Late antiquity

Late AntiqueancientantiquitylateLate RomanLate Classicalend of Antiquitylate Roman periodlatercities of late antiquity
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.wikipedia
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Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority, invasions, and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages.

Early Middle Ages

early medievalEarlyearly medieval period
In the West the end was earlier, with the start of the Early Middle Ages typically placed in the 6th century, or earlier on the edges of the Western Roman Empire. 284–305), and the Early Middle Ages are stressed by writers who wish to emphasize that the seeds of medieval culture were already developing in the Christianized empire, and that they continued to do so in the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire at least until the coming of Islam.
The alternative term "Late Antiquity" emphasizes elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the earlier medieval period.

Migration Period

barbarian invasionsAge of MigrationsVölkerwanderung
Migrations of Germanic tribes disrupted Roman rule from the late 4th century onwards, culminating in the eventual collapse of the Empire in the West in 476, replaced by the so-called barbarian kingdoms.
The Migration Period was a period that lasted from 375 AD (possibly as early as 300 AD) to 568 AD, during which there were widespread invasions of peoples within or into Europe, during and after the decline of the Western Roman Empire, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

Barbarian kingdoms

barbarian kingdomGermanic kingdomsbarbarian
Migrations of Germanic tribes disrupted Roman rule from the late 4th century onwards, culminating in the eventual collapse of the Empire in the West in 476, replaced by the so-called barbarian kingdoms.
The barbarian kingdoms were kingdoms dominated by northern European tribes established all over the Mediterranean after Barbarian Invasions from late antiquity to the early middle ages.

Fall of the Western Roman Empire

decline of the Roman Empirefall of Romefall of the Roman Empire
Migrations of Germanic tribes disrupted Roman rule from the late 4th century onwards, culminating in the eventual collapse of the Empire in the West in 476, replaced by the so-called barbarian kingdoms.
While the loss of political unity and military control is universally acknowledged, the Fall is not the only unifying concept for these events; the period described as Late Antiquity emphasizes the cultural continuities throughout and beyond the political collapse.

Christianization

ChristianizedChristianisationChristianize
284–305), and the Early Middle Ages are stressed by writers who wish to emphasize that the seeds of medieval culture were already developing in the Christianized empire, and that they continued to do so in the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire at least until the coming of Islam.
Various strategies and techniques were employed in Christianization campaigns from Late Antiquity and throughout the Middle Ages.

Peter Brown (historian)

Peter BrownBrown, PeterPeter Robert Lamont Brown
The popularization of this periodization in English has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971).
He is credited with having brought coherence to the field of Late Antiquity, and is sometimes regarded as the inventor of the field.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century (c.
In defining historical epochs, this crisis is sometimes viewed as marking the transition from Classical Antiquity to Late Antiquity.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
Beginning with Constantine the Great, Christianity was made legal in the Empire, and a new capital was founded at Constantinople.
Christianity and Christian ethics played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization, particularly around Europe from late antiquity and the Middle Ages.

History of the Roman Empire

Late Roman Empirelate RomanRoman Empire
The continuities between the later Roman Empire, as it was reorganized by Diocletian (r.
In defining historical epochs, this crisis is typically viewed as marking the start of the Late Roman Empire, and also the transition from Classical Antiquity to Late Antiquity.

Classical antiquity

antiquityclassicalancient
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000).

Crisis of the Third Century

Crisis of the 3rd CenturyThird Century CrisisCrisis
Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century (c.
The crisis resulted in such profound changes in the empire's institutions, society, economic life, and religion that it is increasingly seen by most historians as defining the transition between the historical periods of classical antiquity and late antiquity.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
Islam appeared in the 7th century and spurred Arab peoples to invade the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia, destroying the latter; and, after conquering all of North Africa and Visigothic Spain, to invade much of modern France.
The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important, and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the Islamization of Iran.

