10 m lava fountain in Hawaii, United States
Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.
Some of the eruptive structures formed during volcanic activity (counterclockwise): a Plinian eruption column, Hawaiian pahoehoe flows, and a lava arc from a Strombolian eruption
Lava flow during a rift eruption at Krafla, Iceland in 1984
Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range in El Salvador. The country is home to 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, including two calderas, one being a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).
Diagram showing the scale of VEI correlation with total ejecta volume
Pāhoehoe and ʻaʻā lava flows side by side in Hawaii, September 2007
Sabancaya volcano erupting, Peru in 2017
Diagram of a Hawaiian eruption. (key: 1. Ash plume 2. Lava fountain 3. Crater 4. Lava lake 5. Fumaroles 6. Lava flow 7. Layers of lava and ash 8. Stratum 9. Sill 10. Magma conduit 11. Magma chamber 12. Dike) [[:File:Hawaiian Eruption-numbers.svg|Click for larger version]].
Toes of a pāhoehoe advance across a road in Kalapana on the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano in Hawaii, United States
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006
Ropey pahoehoe lava from Kilauea, Hawaii
Columnar jointing in Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland
An eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before its climactic eruption
Diagram of a Strombolian eruption. (key: 1. Ash plume 2. Lapilli 3. Volcanic ash rain 4. Lava fountain 5. Volcanic bomb 6. Lava flow 7. Layers of lava and ash 8. Stratum 9. Dike 10. Magma conduit 11. Magma chamber 12. Sill) [[:File:Strombolian Eruption-numbers.svg|Click for larger version]].
Lava entering the sea to expand the big island of Hawaii, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Fountain of lava erupting from a volcanic cone in Hawaii, 1983
An example of the lava arcs formed during Strombolian activity. This image is of Stromboli itself.
Lava enters the Pacific at the Big Island of Hawaii
Aerial view of the Barren Island, Andaman Islands, India, during an eruption in 1995. It is the only active volcano in South Asia.
Diagram of a Vulcanian eruption. (key: 1. Ash plume 2. Lapilli 3. Lava fountain 4. Volcanic ash rain 5. Volcanic bomb 6. Lava flow 7. Layers of lava and ash 8. Stratum 9. Sill 10. Magma conduit 11. Magma chamber 12. Dike) [[:File:Vulcanian Eruption-numbers.svg|Click for larger version.]]
Glowing aā flow front advancing over pāhoehoe on the coastal plain of Kilauea in Hawaii, United States
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries)
Tavurvur in Papua New Guinea erupting
Pāhoehoe lava from Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, United States
Lakagigar fissure vent in Iceland, the source of the major world climate alteration of 1783–84, has a chain of volcanic cones along its length.
Diagram of Peléan eruption. (key: 1. Ash plume 2. Volcanic ash rain 3. Lava dome 4. Volcanic bomb 5. Pyroclastic flow 6. Layers of lava and ash 7. Stratum 8. Magma conduit 9. Magma chamber 10. Dike) [[:File:Pelean Eruption-numbers.svg|Click for larger version]].
Block lava at Fantastic Lava Beds near Cinder Cone in Lassen Volcanic National Park
Skjaldbreiður, a shield volcano whose name means "broad shield"
Diagram of a Plinian eruption. (key: 1. Ash plume 2. Magma conduit 3. Volcanic ash rain 4. Layers of lava and ash 5. Stratum 6. Magma chamber) [[:File:Plinian Eruption-numbers.svg|Click for larger version]].
Pillow lava on the ocean floor near Hawaii
Izalco volcano, the youngest volcano in El Salvador. Izalco erupted almost continuously from 1770 (when it formed) to 1958, earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific".
21 April 1990 eruptive column from Redoubt Volcano, as viewed to the west from the Kenai Peninsula
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, is a stratovolcano.
Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
Lahar flows from the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, which totally destroyed Armero in Colombia
A forested lava dome in the midst of the Valle Grande, the largest meadow in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, United States
Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai
Shiprock, New Mexico, United States: a volcanic neck in the distance, with a radiating dike on its south side
Pāhoehoe lava flow on Hawaii. The picture shows overflows of a main lava channel.
Diagram of a Surtseyan eruption. (key: 1. Water vapor cloud 2. Compressed ash 3. Crater 4. Water 5. Layers of lava and ash 6. Stratum 7. Magma conduit 8. Magma chamber 9. Dike) [[:File:Surtseyan Eruption-numbers.svg|Click for larger version]].
450 m-high lava fountain at Kilauea
The Stromboli stratovolcano off the coast of Sicily has erupted continuously for thousands of years, giving rise to its nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean"
Diagram of a Submarine eruption. (key: 1. Water vapor cloud 2. Water 3. Stratum 4. Lava flow 5. Magma conduit 6. Magma chamber 7. Dike 8. Pillow lava) [[:File:Submarine Eruption-numbers.svg|Click to enlarge]].
Lava can easily destroy entire towns. This picture shows one of over 100 houses destroyed by the lava flow in Kalapana, Hawaii, United States, in 1990.
Columnar-jointed basalt lava erupted from a volcano, South Penghu Marine National Park in Taiwan
A diagram of a Subglacial eruption. (key: 1. Water vapor cloud 2. Crater lake 3. Ice 4. Layers of lava and ash 5. Stratum 6. Pillow lava 7. Magma conduit 8. Magma chamber 9. Dike) [[:File:Subglacial Eruption-numbers.svg|Click for larger version]].
Light-microscope image of tuff as seen in thin section (long dimension is several mm): The curved shapes of altered glass shards (ash fragments) are well preserved, although the glass is partly altered. The shapes were formed around bubbles of expanding, water-rich gas.
Herðubreið, a tuya in Iceland
Fresco with Mount Vesuvius behind Bacchus and Agathodaemon, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary
Diagram of a phreatic eruption. (key: 1. Water vapor cloud 2. Magma conduit 3. Layers of lava and ash 4. Stratum 5. Water table 6. Explosion 7. Magma chamber)
Narcondam Island, India, is classified as a dormant volcano by the Geological Survey of India
Pyroclastic flows at Mayon Volcano, Philippines, 1984
Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska, in September 2006 after being thought extinct for over 10,000 years
The lava spine that developed after the 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée
Mount Rinjani eruption in 1994, in Lombok, Indonesia
Mount Lamington following the devastating 1951 eruption
Shiprock in New Mexico, US
Surtsey, erupting 13 days after breaching the water. A tuff ring surrounds the vent.
Capulin Volcano National Monument in New Mexico, US
The fissure formed by the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, an example of a fracture zone eruption
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on Kamchatka Peninsula, Far Eastern Russia
Schematic of volcano injection of aerosols and gases
Solar radiation graph 1958–2008, showing how the radiation is reduced after major volcanic eruptions
Sulfur dioxide concentration over the Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands, during an eruption in October 2005
Comparison of major United States supereruptions (VEI 7 and 8) with major historical volcanic eruptions in the 19th and 20th century. From left to right: Yellowstone 2.1 Ma, Yellowstone 1.3 Ma, Long Valley 6.26 Ma, Yellowstone 0.64 Ma . 19th century eruptions: Tambora 1815, Krakatoa 1883. 20th century eruptions: Novarupta 1912, St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991.
The Tvashtar volcano erupts a plume 330 km (205 mi) above the surface of Jupiter's moon Io.
Olympus Mons (Latin, "Mount Olympus"), located on the planet Mars, is the tallest known mountain in the Solar System.

