Lawsuit

litigationsuedcivil suitlawsuitscivil actionsuitcivil lawsuitcivil courtsuelitigant
A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil court of law.wikipedia
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Court order

orderorderscourt ruling
If the plaintiff is successful, judgment is in the plaintiff's favor, and a variety of court orders may be issued to enforce a right, award damages, or impose a temporary or permanent injunction to prevent an act or compel an act.
A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties to a hearing, a trial, an appeal or other court proceedings.

Declaratory judgment

declaratory reliefdeclaratorydeclaratory judgement
A declaratory judgment may be issued to prevent future legal disputes.
A declaratory judgment, also called a declaration, is the legal determination of a court that resolves legal uncertainty for the litigants.

Legal case

casecourt casecases
A declaratory judgment may be issued to prevent future legal disputes.
A civil case, more commonly known as a lawsuit or controversy, begins when a plaintiff files most a document called a complaint with a court, informing the court of the wrong that the plaintiff has allegedly suffered because of the defendant, and requesting a remedy.

Legal person

legal personalitylegal entitybody corporate
A lawsuit may involve dispute resolution of private law issues between individuals, business entities or non-profit organizations.
They may sue and be sued, enter contracts, incur debt, and own property.

Dispute resolution

resolution of disputesdisputesinternational dispute resolution
A lawsuit may involve dispute resolution of private law issues between individuals, business entities or non-profit organizations.

Defendant

defendantscriminal defendantco-defendant
The term "lawsuit" is used in reference to a civil action brought in a court of law in which a plaintiff, a party who claims to have incurred loss as a result of a defendant's actions, demands a legal or equitable remedy.
In a civil lawsuit, a defendant (or a respondent) is also the accused party, although not of an offense, but of a civil wrong (a tort or a breach of contract, for instance).

Civil procedure

civilCode of Civil ProcedureCivil procedure law
Rules of criminal or civil procedure govern the conduct of a lawsuit in the common law adversarial system of dispute resolution.
Civil actions, on the other hand, are started by private individuals, companies or organizations, for their own benefit.

Legal remedy

remedyremedieslegal remedies
The term "lawsuit" is used in reference to a civil action brought in a court of law in which a plaintiff, a party who claims to have incurred loss as a result of a defendant's actions, demands a legal or equitable remedy.
Another type of remedy available in these systems is declaratory relief, where a court determines the rights of the parties to an action without awarding damages or ordering equitable relief.

Common law

common-lawcourts of common lawcommon
Rules of criminal or civil procedure govern the conduct of a lawsuit in the common law adversarial system of dispute resolution.
The common law, as applied in civil cases (as distinct from criminal cases), was devised as a means of compensating someone for wrongful acts known as torts, including both intentional torts and torts caused by negligence, and as developing the body of law recognizing and regulating contracts.

Demurrer

failure to state a claimdemurreddemur
Instead of filing an answer within the time specified in the summons, the defendant can choose to dispute the validity of the complaint by filing a demurrer (in the handful of jurisdictions where that is still allowed) or one or more "pre-answer motions," such as a motion to dismiss.
A demurrer is a pleading in a lawsuit that objects to or challenges a pleading filed by an opposing party.

Pleading

pleadpleadingspleaded
Usually the pleadings are drafted by a lawyer, but in many courts persons can file papers and represent themselves, which is called appearing pro se.
In law as practiced in countries that follow the English models, a pleading is a formal written statement of a party's claims or defenses to another party's claims in a civil action.

Standing (law)

standinglegal standinglocus standi
It is also possible for one state to apply the law of another in cases where additionally it may not be clear which level (or location) of court actually has jurisdiction over the claim or personal jurisdiction over the defendant, or whether the plaintiff has standing to participate in a lawsuit.
Frequently a litigant wishes to bring a civil action for a declaratory judgment against a public body or official.

Discovery (law)

discoverydisclosurelegal discovery
The early stages of the lawsuit may involve initial disclosures of evidence by each party and discovery, which is the structured exchange of evidence and statements between the parties.
Discovery, in the law of common law jurisdictions, is a pre-trial procedure in a lawsuit in which each party, through the law of civil procedure, can obtain evidence from the other party or parties by means of discovery devices such as interrogatories, requests for production of documents, requests for admissions and depositions.

