A report on LavaVolcano and Magma

10 m lava fountain in Hawaii, United States
Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.
Lava flow on Hawaii. Lava is the extrusive equivalent of magma.
Lava flow during a rift eruption at Krafla, Iceland in 1984
Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range in El Salvador. The country is home to 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, including two calderas, one being a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).
Phase diagram for the diopside-anorthite system
Pāhoehoe and ʻaʻā lava flows side by side in Hawaii, September 2007
Sabancaya volcano erupting, Peru in 2017
Schematic diagrams showing the principles behind fractional crystallisation in a magma. While cooling, the magma evolves in composition because different minerals crystallize from the melt. 1: olivine crystallizes; 2: olivine and pyroxene crystallize; 3: pyroxene and plagioclase crystallize; 4: plagioclase crystallizes. At the bottom of the magma reservoir, a cumulate rock forms.
Toes of a pāhoehoe advance across a road in Kalapana on the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano in Hawaii, United States
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006
A single silica tetrahedron
Columnar jointing in Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland
An eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before its climactic eruption
Two silica tetrahedra joined by a bridging oxygen ion (tinted pink)
Lava entering the sea to expand the big island of Hawaii, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Fountain of lava erupting from a volcanic cone in Hawaii, 1983
Lava enters the Pacific at the Big Island of Hawaii
Aerial view of the Barren Island, Andaman Islands, India, during an eruption in 1995. It is the only active volcano in South Asia.
Glowing aā flow front advancing over pāhoehoe on the coastal plain of Kilauea in Hawaii, United States
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries)
Pāhoehoe lava from Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, United States
Lakagigar fissure vent in Iceland, the source of the major world climate alteration of 1783–84, has a chain of volcanic cones along its length.
Block lava at Fantastic Lava Beds near Cinder Cone in Lassen Volcanic National Park
Skjaldbreiður, a shield volcano whose name means "broad shield"
Pillow lava on the ocean floor near Hawaii
Izalco volcano, the youngest volcano in El Salvador. Izalco erupted almost continuously from 1770 (when it formed) to 1958, earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific".
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, is a stratovolcano.
Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
A forested lava dome in the midst of the Valle Grande, the largest meadow in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, United States
Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai
Shiprock, New Mexico, United States: a volcanic neck in the distance, with a radiating dike on its south side
Pāhoehoe lava flow on Hawaii. The picture shows overflows of a main lava channel.
450 m-high lava fountain at Kilauea
The Stromboli stratovolcano off the coast of Sicily has erupted continuously for thousands of years, giving rise to its nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean"
Lava can easily destroy entire towns. This picture shows one of over 100 houses destroyed by the lava flow in Kalapana, Hawaii, United States, in 1990.
Columnar-jointed basalt lava erupted from a volcano, South Penghu Marine National Park in Taiwan
Light-microscope image of tuff as seen in thin section (long dimension is several mm): The curved shapes of altered glass shards (ash fragments) are well preserved, although the glass is partly altered. The shapes were formed around bubbles of expanding, water-rich gas.
Fresco with Mount Vesuvius behind Bacchus and Agathodaemon, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary
Narcondam Island, India, is classified as a dormant volcano by the Geological Survey of India
Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska, in September 2006 after being thought extinct for over 10,000 years
Mount Rinjani eruption in 1994, in Lombok, Indonesia
Shiprock in New Mexico, US
Capulin Volcano National Monument in New Mexico, US
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on Kamchatka Peninsula, Far Eastern Russia
Schematic of volcano injection of aerosols and gases
Solar radiation graph 1958–2008, showing how the radiation is reduced after major volcanic eruptions
Sulfur dioxide concentration over the Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands, during an eruption in October 2005
Comparison of major United States supereruptions (VEI 7 and 8) with major historical volcanic eruptions in the 19th and 20th century. From left to right: Yellowstone 2.1 Ma, Yellowstone 1.3 Ma, Long Valley 6.26 Ma, Yellowstone 0.64 Ma . 19th century eruptions: Tambora 1815, Krakatoa 1883. 20th century eruptions: Novarupta 1912, St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991.
The Tvashtar volcano erupts a plume 330 km (205 mi) above the surface of Jupiter's moon Io.
Olympus Mons (Latin, "Mount Olympus"), located on the planet Mars, is the tallest known mountain in the Solar System.

Lava is molten or partially molten rock (magma) that has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a moon onto its surface.

- Lava

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

- Volcano

Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a fracture in the crust, on land or underwater, usually at temperatures from 800 to 1200 C. The volcanic rock resulting from subsequent cooling is also often called lava.

- Lava

Following its ascent through the crust, magma may feed a volcano and be extruded as lava, or it may solidify underground to form an intrusion, such as a dike, a sill, a laccolith, a pluton, or a batholith.

- Magma

In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, thus creating magma.

