Latin Church

Latin CatholicWestern ChurchLatin RiteLatinLatin Catholic ChurchRoman CatholicLatin ChristianityRoman Catholic (Latin rite)WesternLatins
The Latin Church, also known as the Western Church or the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church, employing the Latin liturgical rites.wikipedia
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Eastern Catholic Churches

Eastern CatholicUniateEastern Catholic Church
It is one of 24 such churches, the 23 others forming the Eastern Catholic Churches. In the Catholic Church, in addition to the Latin Church directly headed by the Pope as Latin patriarch, there are 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, self-governing particular churches sui iuris with their own hierarchies.
They are united with one another and with the Latin or Roman Church (also known as the Western Church).

Patriarch of the West

It is headed by the Bishop of Rome, the pope – traditionally also called the Patriarch of the West – with his cathedra in this role at the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, Italy.
Patriarch of the West was on several occasions between 450 and 2006 one of the official titles of the Bishop of Rome, as patriarch and highest authority of the Latin Church.

Holy See

VaticanRomethe Vatican
The Latin Church traces its history to the earliest days of Christianity through its direct leadership under the Holy See, founded by Peter and Paul, according to Catholic tradition.
It is organized into polities of the Latin Church and the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, and their dioceses and religious institutes.

Papal primacy

papal authorityPrimacy of the Bishop of Romeprimacy
The Catholic Church teaches that its bishops are the successors of Jesus' apostles, and that the pope is the successor to Saint Peter upon whom primacy was conferred by Jesus Christ.
The Catholic dogma of the primacy of the bishop of Rome is codified in both codes of canon law of the Catholic Church – the Latin Church's 1983 Code of Canon Law (1983 CIC) and the Eastern Catholic Churches' 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (CCEO).

Archdiocese of Carthage

CarthageBishop of CarthageChurch of Carthage
Other Latin dioceses, such as the Archdiocese of Carthage where much of trinitarian theology and Ecclesiastical Latin developed, were vanquished and transformed into titular sees.
The Archdiocese of Carthage, also known as the Church of Carthage, was a Latin Catholic diocese established in Carthage, Roman Empire, in the 2nd century.

Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem

Latin Patriarch of JerusalemPatriarch of JerusalemTitular Patriarch of Jerusalem
The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem was established in 1099 for their care, remaining until this day.
The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is now the diocesan archbishop of Latin Church Catholics of the Catholic Archdiocese of Jerusalem with jurisdiction for all Latin Catholics in Israel, the Palestinian territories, Jordan and Cyprus.

Catholic missions

Catholic missionCatholic missionariesmissions
The Latin Church carried out Catholic missions to Latin America in the early modern period, and to Sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia from the late modern period.
Catholic mission has predominantly been carried out by the Latin Church in practice.

Latin America

Latin AmericanLatin-AmericaCentral and South America
The Latin Church carried out Catholic missions to Latin America in the early modern period, and to Sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia from the late modern period.
The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", and that it could, therefore, ally itself with "Latin Europe", ultimately overlapping the Latin Church, in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe".

Western Christianity

Western ChristianWestWestern
The Protestant Reformation in the 16th century resulted in Protestantism breaking away, resulting in the Western Christianity orientation comprising Latin Church offshoots, including also smaller groups of 19th century break-away Independent Catholic denominations. With approximately 1.255 billion members (2015), the Latin Church remains by far the largest particular church not only in the Catholic Church or Western Christianity, but in all Christianity.
Western Christianity is a branch of Christianity, composed of the Latin Church and Protestantism, together with their offshoots such as Independent Catholicism and Restorationism.

Latins (Middle Ages)

LatinLatins
After the East-West schism in 1054 in the Middle Ages its members became known as Latins in contrast with Eastern Christians.
The name Latin was in the Middle Ages a common demonym among the followers of the Latin Church of Western Christianity.

Doctor of the Church

Doctors of the Churchdoctordoctor of the Catholic Church
Substantial distinguishing theological emphases, liturgical traditions, features and identity of Latin Catholicism, on the other hand, can be traced back to the Latin church fathers whereof most importantly the Latin Doctors of the Church, from the 2nd–7th centuries, including in the Early African church.
In the Latin Church, the four Latin Doctors "had already long been recognized" in the liturgy when the four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church, John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Athanasius of Alexandria were recognized in 1568 by Pope Pius V.

List of Catholic titular sees

List of titular seestitular seetitular sees
Other Latin dioceses, such as the Archdiocese of Carthage where much of trinitarian theology and Ecclesiastical Latin developed, were vanquished and transformed into titular sees.

