Late Middle Japanese

OnbinMiddle JapaneseLate Middle Japanese adjectivesLate Middle Japanese: Adjectiveslate middle periodthe Middle Ages
Late Middle Japanese is a stage of the Japanese language following Early Middle Japanese and preceding Early Modern Japanese.wikipedia
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Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
Late Middle Japanese is a stage of the Japanese language following Early Middle Japanese and preceding Early Modern Japanese.
Late Middle Japanese (1185–1600) included changes in features that brought it closer to the modern language, and the first appearance of European loanwords.

Early Modern Japanese

Late Middle Japanese is a stage of the Japanese language following Early Middle Japanese and preceding Early Modern Japanese.
Early Modern Japanese is a stage of the Japanese language following Middle Japanese and preceding Modern Japanese.

Early Middle Japanese

Early Middle Japanese: Phonological developmentspremodern
Late Middle Japanese is a stage of the Japanese language following Early Middle Japanese and preceding Early Modern Japanese.
It is also known as Late Old Japanese, but the term "Early Middle Japanese" is preferred, as it is closer to Late Middle Japanese (after 1185) than to Old Japanese (before 794).

Arte da Lingoa de Iapam

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They created a number of linguistic grammars, dictionaries, and even translated some of their literature.
It is the oldest fully extant Japanese grammar and is a valuable reference for the late middle period of the Japanese language.

Nippo Jisho

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They created a number of linguistic grammars, dictionaries, and even translated some of their literature.
The system of romanization used by the Nippo Jisho also reflects the phonetics of 16th-century Japanese (Late Middle Japanese), which is not identical to modern Japanese.

Adjectival noun (Japanese)

adjectival nounadjectival nounsJapanese adjectival nouns
There were two types of adjectives: regular adjectives and adjectival nouns.
The nari ones developed into the adjectival nouns (naru becoming na, while nari become da (the copula)) that are the subject of this article, while the tari ones mostly died out over the course of Late Middle Japanese, being mostly gone by Early Modern Japanese, surviving as fossils in a few words which are generally considered somewhat stiff or archaic.

Japanese equivalents of adjectives

taru'' adjectives-い ''-i'' adjectiveadjective
In Modern Japanese a few naru-adjectives and taru-adjectives remain as fossils.
However, they merged over the course of Late Middle Japanese, and now shii-adjectives are simply a form of i-adjectives; see Late Middle Japanese: Adjectives.

Japanese grammar

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While the grammatical distinction between the two classes has disappeared, the historical distinction is used in explanations of certain present forms of -shii adjectives, notably the euphonic changes that occur in polite form of adjectives (meaning when followed by ござる gozaru 'to be' or 存じる zonjiru 'to know').
Historically there were two classes of proper Old Japanese adjectives, -ku and -shiku ("-ku adjective" means "not preceded by shi"). This distinction collapsed during the evolution of Late Middle Japanese adjectives, and both are now considered -i adjectives.

Heian period

Japan (Heian period)HeianHeian-period
Politically, the first half of Late Middle Japanese consists of the end of the Heian period known as Insei and the Kamakura period; the second half of Late Middle Japanese consists of the Muromachi period. The end of the 12th century was a time of transition from the aristocratic society of the nobles in the Heian period to the feudalistic society of the warrior class.

Kamakura period

Japan (Kamakura period)KamakuraKamakura-period
Politically, the first half of Late Middle Japanese consists of the end of the Heian period known as Insei and the Kamakura period; the second half of Late Middle Japanese consists of the Muromachi period.

Muromachi period

Japan (Muromachi period)MuromachiJapan (Muromach period)
Politically, the first half of Late Middle Japanese consists of the end of the Heian period known as Insei and the Kamakura period; the second half of Late Middle Japanese consists of the Muromachi period.

Aristocracy

aristocraticaristocrataristocrats
The end of the 12th century was a time of transition from the aristocratic society of the nobles in the Heian period to the feudalistic society of the warrior class.

Feudalism

feudalfeudal systemfeudal lord
The end of the 12th century was a time of transition from the aristocratic society of the nobles in the Heian period to the feudalistic society of the warrior class.

Samurai

bushibukewarrior
The end of the 12th century was a time of transition from the aristocratic society of the nobles in the Heian period to the feudalistic society of the warrior class.

Shōgun

shogunateshogunBakufu
Accompanying this change, the political center moved with establishment of various shogunates in the east.

Literacy

literacy rateilliterategender disparity
Various new Buddhist movements began and literacy increased due their spread.

Portuguese people

PortuguesePortuguese parentsPortuguese descent
In the middle of 16th century, Portuguese missionaries arrived in Japan.

Missionary

missionariesmissionary workmission
In the middle of 16th century, Portuguese missionaries arrived in Japan.

Japan

🇯🇵JPNJapanese
In the middle of 16th century, Portuguese missionaries arrived in Japan.

Gairaigo

loanwordforeign loan wordsloanwords
Various Portuguese loanwords entered the language.

Kirishitan

ChristianChristiansJapanese Christian
In an attempt to spread their religion, the Portuguese missionaries studied and learned Japanese.

Vowel

vowelsvowel heightV
There were five vowels: /i, e, a, o, u/.

Semivowel

glideglidessemi-vowel
Initially, /e/ and /o/ were realized with semivowels and, respectively.

Consonant

consonantsCconson.
Late Middle Japanese had the following consonant inventory:

Phoneme

phonemicphonemesphonemically
In addition, there are two phonemes /N/ and /Q/.