- Volcano
10 m lava fountain in Hawaii, United States

5 related topics with Alpha


Komatiite lava at the type locality in the Komati Valley, Barberton Mountainland, South Africa, showing the distinctive "spinifex texture" formed by dendritic plates of olivine (scale shown by a hammer on the right edge of photo)


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Komatiite lava at the type locality in the Komati Valley, Barberton Mountainland, South Africa, showing the distinctive "spinifex texture" formed by dendritic plates of olivine (scale shown by a hammer on the right edge of photo)
Komatiite sample collected from the Abitibi greenstone belt near Englehart, Ontario, Canada. Specimen is 9 cm wide. Bladed olivine crystals are visible, though spinifex texture is weak or absent in this sample.
Graph of komatiite geochemistry MgO% vs Cr ppm, from basal flows, Wannaway, Western Australia
Photomicrograph of a thin section of komatiite showing spinifex texture of pyroxene needle-like crystals
A2 facies dendritic feathery olivine crystals, drill hole WDD18, Widgiemooltha, Western Australia
A3 facies bladed olivine spinifex, drill hole WDD18, Widgiemooltha Komatiite, Western Australia

Komatiite is a type of ultramafic mantle-derived volcanic rock defined as having crystallised from a lava of at least 18 wt% MgO.

Magmas of komatiitic compositions have a very high melting point, with calculated eruption temperatures up to, and possibly in excess of 1600 °C.

Komatiite volcano morphology is interpreted to have the general form and structure of a shield volcano, typical of most large basalt edifices, as the magmatic event which forms komatiites erupts less magnesian materials.

Pillow lava on the ocean floor of Hawaii

Pillow lava

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Pillow lava on the ocean floor of Hawaii
Pillow lava near Oamaru, New Zealand
Weathered Archean pillow lava in the Temagami Greenstone Belt of the Canadian Shield
Pillow lava formations from an ophiolite sequence, Northern Apennines, Italy
Pillow lava at Boatman's Harbour near Oamaru, New Zealand.

Pillow lavas are lavas that contain characteristic pillow-shaped structures that are attributed to the extrusion of the lava underwater, or subaqueous extrusion.

They occur wherever lava is extruded underwater, such as along marine hotspot volcano chains and the constructive plate boundaries of mid-ocean ridges.

They are created when magma reaches the surface but, as there is a large difference in temperature between the lava and the water, the surface of the emergent tongue cools very quickly, forming a skin.

Rhyolitic lava dome of Chaitén Volcano during its 2008–2010 eruption

Lava dome

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Rhyolitic lava dome of Chaitén Volcano during its 2008–2010 eruption
One of the Inyo Craters, an example of a rhyolite dome
Nea Kameni seen from Thera, Santorini
Lava domes in the crater of Mount St. Helens
The bulging cryptodome of Mt. St. Helens on April 27, 1980
Soufrière Hills lava spine before the 1997 eruption
Chao dacite coulée flow-domes (left center), northern Chile, viewed from Landsat 8

In volcanology, a lava dome is a circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.

This high viscosity can be obtained in two ways: by high levels of silica in the magma, or by degassing of fluid magma.

Mauna Loa, a shield volcano in Hawaii

Shield volcano

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Mauna Loa, a shield volcano in Hawaii
An Ancient Greek warrior's shield–its circular shape and gently sloping surface, with a central raised area, is a shape shared by many shield volcanoes
Skjaldbreiður is a shield volcano in Iceland, whose name means broad shield in Icelandic.
Scaled image showing Olympus Mons, top, and the Hawaiian island chain, bottom. Martian volcanoes are far larger than those found on Earth.
{{okina}}A{{okina}}a advances over solidified pāhoehoe on Kīlauea, Hawai{{okina}}i
A pāhoehoe lava fountain on Kīlauea erupts
A lava lake in the caldera of Erta Ale, an active shield volcano in Ethiopia
Pāhoehoe flows enter the Pacific Ocean on Hawai{{okina}}i island
Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a parasitic cinder cone on Kīlauea, lava fountaining at dusk in June 1983, near the start of its eruptive cycle
Nāhuku, a famous lava tube on Hawai{{okina}}i island, now a tourist attraction in the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park

A shield volcano is a type of volcano named for its low profile, resembling a warrior's shield lying on the ground.

It is formed by the eruption of highly fluid (low viscosity) lava, which travels farther and forms thinner flows than the more viscous lava erupted from a stratovolcano.

Shield volcanoes are distinguished from the three other major volcanic types—stratovolcanoes, lava domes, and cinder cones—by their structural form, a consequence of their particular magmatic composition.

Carbonatite from Jacupiranga, Brazil. This rock is a mixture of calcite, magnetite, and olivine.


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Type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.

Type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.

Carbonatite from Jacupiranga, Brazil. This rock is a mixture of calcite, magnetite, and olivine.
Carbonatite lava at Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania
Magnesiocarbonatite, from Verity-Paradise Carbonatite Complex of British Columbia. Specimen is 75 mm wide.
Okaite, an ultramafic rock found near the carbonatite of the Oka Carbonatite Complex, Oka, Quebec
Thin section of apatite-rich carbonatite in cross polarised transmitted light. The sample is from Siilinjärvi apatite mine.

This is because carbonatite lava flows, being composed largely of soluble carbonates, are easily weathered and are therefore unlikely to be preserved in the geologic record.

Only one carbonatite volcano is known to have erupted in historical time, the active Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania.

It was however the 1960 eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai in Tanzania that led to geological investigations that finally confirmed the view that carbonatite is derived from magma.