Latin translations of the 12th century

Albohali's De Iudiciis Natiuitatum was translated into Latin by Plato of Tivoli in 1136, and again by John of Seville in 1153. Here is the Nuremberg edition of John of Seville's translation, 1546.
Ibn Butlan's Tacuinum sanitatis, Rhineland, 2nd half of the 15th century.
King Alfonso X (the Wise)
Al-Razi's Recueil des traités de médecine translated by Gerard of Cremona, second half of the 13th century.
Depiction of the Persian physician Al-Razi, in Gerard of Cremona's "Recueil des traités de medecine" 1250–1260.

Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.

- Latin translations of the 12th century
Albohali's De Iudiciis Natiuitatum was translated into Latin by Plato of Tivoli in 1136, and again by John of Seville in 1153. Here is the Nuremberg edition of John of Seville's translation, 1546.

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An 18th-century Persian astrolabe, kept at the Whipple Museum of the History of Science in Cambridge, England.

Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world

Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.

Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.

An 18th-century Persian astrolabe, kept at the Whipple Museum of the History of Science in Cambridge, England.
Analemma for planet Earth during the middle of the day. In 2006 it was recorded at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.
The Tusi-couple is a mathematical device invented by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi in which a small circle rotates inside a larger circle twice the diameter of the smaller circle. Rotations of the circles cause a point on the circumference of the smaller circle to oscillate back and forth in linear motion along a diameter of the larger circle.
This model presenting how Nasir al-Din al-Tusi explain the motion of Earth, relative to the moon and the Sun using Tusi couple. It is used to support that Earth rotate around something, and equant is not the correct way to explain the motion of the moon around Earth.
An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon, with respect to the position of the sun.
Ibn al-Shatir's model for the appearances of Mercury, showing the multiplication of epicycles using the Tusi-couple, thus eliminating the Ptolemaic eccentrics and equant.
Layout of the Beijing Ancient Observatory.
Korean celestial globe based on the Huihui Lifa.
Work in the observatorium of Taqi al-Din.
The Ulugh Beg Observatory in Samarqand.
A Large Persian Brass Celestial Globe with an ascription to Hadi Isfahani and a date of 1197 AH/ 1782-3 AD of typical spherical form, the globe engraved with markings, figures and astrological symbols, inscriptive details throughout
Mid-17th century astrolabe inscribed with Quranic verses and Persian poetry as well as technical information, with five interchangeable plates corresponding to the latitudes of major cities
The Timbuktu Manuscripts showing both mathematics and astronomy.
Qusayr' Amra Dome Fresco, 705–15, fresco on tepidarium, bathhouse dome ceiling, Jordan.
Zodiac Ewer, first half 13th century, potentially Iran. Engraved Brass, inlaid with copper and silver, 8 3/4 in. x 6 7/8 in..
Medieval manuscript by Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi depicting an epicyclic planetary model.

Islamic astronomy played a significant role in the revival of Byzantine and European astronomy following the loss of knowledge during the early medieval period, notably with the production of Latin translations of Arabic works during the 12th century.

Ptolemy "the Alexandrian", as depicted in a 16th-century engraving.

Ptolemy

Mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and music theorist, who wrote about a dozen scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to later Byzantine, Islamic, and Western European science.

Mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and music theorist, who wrote about a dozen scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to later Byzantine, Islamic, and Western European science.

Ptolemy "the Alexandrian", as depicted in a 16th-century engraving.
Engraving of a crowned Ptolemy being guided by Urania, from Margarita Philosophica by Gregor Reisch (1508), showing an early confluence between his person and the rulers of Ptolemaic Egypt.
Pages from the Almagest in Arabic translation showing astronomical tables.
A depiction of the Ptolemaic Universe as described in the Planetary Hypotheses by Bartolomeu Velho (1568).
A printed map from the 15th century depicting Ptolemy's description of the Ecumene by Johannes Schnitzer (1482).
A copy of the Quadripartitum (1622)
A diagram showing Pythagorean tuning.

Because of its reputation, it was widely sought and translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.

Al-Farabi (Alfarabi), the founder of Farabism.

Early Islamic philosophy

Period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).

Period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).

Al-Farabi (Alfarabi), the founder of Farabism.
Averroes (Ibn Rushd), the founder of Averroism.

