A report on LavaVolcano and Tephra

10 m lava fountain in Hawaii, United States
Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.
Volcanic tephra at Brown Bluff, Antarctica (2016)
Lava flow during a rift eruption at Krafla, Iceland in 1984
Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range in El Salvador. The country is home to 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, including two calderas, one being a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).
Tephra horizons in south-central Iceland: The thick and light-coloured layer at the centre of the photo is rhyolitic tephra from Hekla.
Pāhoehoe and ʻaʻā lava flows side by side in Hawaii, September 2007
Sabancaya volcano erupting, Peru in 2017
A 2007 eruptive plume at Mount Etna produced volcanic ash, pumice, and lava bombs.
Toes of a pāhoehoe advance across a road in Kalapana on the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano in Hawaii, United States
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006
Rocks from the Bishop tuff, uncompressed with pumice on left; compressed with fiamme on right
Columnar jointing in Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland
An eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before its climactic eruption
Volcanic breccia in Jackson Hole
Lava entering the sea to expand the big island of Hawaii, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Fountain of lava erupting from a volcanic cone in Hawaii, 1983
The Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument after the 1980 eruption
Lava enters the Pacific at the Big Island of Hawaii
Aerial view of the Barren Island, Andaman Islands, India, during an eruption in 1995. It is the only active volcano in South Asia.
Satellite image of Chaitén volcano lava dome, Chile: The circular dome is brown and is surrounded by an ash covered landscape.
Glowing aā flow front advancing over pāhoehoe on the coastal plain of Kilauea in Hawaii, United States
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries)
Pāhoehoe lava from Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, United States
Lakagigar fissure vent in Iceland, the source of the major world climate alteration of 1783–84, has a chain of volcanic cones along its length.
Block lava at Fantastic Lava Beds near Cinder Cone in Lassen Volcanic National Park
Skjaldbreiður, a shield volcano whose name means "broad shield"
Pillow lava on the ocean floor near Hawaii
Izalco volcano, the youngest volcano in El Salvador. Izalco erupted almost continuously from 1770 (when it formed) to 1958, earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific".
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, is a stratovolcano.
Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
A forested lava dome in the midst of the Valle Grande, the largest meadow in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, United States
Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai
Shiprock, New Mexico, United States: a volcanic neck in the distance, with a radiating dike on its south side
Pāhoehoe lava flow on Hawaii. The picture shows overflows of a main lava channel.
450 m-high lava fountain at Kilauea
The Stromboli stratovolcano off the coast of Sicily has erupted continuously for thousands of years, giving rise to its nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean"
Lava can easily destroy entire towns. This picture shows one of over 100 houses destroyed by the lava flow in Kalapana, Hawaii, United States, in 1990.
Columnar-jointed basalt lava erupted from a volcano, South Penghu Marine National Park in Taiwan
Light-microscope image of tuff as seen in thin section (long dimension is several mm): The curved shapes of altered glass shards (ash fragments) are well preserved, although the glass is partly altered. The shapes were formed around bubbles of expanding, water-rich gas.
Fresco with Mount Vesuvius behind Bacchus and Agathodaemon, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary
Narcondam Island, India, is classified as a dormant volcano by the Geological Survey of India
Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska, in September 2006 after being thought extinct for over 10,000 years
Mount Rinjani eruption in 1994, in Lombok, Indonesia
Shiprock in New Mexico, US
Capulin Volcano National Monument in New Mexico, US
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on Kamchatka Peninsula, Far Eastern Russia
Schematic of volcano injection of aerosols and gases
Solar radiation graph 1958–2008, showing how the radiation is reduced after major volcanic eruptions
Sulfur dioxide concentration over the Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands, during an eruption in October 2005
Comparison of major United States supereruptions (VEI 7 and 8) with major historical volcanic eruptions in the 19th and 20th century. From left to right: Yellowstone 2.1 Ma, Yellowstone 1.3 Ma, Long Valley 6.26 Ma, Yellowstone 0.64 Ma . 19th century eruptions: Tambora 1815, Krakatoa 1883. 20th century eruptions: Novarupta 1912, St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991.
The Tvashtar volcano erupts a plume 330 km (205 mi) above the surface of Jupiter's moon Io.
Olympus Mons (Latin, "Mount Olympus"), located on the planet Mars, is the tallest known mountain in the Solar System.

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

- Volcano

Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size, or emplacement mechanism.

- Tephra

Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a fracture in the crust, on land or underwater, usually at temperatures from 800 to 1200 C. The volcanic rock resulting from subsequent cooling is also often called lava.

- Lava

(An explosive eruption, by contrast, produces a mixture of volcanic ash and other fragments called tephra, not lava flows.) The viscosity of most lava is about that of ketchup, roughly 10,000 to 100,000 times that of water.

- Lava

When the volcanoes erupted, whole forests growing in Antarctica were covered in lava.

- Tephra

Stratovolcanoes (composite volcanoes) are tall conical mountains composed of lava flows and tephra in alternate layers, the strata that gives rise to the name.

- Volcano
10 m lava fountain in Hawaii, United States

1 related topic with Alpha


Welded tuff from Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico


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Welded tuff from Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico
Etruscan tuff blocks from a tomb at Banditaccia
A tuff house in Germany
Light-microscope image of tuff as seen in thin section (long dimension is several mm): The curved shapes of altered glass shards (ash fragments) are well preserved, although the glass is partly altered. The shapes were formed about bubbles of expanding, water-rich gas.
Diamond Head, a tuff cone
Most of the moais in Easter Island are carved out of tholeiite basalt tuff.
Remains of the ancient Servian Walls in Rome, made of tuff blocks
19th century embankment wall built of Brisbane tuff, City of Brisbane
Pilar Formation outcrop showing metatuff beds used for radiometric dating
Layers of fallout tuff in Japan
Rocks from the Bishop tuff in California, unwelded with pumice on left, welded with fiamme on right
Bandelier Tuff at San Diego Canyon. The lower Otowi Member is a single massive cooling unit, while the upper Tshirege Member is composed of multiple cooling units.
Ahu Tongariki on Easter Island, with 15 moai made of tuff from Rano Raraku crater: The second moai from the right has a Pukao ("topknot") which is made of red scoria.
The rhyolitic tuff portal of the "church house" at Colditz Castle, Saxony, designed by Andreas Walther II (1584)
Armenia's Government House in Yerevan's Republic Square, built of yellow tuff
Cathedral of Ani, early 11th century, in the medieval Armenian capital of Ani (modern-day Turkey) was built in tuff<ref>{{cite book|last=Hakobyan|first=Tadevos Kh.|author-link=Tadevos Hakobyan|title=Անի մայրաքաղաք [Ani the Capital]|date=1988|publisher=Yerevan University Press|location=Yerevan|page=118|language=hy}}</ref>

Tuff is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.

2) Lava, the name of magma when it emerges and flows over the surface

3) Tephra, particles of solid material of all shapes and sizes ejected and thrown through the air