Spread of Islam

Muslim conquestsIslamic conquestMuslim conquest
284–305), and the Early Middle Ages are stressed by writers who wish to emphasize that the seeds of medieval culture were already developing in the Christianized empire, and that they continued to do so in the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire at least until the coming of Islam.
Now however, more complex processes are considered, in light of the more protracted time frame attributed to the progression of the ancient Persian religion to a minority; a progression that is more contiguous with the trends of the late antiquity period.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
Islam appeared in the 7th century and spurred Arab peoples to invade the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia, destroying the latter; and, after conquering all of North Africa and Visigothic Spain, to invade much of modern France.
At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius.

Chaldean Oracles

Chaldaean OraclesChaldeanChaldean chronicles
Late Antiquity marks the decline of Roman state religion, circumscribed in degrees by edicts likely inspired by Christian advisors such as Eusebius to 4th century emperors, and a period of dynamic religious experimentation and spirituality with many syncretic sects, some formed centuries earlier, such as Gnosticism or Neoplatonism and the Chaldaean oracles, some novel, such as hermeticism.
When Christian Church Fathers or other Late Antiquity writers credit "the Chaldeans", they are probably referring to this tradition.

The World of Late Antiquity

The popularization of this periodization in English has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971).
The book was one of the first in the anglophone world to consider late antiquity as a distinct historical era.

Visigoths

VisigothicVisigothGothic
Concurrently, some migrating Germanic tribes such as the Ostrogoths and Visigoths saw themselves as perpetuating the "Roman" tradition.
These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period.

Religion in ancient Rome

ancient Roman religionRoman religionRoman
Late Antiquity marks the decline of Roman state religion, circumscribed in degrees by edicts likely inspired by Christian advisors such as Eusebius to 4th century emperors, and a period of dynamic religious experimentation and spirituality with many syncretic sects, some formed centuries earlier, such as Gnosticism or Neoplatonism and the Chaldaean oracles, some novel, such as hermeticism.
That the spectacles retained something of their sacral aura even in late antiquity is indicated by the admonitions of the Church Fathers that Christians should not take part.

Early Muslim conquests

Arab conquestsMuslim conquestsIslamic conquests
235–284) to, in the East, the early Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century.
Further south in the Balkh region, in Bamiyan, indication of Sasanian authority diminishes, with a local dynasty apparently ruling from late antiquity, probably Hepthalites subject to the Yabgu of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
In the West the end was earlier, with the start of the Early Middle Ages typically placed in the 6th century, or earlier on the edges of the Western Roman Empire.
Their beginnings, together with the end of the Western Roman Empire, mark the transition from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages.

Alois Riegl

Riegl, Alois
The term Spätantike, literally "late antiquity", has been used by German-speaking historians since its popularization by Alois Riegl in the early 20th century.
This took the form of a study of late antiquity.

Villa

villasvilla suburbanaEuropean Villa
It was once thought that the elite and rich had withdrawn to the private luxuries of their numerous villas and town houses.
After the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were increasingly fortified in Late Antiquity, sometimes transferred to the Church for reuse as a monastery.

Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
Concurrently, the continuity of the Eastern Roman Empire at Constantinople meant that the turning-point for the Greek East came later, in the 7th century, as the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire centered around the Balkans, North Africa (Egypt and Carthage), and Asia Minor.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to the vaster region east of the Mediterranean, some Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία (Mikrà Asía) or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia, whereas the administration of the Empire preferred the description as Ἀνατολή (Anatolḗ "the East").

Gaul

GallicGalliaGallia Comata
Beyond the Mediterranean world, the cities of Gaul withdrew within a constricted line of defense around a citadel.
While the Celtic Gauls had lost their original identities and language during Late Antiquity, becoming amalgamated into a Gallo-Roman culture, Gallia remained the conventional name of the territory throughout the Early Middle Ages, until it acquired a new identity as the Capetian Kingdom of France in the high medieval period.