Criminal procedure

criminal trialcriminal proceedingsinvestigation
The term litigation may also refer to a Criminal procedure.
In English law the prosecution must prove the guilt of a criminal “beyond reasonable doubt”; but the plaintiff in a civil action is required to prove his case “on the balance of probabilities”.

Jurisdiction

jurisdictionsjurisdictionallegal jurisdiction
It is also possible for one state to apply the law of another in cases where additionally it may not be clear which level (or location) of court actually has jurisdiction over the claim or personal jurisdiction over the defendant, or whether the plaintiff has standing to participate in a lawsuit.
The Hague Conference and other international bodies have made recommendations on jurisdictional matters, but litigants with the encouragement of lawyers on a contingent fee continue to shop for forums.

Deposition (law)

depositiondepositionsdeposed
The early stages of the lawsuit may involve initial disclosures of evidence by each party and discovery, which is the structured exchange of evidence and statements between the parties.
Depositions are commonly used in litigation in the United States and Canada.

Lawyer

attorneylawyersattorneys
Usually the pleadings are drafted by a lawyer, but in many courts persons can file papers and represent themselves, which is called appearing pro se.
In many countries, only a properly licensed lawyer may provide legal advice to clients for good consideration, even if no lawsuit is contemplated or is in progress.

Affirmative defense

affirmative defensesdefenceaffirmative defence
Generally speaking, the plaintiff has the burden of proof in making his claims, however, the defendant may have the burden of proof on other issues, such as affirmative defenses.
An affirmative defense to a civil lawsuit or criminal charge is a fact or set of facts other than those alleged by the plaintiff or prosecutor which, if proven by the defendant, defeats or mitigates the legal consequences of the defendant's otherwise unlawful conduct.

Injunction

temporary restraining orderinjunctive reliefenjoin
If the plaintiff is successful, judgment is in the plaintiff's favor, and a variety of court orders may be issued to enforce a right, award damages, or impose a temporary or permanent injunction to prevent an act or compel an act.

Voluntary dismissal

voluntarily dismissednotice of voluntary dismissal
If the case settles, the parties might choose to enter into a stipulated judgment with the settlement agreement attached, or the plaintiff may simply file a voluntary dismissal, so that the settlement agreement is never entered into the court record.
Voluntary dismissal is termination of a lawsuit by voluntary request of the plaintiff (the party who originally filed the lawsuit).

Service of process

process serverservedserve
The clerk of a court signs or stamps the court seal upon a summons or citation, which is then served by the plaintiff upon the defendant, together with a copy of the complaint.
In most lawsuits in the United States, personal service is required to prove service.

Res judicata

collateral attackclaim preclusionclaim preclusive
When the lawsuit is finally resolved, or the allotted time to appeal has expired, the matter is res judicata, meaning the plaintiff may not bring another action based on the same claim again.
Res judicata (RJ) or res iudicata, also known as claim preclusion, is the Latin term for "a matter [already] judged" and refers to either of two concepts: in both civil law and common law legal systems, a case in which there has been a final judgment and is no longer subject to appeal; and the legal doctrine meant to bar (or preclude) continued litigation of a case on same issues between the same parties.

Equity (law)

equityequitablefairness
A complaint should explicitly state that one or more plaintiffs seek(s) damages or equitable relief from one or more stated defendants, and also should state the relevant factual allegations supporting the legal claims brought by the plaintiff(s).
Nonetheless, in the event of situations not covered under the 1963 Act, the courts in India continue to exercise their inherent powers in terms of Section 151 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, which applies to all civil courts in India.

Jury

juriesjurorjurors
At the close of discovery, the parties may either pick a jury and then have a trial by jury or the case may proceed as a bench trial.
The use of a jury is optional for civil trials in any Australian state.

Settlement (litigation)

settlementsettledout-of-court settlement
Legal financing companies can provide a cash advance to litigants in return for a share of the ultimate settlement or award.
In law, a settlement is a resolution between disputing parties about a legal case, reached either before or after court action begins.