Le Rhône

Le RhoneLe Rhone 9CLe Rhône 9RLe Rhône 9Le Rhône 9CLe Rhone 9Le Rhône 18Ele Rhône MLe Rhône Type 7B2Le Rhône Type 9R
Le Rhône was the name given to a series of popular rotary aircraft engines produced in France by Société des Moteurs Le Rhône and the successor company of Gnome et Rhône.wikipedia
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Rotary engine

rotaryrotary enginesrotaries
Le Rhône was the name given to a series of popular rotary aircraft engines produced in France by Société des Moteurs Le Rhône and the successor company of Gnome et Rhône.
Rotary engines produced by the Clerget and Le Rhône companies used conventional pushrod-operated valves in the cylinder head, but used the same principle of drawing the fuel mixture through the crankshaft, with the Le Rhônes having prominent copper intake tubes running from the crankcase to the top of each cylinder to admit the intake charge.

Le Rhône 9J

Le Rhone 9JLe Rhône 9JaOberursel UR.II
80 hp le Rhône engines were made under license in the United States by Union Switch and Signal of Pennsylvania, and the 110 hp Oberursel Ur.II rotary engine used by Germany in World War I, in such famous fighters such as the Fokker Dr.I triplane, was a close copy of the 110 hp le Rhône 9J version.
In common with other Le Rhône series engines, the 9J featured highly visible copper induction pipes and used a single push-pull rod to operate its two overhead valves.

Daimler Company

DaimlerThe Daimler Company LimitedDaimlers
As well as production by Société des Moteurs Gnome et Rhône, which had bought out Société des Moteurs Le Rhône in 1914, the Le Rhône was produced in Germany (by Motorenfabrik Oberursel), Austria, the United Kingdom (by Daimler), Russian Empire and Sweden.
Daimler later built the RAF 1 and 1a air-cooled V8s, the RAF 4 and 4a V12s, the Le Rhone rotary, and the Bentley BR2 rotary alongside other manufacturers.

Adamoli-Cattani fighter

The Adamoli-Cattani was intended to be the smallest practical biplane around the most powerful engine available to them, a 149 kW le Rhône M.

Hanriot HD.1

Hanriot HD-1Hanriot-Dupont 1HD.1
On the power of its 110 hp Le Rhone rotary engine it was not outstandingly fast but it was very manoeuvrable and proved popular with pilots as a safe and pleasant aircraft to fly.

Caudron G.4

Caudron G.IVCaudron G.4 A-2G.4
While the G.4 had a similar pod and boom layout to the G.3, it has two Le Rhône rotary or Anzani 10 radial engines mounted on struts between the wings instead of a single similar engine at the front of the crew nacelle, while wingspan was increased and the tailplane had four rudders instead of two.

Nieuport 24

Nieuport 24bis24Nieuport 24 and 24bis
A Le Rhône rotary engine was fitted in a spun aluminium cowl similar to those used on the late models of the Nieuport 17 and 23.

Mosca-Bystritsky MBbis

Mosca MB 2 bis
Powered by 80 hp Le Rhone 9C or Clerget 7Z engines the MBbis was armed with a single machine gun mounted, either in a fixed forward firing mount firing through the propeller fitted with deflector plates, or in angled or elevated mounts firing outside the propeller disc.

Standard E-1

E-1Standard L 6Standard M-Defense
Built by the Standard Aircraft Corporation, the E-1 was an open-cockpit single-place tractor biplane, powered by an 80 hp (60 kW) Le Rhône or 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome rotary engine.

Clerget aircraft engines

Clerget 9ZClerget 9CClerget
What distinguished the Clerget rotary engine from its rivals (Gnome and Le Rhône) was that the Clerget had normal intake and exhaust valves unlike the Gnome, and the connecting rod arrangement was much simpler than the Le Rhone.

Le Rhône 9C

Thulin ALe Rhône 80 hp
In common with other Le Rhône series engines, the 9C featured copper induction pipes and used a single push-pull rod to operate its two overhead valves.

Gnome et Rhône

GnomeGnome-RhôneGnôme
Le Rhône was the name given to a series of popular rotary aircraft engines produced in France by Société des Moteurs Le Rhône and the successor company of Gnome et Rhône.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
They powered a number of military aircraft types of the First World War.

Aviation museum

Aerospace museumAviationAerospace
Examples of nine-cylinder Le Rhône rotary engines are on public display in aviation museums with several remaining airworthy, powering vintage aircraft types.

Crankshaft

crank shaftcrankcrankshafts
In most respects the Le Rhône engines were typical rotary engines, so that the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit.

Crankcase

blow-bycrank casecrankcase-compression
In most respects the Le Rhône engines were typical rotary engines, so that the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit.

Rocker arm

rockersrockerMID-LIFT
The Le Rhône engines used an unconventional valve actuation system, with a single centrally-pivoting rocker arm moving the exhaust valve and the intake valve.

Motorenfabrik Oberursel

OberurselOberursel Ur.IIIOberursel Ur.II
80 hp le Rhône engines were made under license in the United States by Union Switch and Signal of Pennsylvania, and the 110 hp Oberursel Ur.II rotary engine used by Germany in World War I, in such famous fighters such as the Fokker Dr.I triplane, was a close copy of the 110 hp le Rhône 9J version. As well as production by Société des Moteurs Gnome et Rhône, which had bought out Société des Moteurs Le Rhône in 1914, the Le Rhône was produced in Germany (by Motorenfabrik Oberursel), Austria, the United Kingdom (by Daimler), Russian Empire and Sweden.

Pennsylvania

PACommonwealth of PennsylvaniaPa.
80 hp le Rhône engines were made under license in the United States by Union Switch and Signal of Pennsylvania, and the 110 hp Oberursel Ur.II rotary engine used by Germany in World War I, in such famous fighters such as the Fokker Dr.I triplane, was a close copy of the 110 hp le Rhône 9J version.

Fokker Dr.I

Fokker TriplaneFokker Dr.1Dr.I
80 hp le Rhône engines were made under license in the United States by Union Switch and Signal of Pennsylvania, and the 110 hp Oberursel Ur.II rotary engine used by Germany in World War I, in such famous fighters such as the Fokker Dr.I triplane, was a close copy of the 110 hp le Rhône 9J version.

Castor oil

castorcastor-oilcastor bean oil
However, by July 1918 there was a shortage in Germany of castor oil, a plant-derived lubricant that the rotaries required, as it could not be easily dissolved into the fuel and because it possessed lubrication qualities superior to mineral oils of the day.

Fokker D.VIII

Fokker E.VFokker V.30D.VIII
A new Voltol-based lubricant, derived from mineral oil, was substituted and was blamed for engine failures on German fighters such as the Fokker E.V, which used the Oberursel Ur.II.