Lawyer

attorneylawyersattorneystrial lawyerlegal counseltrial attorneylawlegal professioncounsellegal practitioner
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, solicitor, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.wikipedia
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Barrister

barristersbarrister-at-lawbar
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, solicitor, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.

Attorney at law

attorneyattorney-at-lawattorneys
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, solicitor, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Attorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday speech to attorney, is the preferred term for a practising lawyer in certain jurisdictions, including South Africa (for certain lawyers), Sri Lanka, and the United States.

Solicitor

solicitorsSolicitor GeneralSolicitor-General
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, solicitor, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
A solicitor is a legal practitioner who traditionally deals with most of the legal matters in some jurisdictions.

Counsel

legal counseladvisorSpecial Counsel
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, solicitor, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
It is a title often used interchangeably with the title of lawyer.

Patent attorney

patent agentpatent lawyerpatent
In the United States, the term generally refers to attorneys who may practice law. It is never used to refer to patent agents or paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law.
A patent attorney is an attorney who has the specialized qualifications necessary for representing clients in obtaining patents and acting in all matters and procedures relating to patent law and practice, such as filing an opposition.

Attorney

A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, solicitor, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Lawyer, as a general synonym

Attorneys in the United States

attorneylawyerattorneys
In the United States, the term generally refers to attorneys who may practice law. It is never used to refer to patent agents or paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law.
Alternative terms include counselor (or counsellor-at-law) and lawyer. As of April 2011, there were 1,225,452 licensed attorneys in the United States.

Call to the bar

called to the barcalledcalled to Bar
In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates (or avocats in French) often call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, and all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practicing in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
England and Wales and some other jurisdictions distinguish two types of lawyers, who are regulated by different bodies, with separate training, examinations, regulation and traditions:

Jurist

legal scholarjurisconsultjurists
These countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider; rather, their legal professions consist of a large number of different kinds of law-trained persons, known as jurists, some of whom are advocates who are licensed to practice in the courts.
Thus a jurist, someone who studies, analyses and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms.

Practice of law

private practicelaw practicepractice
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, solicitor, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. In the United States, the term generally refers to attorneys who may practice law. It is never used to refer to patent agents or paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law.
In its most general sense, the practice of law involves giving legal advice to clients, drafting legal documents for clients, and representing clients in legal negotiations and court proceedings such as lawsuits, and is applied to the professional services of a lawyer or attorney at law, barrister, solicitor, or civil law notary.

Maître

a French-language title
In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates (or avocats in French) often call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, and all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practicing in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
Maître (spelled Maitre according to post-1990 spelling rules) is a commonly used honorific for lawyers and notaries in France, Belgium, Switzerland and French-speaking parts of Canada.

Criminal defense lawyer

defense attorneycriminal defense attorneycriminal lawyer
Criminal defense lawyers specialize in the defense of those charged with any crimes.
A criminal defense lawyer is a lawyer (mostly barristers) specializing in the defense of individuals and companies charged with criminal activity.

Master of Laws

LL.M.LLMLL.M
Law students in those countries pursue a Master or Bachelor of Laws degree.
To become a lawyer and practice law in most states and countries, a person must first obtain a law degree.

Law school

lawlaw schoolsSchool of Law
In other countries, particularly the UK and U.S.A., law is primarily taught at law schools.
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.

Bachelor of Laws

LL.B.LLBLL.B
Law students in those countries pursue a Master or Bachelor of Laws degree.
The Bachelor of Laws (Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B. or B.L.) is an undergraduate degree in law (or a first professional degree in law, depending on jurisdiction) originating in England and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictions—except the United States and Canada—as the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer.

Small claims court

small claimssmall civil claimssmall claims actions
It is common for litigants to appear unrepresented before certain courts like small claims courts; indeed, many such courts do not allow lawyers to speak for their clients, in an effort to save money for all participants in a small case.
A usual guiding principle in these courts is that individuals ought to be able to conduct their own cases and represent themselves without a lawyer.

Mortgage law

mortgagemortgagesmortgagee
Conveyancing is the drafting of the documents necessary for the transfer of real property, such as deeds and mortgages.
In the English-speaking world this means either a general legal practitioner, i.e., an attorney or solicitor, or in jurisdictions influenced by English law, including South Africa, a (licensed) conveyancer.

Bar examination

bar exambarbar exams
However, in a large number of countries, a law student must pass a bar examination (or a series of such examinations) before receiving a license to practice.
A bar examination is an examination administered by a jurisdiction's bar association a lawyer needs to pass before being admitted to the bar of that jurisdiction.

Real estate broker

real estate agentrealtorreal estate agents
In others, the use of a lawyer is optional and banks, title companies, or realtors may be used instead.
It is important to note that in some states, lawyers handle real estate sales for compensation without being licensed as brokers or agents.

Advocate

advocatesAdvocates Training Programmeadvocacy
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, solicitor, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
In English, the Scandinavian title of advokat is interchangeably also translated as barrister, lawyer or attorney-at-law.

Scrivener

notaryscribecopier
In some countries, like Japan, a scrivener or clerk may fill out court forms and draft simple papers for lay persons who cannot afford or do not need attorneys, and advise them on how to manage and argue their own cases.
Scriveners later developed into public servants, accountants, lawyers and petition writers.

Country lawyer

country lawyers
In a handful of U.S. states, one may become an attorney (a so-called country lawyer) by simply "reading law" and passing the bar examination, without having to attend law school first (although very few people actually become lawyers that way).
In the United States, the term country lawyer or county-seat lawyer may be applied to identify an attorney living and practicing primarily in a rural area or town, or an attorney pursuing a legal practice that displays certain (potentially idealized) hallmarks of rural or small-town legal practice.

Bar association

barthe barintegrated
Other jurisdictions, by statute, tradition, or court order, have granted such powers to a professional association which all lawyers must belong to. In the U.S., such associations are known as mandatory, integrated, or unified bar associations.
A bar association is a professional association of lawyers.

Law society

law societiesAustralian Law SocietyCanadian Bar
In the Commonwealth of Nations, similar organizations are known as Inns of Court, bar councils or law societies.
A law society is an association of lawyers with a regulatory role that included the right to supervise the training, qualifications and conduct of lawyers.

Professional responsibility

responsibilitiesProfessional Practiceprofessional responsibilities
Although most courts have special pro hac vice rules for such occasions, the lawyer will still have to deal with a different set of professional responsibility rules, as well as the possibility of other differences in substantive and procedural law.
Professional responsibility is the area of legal practice that encompasses the duties of attorneys to act in a professional manner, obey the law, avoid conflicts of interest, and put the interests of clients ahead of their own interests.