A report on Volcano and Lava

Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.
10 m lava fountain in Hawaii, United States
Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range in El Salvador. The country is home to 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, including two calderas, one being a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).
Lava flow during a rift eruption at Krafla, Iceland in 1984
Sabancaya volcano erupting, Peru in 2017
Pāhoehoe and ʻaʻā lava flows side by side in Hawaii, September 2007
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006
Toes of a pāhoehoe advance across a road in Kalapana on the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano in Hawaii, United States
An eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before its climactic eruption
Columnar jointing in Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland
Fountain of lava erupting from a volcanic cone in Hawaii, 1983
Lava entering the sea to expand the big island of Hawaii, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Aerial view of the Barren Island, Andaman Islands, India, during an eruption in 1995. It is the only active volcano in South Asia.
Lava enters the Pacific at the Big Island of Hawaii
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries)
Glowing aā flow front advancing over pāhoehoe on the coastal plain of Kilauea in Hawaii, United States
Lakagigar fissure vent in Iceland, the source of the major world climate alteration of 1783–84, has a chain of volcanic cones along its length.
Pāhoehoe lava from Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, United States
Skjaldbreiður, a shield volcano whose name means "broad shield"
Block lava at Fantastic Lava Beds near Cinder Cone in Lassen Volcanic National Park
Izalco volcano, the youngest volcano in El Salvador. Izalco erupted almost continuously from 1770 (when it formed) to 1958, earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific".
Pillow lava on the ocean floor near Hawaii
Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, is a stratovolcano.
Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai
A forested lava dome in the midst of the Valle Grande, the largest meadow in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, United States
Pāhoehoe lava flow on Hawaii. The picture shows overflows of a main lava channel.
Shiprock, New Mexico, United States: a volcanic neck in the distance, with a radiating dike on its south side
The Stromboli stratovolcano off the coast of Sicily has erupted continuously for thousands of years, giving rise to its nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean"
450 m-high lava fountain at Kilauea
Columnar-jointed basalt lava erupted from a volcano, South Penghu Marine National Park in Taiwan
Lava can easily destroy entire towns. This picture shows one of over 100 houses destroyed by the lava flow in Kalapana, Hawaii, United States, in 1990.
Light-microscope image of tuff as seen in thin section (long dimension is several mm): The curved shapes of altered glass shards (ash fragments) are well preserved, although the glass is partly altered. The shapes were formed around bubbles of expanding, water-rich gas.
Fresco with Mount Vesuvius behind Bacchus and Agathodaemon, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary
Narcondam Island, India, is classified as a dormant volcano by the Geological Survey of India
Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska, in September 2006 after being thought extinct for over 10,000 years
Mount Rinjani eruption in 1994, in Lombok, Indonesia
Shiprock in New Mexico, US
Capulin Volcano National Monument in New Mexico, US
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on Kamchatka Peninsula, Far Eastern Russia
Schematic of volcano injection of aerosols and gases
Solar radiation graph 1958–2008, showing how the radiation is reduced after major volcanic eruptions
Sulfur dioxide concentration over the Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands, during an eruption in October 2005
Comparison of major United States supereruptions (VEI 7 and 8) with major historical volcanic eruptions in the 19th and 20th century. From left to right: Yellowstone 2.1 Ma, Yellowstone 1.3 Ma, Long Valley 6.26 Ma, Yellowstone 0.64 Ma . 19th century eruptions: Tambora 1815, Krakatoa 1883. 20th century eruptions: Novarupta 1912, St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991.
The Tvashtar volcano erupts a plume 330 km (205 mi) above the surface of Jupiter's moon Io.
Olympus Mons (Latin, "Mount Olympus"), located on the planet Mars, is the tallest known mountain in the Solar System.

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

- Volcano

Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a fracture in the crust, on land or underwater, usually at temperatures from 800 to 1200 C. The volcanic rock resulting from subsequent cooling is also often called lava.

- Lava
Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.

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Mayon is shared by eight cities and municipalities of Albay province.


