Carmichael crest with a broken lance commemorating the unseating of the Duke of Clarence, leading to his death at the Battle of Baugé
The first Western image of a battle with cannon: the Siege of Orléans in 1429. From Les Vigiles de Charles VII, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris.
Joan of Arc (picture 1429)
The Battle of Formigny (1450)
Charles "the Victorious" by Jean Fouquet. Louvre, Paris.
Burgundian territories (orange/yellow) and limits of France (red) after the Burgundian War
The spread of the Black Death (with modern borders)

The Hundred Years' War (La guerre de Cent Ans; ; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of England and France during the Late Middle Ages.

The Hundred Years' War was one of the most significant conflicts of the Middle Ages.