Laxative

purgativelaxativesstimulant laxativestool softenerosmotic laxativepurgativesaperientEx-Laxbulking agenthyperosmotic effect
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.wikipedia
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Enema

enemasclysterproctoclysis
Certain stimulant, lubricant and saline laxatives are used to evacuate the colon for rectal and bowel examinations, and may be supplemented by enemas under certain circumstances.
As bowel stimulants, enemas are employed for the same purposes as orally administered laxatives: To relieve constipation; To treat fecal impaction; To empty the colon prior to a medical procedure such as a colonoscopy.

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
They are used to treat and prevent constipation.
If this is not effective, laxatives of the bulk forming agent, osmotic agent, stool softener, or lubricant type may be recommended.

Psyllium

psyllium seed husksIsabagol (Psyllium seed husks)isabgol
Examples: dietary fiber, Metamucil, Citrucel, FiberCon
Although its main use has been as a laxative, it is more appropriately termed a true dietary fiber and as such can help reduce the symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Sufficiently high doses of laxatives may cause diarrhea.
Or it can be caused by osmotic laxatives (which work to alleviate constipation by drawing water into the bowels).

Docusate

dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinatedocusate sodiumColace
Examples: docusate (Colace, Diocto), Gibs-Eze
Docusate, also known as docusate salts or dioctyl sulfosuccinate, is a laxative of the stool softener type used to treat constipation.

Rectum

rectalrectallyrectal ampulla
Certain stimulant, lubricant and saline laxatives are used to evacuate the colon for rectal and bowel examinations, and may be supplemented by enemas under certain circumstances.
Manual evacuation is the use of a gloved finger to evacuate faeces from the rectum, and, after the application of stool softeners, is utilised in acute constipation.

Polycarbophil calcium

polycarbophilFiberCon
Examples: dietary fiber, Metamucil, Citrucel, FiberCon
Bulk laxatives absorb liquid in the intestines and swell to form a soft bulky stool.

Prune

prunesDried Plumprune juice
Fruits, such as bananas, though this depends on their ripeness, kiwifruits, prunes, apples (with skin), pears (with skin), and raspberries
Prunes contain dietary fiber (about 7% of weight; table) which may provide laxative effects,.

Lactulose

lactulose intolerance
Examples: glycerin suppositories (Hallens), sorbitol, lactulose, and PEG (Colyte, MiraLax)
It is classified as an osmotic laxative.

Macrogol

PEG
Examples: glycerin suppositories (Hallens), sorbitol, lactulose, and PEG (Colyte, MiraLax)
Macrogols are commonly used as laxatives, i.e. to treat constipation, in both children and adults.

Mineral oil

lube oiloilpetroleum oil
Example: mineral oil
Mineral oil is used as a laxative to alleviate constipation by retaining water in stool and the intestines.

Sodium sulfate

sodium sulphateGlauber's saltsalt cake
Solutions of polyethylene glycol and electrolytes (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, and sometimes sodium sulfate) are used for whole bowel irrigation, a process designed to prepare the bowel for surgery or colonoscopy and to treat certain types of poisoning.
He named it sal mirabilis (miraculous salt), because of its medicinal properties: the crystals were used as a general purpose laxative, until more sophisticated alternatives came about in the 1900s.

Magnesium hydroxide

milk of magnesiaMg(OH) 2 magnesia
Examples: sodium phosphate (and variants), magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), and magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt)
Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids, such as milk of magnesia, as well as laxatives.

Polyethylene glycol

PEGpolyethylene oxidepolyoxyethylene
Solutions of polyethylene glycol and electrolytes (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, and sometimes sodium sulfate) are used for whole bowel irrigation, a process designed to prepare the bowel for surgery or colonoscopy and to treat certain types of poisoning.
They are used commercially in numerous applications, including as surfactants, in foods, in cosmetics, in pharmaceutics, in biomedicine, as dispersing agents, as solvents, in ointments, in suppository bases, as tablet excipients, and as laxatives.

Over-the-counter drug

over-the-counterover the counterOTC
Bulk-forming laxatives, also known as roughage, are substances, such as fiber in food and hydrophilic agents in over-the-counter drugs, that add bulk and water to stools so that they can pass more easily through the intestines (lower part of the digestive tract).
2) General Sales List (GSL), available off the shelf with no pharmacy training required to sell (so they can be sold anywhere, such as supermarkets). In general, they are considered safe for most people when taken correctly. Examples of these include 16-packs (or less) of painkillers such as paracetamol and ibuprofen as well as a host of other safe medications such as small pack sizes of antiallergy tablets, laxative medication, and skin creams.

Sorbitol

D -glucitolglucitolsorbital
Examples: glycerin suppositories (Hallens), sorbitol, lactulose, and PEG (Colyte, MiraLax)
Sorbitol can be used as a laxative when taken orally or as an enema.

Bisacodyl

Bisac-EvacCarter's Liver PillsDulcolax
Examples: senna, bisacodyl
Bisacodyl (INN) is an organic compound that is used as a stimulant laxative drug.

Rhamnus purshiana

cascaracascara buckthornFrangula purshiana
The dried bark of cascara has been used for centuries as a laxative, first by American Indians in the Pacific Northwest, and then by White settlers.

Senna glycoside

sennasenna glycosidessennosides
Examples: senna, bisacodyl
Senna derivatives are a type of stimulant laxative and are of the anthraquinone type.

Colonoscopy

colonoscopiescolonoscopecolonoscopic
Solutions of polyethylene glycol and electrolytes (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, and sometimes sodium sulfate) are used for whole bowel irrigation, a process designed to prepare the bowel for surgery or colonoscopy and to treat certain types of poisoning.
Dehydration caused by the laxatives that are usually administered during the bowel preparation for colonoscopy also may occur.

Sodium bicarbonate

baking sodabicarbonate of sodaNaHCO 3
Solutions of polyethylene glycol and electrolytes (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, and sometimes sodium sulfate) are used for whole bowel irrigation, a process designed to prepare the bowel for surgery or colonoscopy and to treat certain types of poisoning.
A mixture of sodium carbonate and polyethylene glycol such as PegLyte, dissolved in water and taken orally, is an effective gastrointestinal lavage preparation and laxative prior to gastrointestinal surgery, gastroscopy, etc.

Magnesium sulfate

magnesium sulphateepsom saltepsom salts
Examples: sodium phosphate (and variants), magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), and magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt)
Oral magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a saline laxative or osmotic purgative.

Magnesium citrate

citrate
Examples: sodium phosphate (and variants), magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), and magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt)
Magnesium citrate is used medicinally as a saline laxative and to completely empty the bowel prior to a major surgery or colonoscopy.

Aloin

barbaloinaloin Aaloins
It is used as a stimulant-laxative, treating constipation by inducing bowel movements.

Castor oil

castorcastor bean oilcastor-oil
Castor oil is a glyceride that is hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase to ricinoleic acid, which produces laxative action by an unknown mechanism.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has categorized castor oil as "generally recognized as safe and effective" (GRASE) for over-the-counter use as a laxative with its major site of action the small intestine where it is digested into ricinoleic acid.