Lava dome

lava domesdomecryptodomedomesvolcanic domeplug domedome volcanocouleeLava couleerhyolite dome
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.wikipedia
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Volcano

volcanicvolcanoesvolcanic igneous activity
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.
Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have landscape features such as massive plateaus.

Chaitén (volcano)

Chaitén VolcanoChaiténChaiten
The geochemistry of lava domes can vary from basalt (e.g. Semeru, 1946) to rhyolite (e.g. Chaiten, 2010) although the majority are of intermediate composition (such as Santiaguito, dacite-andesite, present day) The characteristic dome shape is attributed to high viscosity that prevents the lava from flowing very far.
Before the current eruption, it was mostly filled by a rhyolite obsidian lava dome that reached a height of 962 m, partly devoid of vegetation.

Mount Unzen

UnzenMt. UnzenUnzen Volcano
Domes may reach heights of several hundred meters, and can grow slowly and steadily for months (e.g. Unzen volcano), years (e.g. Soufrière Hills volcano), or even centuries (e.g. Mount Merapi volcano).
In 1792, the collapse of one of its several lava domes triggered a megatsunami that killed 14,524 people in Japan's worst volcanic-related disaster.

Santa María (volcano)

Santa MariaSantiaguitoSanta María
The geochemistry of lava domes can vary from basalt (e.g. Semeru, 1946) to rhyolite (e.g. Chaiten, 2010) although the majority are of intermediate composition (such as Santiaguito, dacite-andesite, present day) The characteristic dome shape is attributed to high viscosity that prevents the lava from flowing very far.
New eruptions began in 1922, with the extrusion of a lava dome complex in the crater left by the 1902 eruption.

Soufrière Hills Volcano

Soufrière HillsSoufriere Hills volcanoSoufriere Hills
Domes may reach heights of several hundred meters, and can grow slowly and steadily for months (e.g. Unzen volcano), years (e.g. Soufrière Hills volcano), or even centuries (e.g. Mount Merapi volcano).
The Soufrière Hills volcano is an active, complex stratovolcano with many lava domes forming its summit on the Caribbean island of Montserrat.

Mount Merapi

MerapiGunung Merapimassive eruption of Mount Merapi
Domes may reach heights of several hundred meters, and can grow slowly and steadily for months (e.g. Unzen volcano), years (e.g. Soufrière Hills volcano), or even centuries (e.g. Mount Merapi volcano).
Since then, eruptions have become more explosive, with viscous andesitic lavas often generating lava domes.

Extrusive rock

extrusiveextrusionextruded
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.
Lava domes are formed by high viscosity lava that piles up, forming a dome shape.

Ciomadul

CiomatuCiomatu Mare
Ciomadul consists of several lava domes with two embedded explosion craters known as Mohos and St. Ana, the latter of which contains a crater lake, Lake Sfânta Ana.

Lava spine

Spinesvolcanic spinevolcanic spires
Spines and lava flows are common extrusive products of lava domes.
A lava spine is a vertically growing monolith of viscous lava that is slowly forced from a volcanic vent, such as those growing on a lava dome (Bates & Jackson, 1987).

Lava

lava flowlava flowspahoehoe
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano. The geochemistry of lava domes can vary from basalt (e.g. Semeru, 1946) to rhyolite (e.g. Chaiten, 2010) although the majority are of intermediate composition (such as Santiaguito, dacite-andesite, present day) The characteristic dome shape is attributed to high viscosity that prevents the lava from flowing very far. Spines and lava flows are common extrusive products of lava domes.
Felsic or silicic lavas such as rhyolite and dacite typically form lava spines, lava domes or "coulees" (which are thick, short lava flows) and are associated with pyroclastic (fragmental) deposits.

1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

1980 eruptioneruption of Mount St. Helens1980 Mount St. Helens eruption
One example of a cryptodome was in the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, where the explosive eruption began after a landslide caused the side of the volcano to fall, leading to explosive decompression of the subterranean cryptodome.
Because the intruding magma remained below ground and was not directly visible, it was called a cryptodome, in contrast to a true lava dome exposed at the surface.

Puyehue-Cordón Caulle

Cordón CaullePuyehue VolcanoPuyehue
Cinder cones, lava domes, calderas and craters can be found in the area apart from the widest variety of volcanic rocks in all the Southern Zone, for example both primitive basalts and rhyolites.

Block and ash flow

block-and-ash avalanchesblock-and-ash flows
Gravitational collapse of a lava dome can produce a block and ash flow.
A block and ash flow or block-and-ash flow is a flowing mixture of volcanic ash and large (>26 cm) angular blocks commonly formed as result of a gravitational collapse of a lava dome or lava flow.

Pyroclastic flow

pyroclastic flowspyroclasticash flow
If part of a lava dome collapses and exposes pressurized magma, pyroclastic flows can be produced.

Lassen Peak

Mount LassenMt. LassenMt Lassen
A lava dome, Lassen Peak has a volume of 0.6 cumi making it the largest lava dome on Earth.

Llullaillaco

Llullaillaco volcanoChild Mummy Sacrifice
There is another prominent coulée flow on the flank of Llullaillaco volcano, in Argentina, and other examples in the Andes.
The summit of Llullaillaco is formed by a small cone with about four associated lava domes, which reach lengths of 1 - 3 km and have abrupt walls.

Outgassing

outgasoffgassingoutgassed
Lava domes evolve unpredictably, due to non-linear dynamics caused by crystallization and outgassing of the highly viscous lava in the dome's conduit.
Explosive eruptions of volcanoes result from water or other volatiles outgassed from magma being trapped, for example by a lava dome.

Cascade Volcanoes

Cascade Volcanic ArcCascadeCascade Arc
The Cascade Arc includes nearly 20 major volcanoes, among a total of over 4,000 separate volcanic vents including numerous stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and cinder cones, along with a few isolated examples of rarer volcanic forms such as tuyas.

Puy de Dôme

Puy-de-DômePuy de DomePuy de Dôme mountain
Puy de Dôme (, ; Puèi Domat or Puèi de Doma ) is a lava dome and one of the youngest volcanoes in the Chaîne des Puys region of Massif Central in central France.

Stratovolcano

stratovolcanoescomposite volcanostratovolcanic
Lava domes are one of the principal structural features of many stratovolcanoes worldwide.
Also in 1991, Japan's Unzen Volcano, located on the island of Kyushu about 40 km east of Nagasaki, awakened from its 200-year slumber to produce a new lava dome at its summit.

Chaîne des Puys

Chaine des PuysChaine des Puys - Limagne fault tectonic arena
The Chaîne des Puys is a north-south oriented chain of cinder cones, lava domes, and maars in the Massif Central of France.

Cerro Chao

ChaoChao DaciteChao dacite dome complex
The world's largest known dacite flow is the Chao dacite dome complex, a huge coulée flow-dome between two volcanoes in northern Chile.
A lava dome formed above its vent and underwent several collapses, generating collapse scars.

Valles Caldera

Valle Grande, New MexicoJemez CalderaValles Caldera National Preserve
The highest point in the caldera is Redondo Peak, an 11253 ft resurgent lava dome located entirely within the caldera.

Bridge River Vent

400s BC eruption of the Bridge River Ventlarge explosive eruption
This explosive eruption might have been followed by the collapse of a former lava dome based on the existence of a thick cover of welded vitrophyric breccia.

Mount St. Helens

Mount Saint HelensMt. St. HelensMount St Helens
The mountain includes layers of basalt and andesite through which several domes of dacite lava have erupted.