Saadia Gaon, David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas, Maimonides, and Thomas Aquinas, were influenced by the Mutazilite work, particularly Avicennism and Averroism, and the Renaissance and the use of empirical methods were inspired at least in part by Arabic translations of Greek, Jewish, Persian and Egyptian works translated into Latin during the Renaissance of the 12th century, and taken during the Reconquista in 1492.

Hipparchus, credited with compiling the first trigonometric table, has been described as "the father of trigonometry".

Trigonometry

Branch of mathematics that studies relationships between side lengths and angles of triangles.

Branch of mathematics that studies relationships between side lengths and angles of triangles.

Hipparchus, credited with compiling the first trigonometric table, has been described as "the father of trigonometry".
Fig. 1a – Sine and cosine of an angle θ defined using the unit circle.
Indication of clockwise and counterclockwise amounts of key rotations in degrees, in the unit circle.
Sextants are used to measure the angle of the sun or stars with respect to the horizon. Using trigonometry and a marine chronometer, the position of the ship can be determined from such measurements.
Function (in blue), which depicts amplitude vs frequency, reveals the 6 frequencies (at odd harmonics) and their amplitudes (1/odd number).
Triangle with sides a,b,c and respectively opposite angles A,B,C

Knowledge of trigonometric functions and methods reached Western Europe via Latin translations of Ptolemy's Greek Almagest as well as the works of Persian and Arab astronomers such as Al Battani and Nasir al-Din al-Tusi.

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC, with modern alabaster mantle

Organon

Standard collection of Aristotle's six works on logic al analysis and dialectic, The name Organon was given by Aristotle's followers, the Peripatetics.

Standard collection of Aristotle's six works on logic al analysis and dialectic, The name Organon was given by Aristotle's followers, the Peripatetics.

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC, with modern alabaster mantle

The other logical works were not available in Western Christendom until translated into Latin in the 12th century.

An 18th century engraving by Georg P. Busch.

Galen

Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

An 18th century engraving by Georg P. Busch.
Galen dissecting a monkey, as imagined by Veloso Salgado in 1906
An interpretation of Galen's human "physiological system"
Modern statue of Galen in his home town, Pergamon
De curandi ratione
A group of physicians in an image from the Vienna Dioscurides; Galen is depicted top center.
De Pulsibus (c.1550), Galen's treatise on the pulse, in Greek and Latin.

From the 11th century onwards, Latin translations of Islamic medical texts began to appear in the West, alongside the Salerno school of thought, and were soon incorporated into the curriculum at the universities of Naples and Montpellier.

Ibn al-Haytham

Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

Front page of the Opticae Thesaurus, which included the first printed Latin translation of Alhazen's Book of Optics. The illustration incorporates many examples of optical phenomena including perspective effects, the rainbow, mirrors, and refraction.
The structure of the human eye according to Ibn al-Haytham. Note the depiction of the optic chiasm. —Manuscript copy of his Kitāb al-Manāẓir (MS Fatih 3212, vol. 1, fol. 81b, Süleymaniye Mosque Library, Istanbul)
The theorem of Ibn Haytham
Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhasen [sic] representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses.
Alhazen's geometrically proven summation formula
The lunes of Alhazen. The two blue lunes together have the same area as the green right triangle.
Cover page of the Latin translation of Kitāb al-Manāẓir

Optics was translated into Latin by an unknown scholar at the end of the 12th century or the beginning of the 13th century.

Cassim in the cave, by Maxfield Parrish, 1909, from the story "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves"

One Thousand and One Nights

Collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age.

Collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age.

