Law

legallawslegal theoryillegalordinanceamendmentlegallyruleslawfulillegality
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.wikipedia
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Decree

royal decreePresidential Decreedecrees
State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).

Constitution

constitutionalconstitutionsconstitutional government
The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein.
A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

Rights

rightRights Ethicspolitical rights
The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.

Codification (law)

codifiedcodificationcodify
A general distinction can be made between (a) civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, and (b) common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.

Criminal law

criminalcriminal casepenal law
Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

Legal history

legal historianhistory of lawhistorian of law
Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology.
Legal history or the history of law is the study of how law has evolved and why it changed.

Law and economics

economic analysis of lawlaweconomic analysis
Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology.
Law and economics or economic analysis of law is the application of economic theory (specifically microeconomic theory) to the analysis of law that began mostly with scholars from the Chicago school of economics.

Law enforcement

law-enforcementenforcementenforce the law
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.

Justice

justequitycivil justice
Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice.
The concept of justice is based on numerous fields, and many differing viewpoints and perspectives including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness.

Sanctions (law)

sanctionspenaltiespenalty
The Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community; a rule or mode of conduct or action that is prescribed or formally recognized as binding by a supreme controlling authority or is made obligatory by a sanction (as an edict, decree, rescript, order, ordinance, statute, resolution, rule, judicial decision, or usage) made, recognized, or enforced by the controlling authority."
Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations.

Politics

politicalpoliticianpolitically
The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.
A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries.

Roman law

RomanRoman civil lawlaw
Roman law was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were highly sophisticated.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c.

Maat

Ma'atMa’at42 Principles of Ma'at
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality.
Maat or Maʽat (Egyptian mꜣꜥt /ˈmuʀʕat/) refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice.

Law of India

Indian lawIndialaw
Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and have historically had independent schools of legal theory and practice.
Laws of India refers to the system of law across the Indian nation.

Chinese law

lawChinese legal systemLaw of China
Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and have historically had independent schools of legal theory and practice.
Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world.

Legal maxim

maximMaximsLatin maxim
Latin legal maxims (called brocards) were compiled for guidance.
A legal maxim is an established principle or proposition of law in Western civilization, and a species of aphorism and general maxim.

Regulation

regulationsregulatorygovernment regulation
State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions.
Regulation in the social, political, psychological, and economic domains can take many forms: legal restrictions promulgated by a government authority, contractual obligations (for example, contracts between insurers and their insureds ), self-regulation in psychology, social regulation (e.g. norms), co-regulation, third-party regulation, certification, accreditation or market regulation.

Municipal law

domestic lawdomestic lawsmunicipal
He said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings.
Municipal law is the national, domestic, or internal law of a sovereign state defined in opposition to international law.

Rule of law

the rule of lawlegal forcerule
Kelsen's major opponent, Carl Schmitt, rejected both positivism and the idea of the rule of law because he did not accept the primacy of abstract normative principles over concrete political positions and decisions.
The rule of law is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as: "The authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes."

Napoleonic Code

Code CivilFrench Civil CodeCode Napoleon
The Napoleonic and German Codes became the most influential.
Before the Napoleonic Code, France did not have a single set of laws; law consisted mainly of local customs, which had sometimes been officially compiled in "custumals" (coutumes), notably the Custom of Paris.

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetorrhetorical
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality.
For example, they argued that cultural practices were a function of convention or nomos rather than blood or birth or phusis.

Religious law

religious observancereligiousChurch law
Historically, religious laws played a significant role even in settling of secular matters, and is still used in some religious communities.
The canon law of the Catholic Church (jus canonicum) is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.

Sociology of law

Sociological jurisprudencelegal sociologylaw and society
Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology.
Some see sociology of law as belonging "necessarily" to the field of sociology, but others tend to consider it a field of research caught up between the disciplines of law and sociology.

Public law

publicUnited States public lawP.L.
Modern scholars argue that the significance of this distinction has progressively declined; the numerous legal transplants, typical of modern law, result in the sharing by modern legal systems of many features traditionally considered typical of either common law or civil law The term "civil law" referring to a legal system should not be confused with "civil law" as a group of legal subjects distinct from criminal or public law.
Public law is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the government, and those relationships between individuals which are of direct concern to society.

Carl Schmitt

Politische TheologieSchmidt, CarlSchmitt
Kelsen's major opponent, Carl Schmitt, rejected both positivism and the idea of the rule of law because he did not accept the primacy of abstract normative principles over concrete political positions and decisions.
He studied law at Berlin, Munich and Strasbourg and took his graduation and state examinations in then-German Strasbourg during 1915.