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Mayon is shared by eight cities and municipalities of Albay province.
An old photograph of the Cagsawa ruins with the façade still standing. The church was largely destroyed during the 1814 eruption of Mayon. Only the bell tower exists today.
Mount Mayon erupting on July 21, 1928
The eruption on September 23, 1984
Mayon in satellite image
Mayon with ash explosion at dawn on December 18, 2009
Mayon erupting on December 29, 2009.
Map showing major volcanoes of the Philippines
Mount Mayon in 2013.
Mount Mayon erupting in the early morning of January 23, 2018.
2020 Mayon Volcano Crater Glow
The church tower is what remains of the Cagsawa Church, which was damaged by the 1814 eruption of Mayon. It withstood the damage done by Typhoon Durian (Reming) in 2006.
Mayon as viewed from Sumlang Lake in Daraga in May 2020

At least 85 lava flows have been identified, and consist mainly of 'A'ā augite-hypersthene-andesite, generally fed from the crater.

Nearly 40,000 people were evacuated from the 8 km danger zone on the southeast flank of the volcano.

A lahar travels down a river valley in Guatemala near the Santa Maria volcano, 1989


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Violent type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris and water.

Violent type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris and water.

A lahar travels down a river valley in Guatemala near the Santa Maria volcano, 1989
Excavated 9th century Sambisari Hindu temple near Yogyakarta in Java, Indonesia. The temple was buried 6.5 metres under the lahar volcanic debris accumulated from centuries of Mount Merapi eruptions.
Mudline left behind on trees on the banks of the Muddy River after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens showing the height of the lahar
The aftermath of a lahar from the 1982 eruption of Galunggung, Indonesia
The lahar from the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz that wiped out the town of Armero in Colombia
A before-and-after photograph of a river valley filled in by lahars from Mount Pinatubo

The material flows down from a volcano, typically along a river valley.

Snow and glaciers can be melted by lava or pyroclastic surges during an eruption.


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Obsidian talus at Obsidian Dome, California
Polished snowflake obsidian, formed through the inclusion of cristobalite crystals
Glass Mountain, a large obsidian flow at Medicine Lake Volcano in California
Obsidian arrowhead
Obsidian tools from Tilkitepe, Turkey, 5th millennium BC. Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
Obsidian worked into plates and other wares by Victor Lopez Pelcastre of Nopalillo, Epazoyucan, Hidalgo. On display at the Museo de Arte Popular, Mexico City.
Raw obsidian and obsidian blades from the Mayan site of Takalik Abaj
Obsidian imported from Milos, found in Minoan Crete.
Pig carved in snowflake obsidian, 10 centimeters (4 in) long. The markings are spherulites.

Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed when lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth.

Parícutin in 1997


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Parícutin in 1997
Parícutin from Las Cabañas
View of the volcano from the town of Angahuan
1943 eruption at night
Cinder cone in 1943
Basaltic andesite lava rock sample from Parícutin, collected from a lava flow, erupted in October 1951, at the base of the volcano's "East Cascade"
San Juan Parangaricutiro Church

Parícutin (or Volcán de Parícutin, also accented Paricutín) is a cinder cone volcano located in the Mexican state of Michoacán, near the city of Uruapan and about 322 km west of Mexico City.

By 1952, the eruption had left a 424 meter cone and significantly damaged an area of more than 233 km2 with the ejection of stone, volcanic ash and lava.

Mount Tambora and its surroundings as seen from space

Mount Tambora

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Active stratovolcano in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

Active stratovolcano in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

Mount Tambora and its surroundings as seen from space
View of Mount Rinjani from Mount Tambora. Viewing distance is 165 km.
Plate boundaries of Indonesia, with the location of Mount Tambora to the lower right of "11"
Estimated depth of volcanic ashfall during the 1815 eruption—the outermost region (1 cm) reached Borneo and the Sulawesi islands
Sulfate concentration in ice core from Central Greenland, dated by counting oxygen isotope seasonal variations. There is an unknown eruption around the 1810s.
Size comparison of Mount Tambora ("Pompeii of the East") and Mount Vesuvius ("Pompeii")
The floor of the caldera of Mount Tambora, looking north
Tephra layers near the caldera (left) and summit (background) of Mount Tambora
An infrared image of Mount Tambora (north is on the left)

The magma chamber under Tambora had been drained by previous eruptions and underwent several centuries of dormancy as it refilled.

Since the 1815 eruption, the lowermost portion contains deposits of interlayered sequences of lava and pyroclastic materials.