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

- Volcano

Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.

- Types of volcanic eruptions

Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a fracture in the crust, on land or underwater, usually at temperatures from 800 to 1200 C. The volcanic rock resulting from subsequent cooling is also often called lava.

- Lava

Lava viscosity determines the kind of volcanic activity that takes place when the lava is erupted.

- Lava

The material that is expelled in a volcanic eruption can be classified into three types:

- Volcano
10 m lava fountain in Hawaii, United States

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Rhyolitic lava dome of Chaitén Volcano during its 2008–2010 eruption

Lava dome

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Rhyolitic lava dome of Chaitén Volcano during its 2008–2010 eruption
One of the Inyo Craters, an example of a rhyolite dome
Nea Kameni seen from Thera, Santorini
Lava domes in the crater of Mount St. Helens
The bulging cryptodome of Mt. St. Helens on April 27, 1980
Soufrière Hills lava spine before the 1997 eruption
Chao dacite coulée flow-domes (left center), northern Chile, viewed from Landsat 8

In volcanology, a lava dome is a circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.

Around 6% of eruptions on Earth are lava dome forming.

Mayon is shared by eight cities and municipalities of Albay province.


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Mayon is shared by eight cities and municipalities of Albay province.
An old photograph of the Cagsawa ruins with the façade still standing. The church was largely destroyed during the 1814 eruption of Mayon. Only the bell tower exists today.
Mount Mayon erupting on July 21, 1928
The eruption on September 23, 1984
Mayon in satellite image
Mayon with ash explosion at dawn on December 18, 2009
Mayon erupting on December 29, 2009.
Map showing major volcanoes of the Philippines
Mount Mayon in 2013.
Mount Mayon erupting in the early morning of January 23, 2018.
2020 Mayon Volcano Crater Glow
The church tower is what remains of the Cagsawa Church, which was damaged by the 1814 eruption of Mayon. It withstood the damage done by Typhoon Durian (Reming) in 2006.
Mayon as viewed from Sumlang Lake in Daraga in May 2020

The concave profile, a hyperbolic sine curve of the volcano is due to the balance between erosion and eruption, defined by the angle of repose of ash.

At least 85 lava flows have been identified, and consist mainly of 'A'ā augite-hypersthene-andesite, generally fed from the crater.

Nearly 40,000 people were evacuated from the 8 km danger zone on the southeast flank of the volcano.