List of Christian denominations by number of members

largest Christian churchlargest denominationall Christian denominations
With approximately 1.255 billion members (2015), the Latin Church remains by far the largest particular church not only in the Catholic Church or Western Christianity, but in all Christianity.
;Latin Church – 1.295 billion

Roman Rite

RomanRoman LiturgyLatin
The term Latin Catholic refers to followers of the latin liturgical rites of which Roman Rite is predominant. Today, the most common Latin liturgical rites are the Roman Rite (either the post-Vatican II Mass promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1969 and revised by Pope John Paul II in 2002 or the 1962 form of the Tridentine Mass); the Ambrosian Rite; the Mozarabic Rite; and variations of the Roman Rite (such as the Anglican Use).
The Roman Rite (Ritus Romanus) is the main liturgical rite of the Latin Church, the main particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
With approximately 1.255 billion members (2015), the Latin Church remains by far the largest particular church not only in the Catholic Church or Western Christianity, but in all Christianity.
Similarly, Protestantism split in numerous denominations from the Latin Catholic Church in the Reformation era (16th century) over theological and ecclesiological disputes, most predominantly on the issue of justification and the primacy of the bishop of Rome.

Canon law of the Catholic Church

canon lawcanonicalCatholic canon law
These differ from each other in liturgical rite (ceremonies, vestments, chants, language), devotional traditions, theology, canon law, and clergy, but all maintain the same faith, and all see full communion with the Pope, as Bishop of Rome, as essential to being Catholic as well as part of the one true church as defined by the Four Marks of the Church in Catholic ecclesiology.
It has all the ordinary elements of a mature legal system: laws, courts, lawyers, judges, a fully articulated legal code for the Latin Church as well as a code for the Eastern Catholic Churches, principles of legal interpretation, and coercive penalties.

Mozarabic Rite

MozarabicMozarabic liturgyHispanic Church
Today, the most common Latin liturgical rites are the Roman Rite (either the post-Vatican II Mass promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1969 and revised by Pope John Paul II in 2002 or the 1962 form of the Tridentine Mass); the Ambrosian Rite; the Mozarabic Rite; and variations of the Roman Rite (such as the Anglican Use).
The Mozarabic Rite, also called the Visigothic Rite or the Hispanic Rite, is a liturgical rite of the Latin Church once used generally in the Iberian Peninsula (Hispania), in what is now Spain and Portugal.

East–West Schism

Great SchismEast-West Schismschism
After the East-West schism in 1054 in the Middle Ages its members became known as Latins in contrast with Eastern Christians.
Establishing Latin hierarchies in the Crusader states meant that there were two rival claimants to each of the patriarchal sees of Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, making the existence of schism clear.

Tridentine Mass

Tridentine1962 Roman MissalTraditional Latin Mass
Today, the most common Latin liturgical rites are the Roman Rite (either the post-Vatican II Mass promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1969 and revised by Pope John Paul II in 2002 or the 1962 form of the Tridentine Mass); the Ambrosian Rite; the Mozarabic Rite; and variations of the Roman Rite (such as the Anglican Use).
In response to a decision of that council, Pope Pius V promulgated the 1570 Roman Missal, making it mandatory throughout the Latin Church, except in places and religious orders with missals from before 1370.

1983 Code of Canon Law

Code of Canon LawCodex Iuris CanoniciSacrae Disciplinae Leges
Canon law for the Latin Church is codified in the Code of Canon Law, of which there have been two codifications, the first promulgated by Pope Benedict XV in 1917, and the second by Pope John Paul II in 1983.
It is the second and current comprehensive codification of canonical legislation for the Latin Church sui iuris of the Catholic Church.

Clerical celibacy

celibacypriestly celibacyvow of celibacy
Celibacy, as a consequence of the duty to observe perfect continence, is obligatory for priests in the Latin Church.
Within the Catholic Church, clerical celibacy is mandated for all clergy in the Latin Church except in the permanent diaconate.

Four Marks of the Church

One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Churchone, holy, catholic and apostolic churchOne Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church
These differ from each other in liturgical rite (ceremonies, vestments, chants, language), devotional traditions, theology, canon law, and clergy, but all maintain the same faith, and all see full communion with the Pope, as Bishop of Rome, as essential to being Catholic as well as part of the one true church as defined by the Four Marks of the Church in Catholic ecclesiology.
This ecumenical creed is today recited in the liturgy of the Catholic Church (both Latin and Eastern Rites), the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Church of the East, the Moravian Church, the Lutheran Churches, the Methodist Churches, the Presbyterian Churches, the Anglican Communion and by members of many Reformed Churches.

Sui iuris

sui jurisself-governingmetropolitanate
In the Catholic Church, in addition to the Latin Church directly headed by the Pope as Latin patriarch, there are 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, self-governing particular churches sui iuris with their own hierarchies.
By far the largest of the sui iuris churches is the Latin Church or the Latin Rite.

Appointment of Catholic bishops

appointedAppointed bishopappointment
At the present time, Bishops in the Latin Church are generally appointed by the Pope on the advice of the various dicasteries of the Roman Curia, specifically the Congregation for Bishops, the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (for countries in its care), the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State (for appointments that require the consent or prior notification of civil governments), and the Congregation for the Oriental Churches (in the areas in its charge, even for the appointment of Latin bishops).
The exact process varies based upon a number of factors, including whether the bishop is from the Latin Church or one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, the geographic location of the diocese, what office the candidate is being chosen to fill, and whether the candidate has previously been ordained to the episcopate.

Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches

CCEOcodeCode of Oriental Canon Law
The 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches defines the use within that code of the words "church" and "rite".
The Western Latin Church is guided by its own particular Canons.