Cassim in the cave, by Maxfield Parrish, 1909, from the story "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves"
Scheherazade and Shahryār by Ferdinand Keller, 1880
A page from Kelileh va Demneh dated 1429, from Herat, a Persian version of the Panchatantra – depicts the manipulative jackal-vizier, Dimna, trying to lead his lion-king into war.
The story of Princess Parizade and the Magic Tree by Maxfield Parrish, 1906
Arabic manuscript with parts of Arabian Nights, collected by Heinrich Friedrich von Diez, 19th century CE, origin unknown
Sindbad the sailor and Ali Baba and the forty thieves by William Strang, 1896
Arabic manuscript of The Thousand and One Nights dating back to the 14th century
Illustration of One Thousand and One Nights by Sani ol Molk, Iran, 1853
Sindbad and the Valley of Diamonds, from the Second Voyage.
Illustration of One Thousand and One Nights by Sani ol molk, Iran, 1849–1856
Illustration depicting Morgiana and the thieves from Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.
An illustration of the story of Prince Ahmed and the Fairy Paribanou, More tales from the Arabian nights by Willy Pogany (1915)
Classic Comics issue #8
First European edition of Arabian Nights, "Les Mille et une Nuit", by Antoine Galland, Vol. 11, 1730 CE, Paris
Arabian Nights, "Tausend und eine Nacht. Arabische Erzählungen", translated into German by Gustav Weil, Vol .4, 1866 CE, Stuttgart
The Sultan
One Thousand and One Nights book.
Harun ar-Rashid, a leading character of the 1001 Nights
The fifth voyage of Sindbad
William Harvey, The Fifth Voyage of Es-Sindbad of the Sea, 1838–40, woodcut
William Harvey, The Story of the City of Brass, 1838–40, woodcut
William Harvey, The Story of the Two Princes El-Amjad and El-As'ad, 1838–40, woodcut
William Harvey, The Story of Abd Allah of the Land and Abd Allah of the Sea
William Harvey, The Story of the Fisherman, 1838–40, woodcut
Friedrich Gross, ante 1830, woodcut
Friedrich Gross, ante 1830, woodcut
Friedrich Gross, ante 1830, woodcut
Friedrich Gross, ante 1830, woodcut
Friedrich Gross, ante 1830, woodcut
Friedrich Gross, ante 1830, woodcut
Friedrich Gross, ante 1830, woodcut
Friedrich Gross, ante 1830, woodcut
Frank Brangwyn, Story of Abon-Hassan the Wag ("He found himself upon the royal couch"), 1895–96, watercolour and tempera on millboard
Frank Brangwyn, Story of the Merchant ("Sheherezade telling the stories"), 1895–96, watercolour and tempera on millboard
Frank Brangwyn, Story of Ansal-Wajooodaud, Rose-in-Bloom ("The daughter of a Visier sat at a lattice window"), 1895–96, watercolour and tempera on millboard
Frank Brangwyn, Story of Gulnare ("The merchant uncovered her face"), 1895–96, watercolour and tempera on millboard
Frank Brangwyn, Story of Beder Basim ("Whereupon it became eared corn"), 1895–96, watercolour and tempera on millboard
Frank Brangwyn, Story of Abdalla ("Abdalla of the sea sat in the water, near the shore"), 1895–96, watercolour and tempera on millboard
Frank Brangwyn, Story of Mahomed Ali ("He sat his boat afloat with them"), 1895–96, watercolour and tempera on millboard
Frank Brangwyn, Story of the City of Brass ("They ceased not to ascend by that ladder"), 1895–96, watercolour and tempera on millboard

In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis, alongside the "Sindibad" story cycle.

Cover page for Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics

Book of Optics

Seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Arab scholar Ibn al-Haytham, known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen (965–c.

Seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Arab scholar Ibn al-Haytham, known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen (965–c.

Cover page for Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics
Front page of the Latin Opticae Thesaurus, which included Alhazen's Book of Optics, showing rainbows, the use of parabolic mirrors to set ships on fire, distorted images caused by refraction in water, and other optical effects.
The structure of the human eye according to Ibn al-Haytham. Note the depiction of the optic chiasm. —Manuscript copy of his Kitāb al-Manāẓir (MS Fatih 3212, vol. 1, fol. 81b, Süleymaniye Mosque Library, Istanbul)

The Book of Optics was translated into Latin by an unknown scholar at the end of the 12th (or the beginning of the 13th) century.

The Tusi couple, a mathematical device invented by the Persian polymath Nasir al-Din Tusi to model the not perfectly circular motions of the planets

The Book of Healing

Scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by Abu Ali ibn Sīna (aka Avicenna) from medieval Persia, near Bukhara in Maverounnahr.

Scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by Abu Ali ibn Sīna (aka Avicenna) from medieval Persia, near Bukhara in Maverounnahr.

The Tusi couple, a mathematical device invented by the Persian polymath Nasir al-Din Tusi to model the not perfectly circular motions of the planets

After the Latin translations of the 12th century, his writings on logic were also an important influence on Western medieval writers such as Albertus Magnus.