Latvia

Republic of LatviaLatvianLATLVALVLatvian Republicthe Republic of LatviaLatviLatvijaLetonia
Latvia ( or ; Latvija, ), officially known as the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika, ), is a country in the Baltic region of the Northern Europe.wikipedia
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Estonia

ESTRepublic of EstoniaEstonian
It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west.
It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km).

Lithuania

LTURepublic of LithuaniaLithuanian
It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west.
It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) to the southwest.

Belarus

BLRRepublic of BelarusBelorussia
It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west.
Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

Baltic Germans

Baltic GermanBaltic-GermanGerman
After centuries of Swedish, Polish and Russian rule, a rule mainly executed by the Baltic German aristocracy, the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November 1918 when it broke away and declared independence in the aftermath of World War I. Until World War II, Latvia also had significant minorities of ethnic Germans and Jews.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940

Soviet occupation of LatviaSoviet occupationoccupation of Latvia
The country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II, beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union, followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941, and the re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944 (Courland Pocket in 1945) to form the Latvian SSR for the next 45 years.
The Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940 refers to the military occupation of the Republic of Latvia by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany and its Secret Additional Protocol signed in August 1939.

German occupation of Latvia during World War II

occupation of Latvia by Nazi GermanyNazi occupation of LatviaGerman occupation
The country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II, beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union, followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941, and the re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944 (Courland Pocket in 1945) to form the Latvian SSR for the next 45 years.
The occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany was completed on July 10, 1941 by Germany's armed forces.

1934 Latvian coup d'état

1934 coup d'étatcoup d'étatcoup d'état of 15 May 1934
However, by the 1930s the country became increasingly autocratic after the coup in 1934 establishing an authoritarian regime under Kārlis Ulmanis.
The 1934 Latvian coup d'état, known in Latvia as the May 15 Coup or Ulmanis' Coup, was a self-coup by the veteran Prime Minister Kārlis Ulmanis against the parliamentary system in Latvia.

Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944

Soviet occupation of LatviaSoviet occupationOccupation of Latvia by Soviet Union 1944-1945
The country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II, beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union, followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941, and the re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944 (Courland Pocket in 1945) to form the Latvian SSR for the next 45 years.
The Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944 refers to the military occupation of Latvia by the Soviet Union in 1944.

Singing Revolution

new resistance movementEstonian independence movementEstonian independence
The peaceful Singing Revolution, starting in 1987, called for Baltic emancipation from Soviet rule and condemning the Communist regime's illegal takeover.
The Singing Revolution is a commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1991 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

Riga

Riga, LatviaRīgaRiga, Soviet Union
Its capital Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in 2014.
Riga (Rīga ; ) is the capital of Latvia and is home to 632,614 inhabitants (2019), which is a third of Latvia's population.

Administrative divisions of Latvia

MunicipalityAdministrative divisions of Latvia (2009)administrative unit
Latvia is a unitary state, divided into 119 administrative divisions, of which 110 are municipalities and nine are cities.
Administrative divisions of Latvia (valid since 1 July 2009).

Swedish Livonia

LivoniaLivonianDuchy of Livonia
After centuries of Swedish, Polish and Russian rule, a rule mainly executed by the Baltic German aristocracy, the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November 1918 when it broke away and declared independence in the aftermath of World War I.
The territory, which constituted the southern part of modern Estonia (including the island of Ösel ceded by Denmark after the Treaty of Brömsebro) and the northern part of modern Latvia (the Vidzeme region), represented the conquest of the major part of the Polish-Lithuanian Duchy of Livonia during the 1600–1629 Polish-Swedish War.

Latvian language

LatvianLatvian-languageLettish
Latvian is the official language.
It is the language of Latvians and the official language of Latvia as well as one of the official languages of the European Union.

State continuity of the Baltic states

legal continuity of the Baltic stateslegal continuity of the Lithuanian stateassert state continuity
It ended with the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia on 4 May 1990, and restoring de facto independence on 21 August 1991.
The official position of Russia is a continuation of the Soviet position that Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were not annexed by the Soviet Union but joined of their own accord in 1940.

Baltic region

BalticNortheastern Europethe Baltics
Latvia ( or ; Latvija, ), officially known as the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika, ), is a country in the Baltic region of the Northern Europe.

History of the Jews in Latvia

Latvian JewsLatviaLatvian Jewish
Until World War II, Latvia also had significant minorities of ethnic Germans and Jews.
The history of the Jews in Latvia dates back to the first Jewish colony established in Piltene in 1571.

Occupation of the Baltic states

Soviet occupationSoviet occupation of EstoniaSoviet occupation of Lithuania
However, as a consequence of centuries of Russian rule (1710–1918) and later Soviet occupation, 26.9% of Latvians are ethnic Russians, some of whom (14.1% of Latvian residents) have not gained citizenship, leaving them with no citizenship at all.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940.

Non-citizens (Latvia)

non-citizensnon-citizenLatvian non-citizens
However, as a consequence of centuries of Russian rule (1710–1918) and later Soviet occupation, 26.9% of Latvians are ethnic Russians, some of whom (14.1% of Latvian residents) have not gained citizenship, leaving them with no citizenship at all.
Non-citizens (nepilsoņi) in Latvian law are individuals who are not citizens of Latvia or any other country, but who, in accordance with the Latvian law "Regarding the status of citizens of the former USSR who possess neither Latvian nor other citizenship", have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights.

Kārlis Ulmanis

Karlis UlmanisUlmanisK. Ulmanis
However, by the 1930s the country became increasingly autocratic after the coup in 1934 establishing an authoritarian regime under Kārlis Ulmanis.
He then worked in Latvia as a writer, lecturer, and manager in agricultural positions.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
Latvia is historically predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic.
In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Iceland.

Baltic Sea

BalticBaltic coastthe Baltic
Around 3000 BC, the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Baltic Sea is a mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain.

Courland Pocket

Kurland PocketCourlandBattle of Courland
The country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II, beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union, followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941, and the re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944 (Courland Pocket in 1945) to form the Latvian SSR for the next 45 years.
This action isolated the German Army Group North from the rest of the German forces between Tukums and Libau in Latvia.

Semigallians

SemigallianSemigaliansSemigallian tribe
The name Latvija is derived from the name of the ancient Latgalians, one of four Indo-European Baltic tribes (along with Couronians, Selonians and Semigallians), which formed the ethnic core of modern Latvians together with the Finnic Livonians.
Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi; Žiemgaliai, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) were the Baltic tribe that lived in the southcentral part of contemporary Latvia and northern Lithuania.

Latvian lats

latsLVLLatvian lat
A full member of the Eurozone, it began using the euro as its currency on 1 January 2014, replacing the Latvian lats.
The lats (plural: lati (2–9) latu (10 and more)), ISO 4217 currency code: LVL or 428) was the currency of Latvia from 1922 until it was replaced by the euro on 1 January 2014.

Latvians

LatvianLettsLatvian ethnicity
The name Latvija is derived from the name of the ancient Latgalians, one of four Indo-European Baltic tribes (along with Couronians, Selonians and Semigallians), which formed the ethnic core of modern Latvians together with the Finnic Livonians. Latvians and Livonians are the indigenous people of Latvia.
Latvians (latvieši; ) are a Baltic ethnic group and nation native to Latvia and the immediate geographical region, the Baltics.