Lead

A sample of lead solidified from the molten state
The Holsinger meteorite, the largest piece of the Canyon Diablo meteorite. Uranium–lead dating and lead–lead dating on this meteorite allowed refinement of the age of the Earth to 4.55 billion ± 70 million years.
Flame test: lead colors flame pale blue
Lead(II) oxide
Lead and oxygen in a tetragonal unit cell of lead(II,IV) oxide
Chart of the final part of the s-process, from mercury to polonium. Red lines and circles represent neutron captures; blue arrows represent beta decays; the green arrow represents an alpha decay; cyan arrows represent electron captures.
Lead is a fairly common element in the Earth's crust for its high atomic number (82). Most elements of atomic number greater than 40 are less abundant.
World lead production peaking in the Roman period and the Industrial Revolution.
Ancient Greek lead sling bullets with a winged thunderbolt molded on one side and the inscription "ΔΕΞΑΙ" ("take that" or "catch") on the other side.
Roman lead pipes
Elizabeth I of England was commonly depicted with a whitened face. Lead in face whiteners is thought to have contributed to her death.
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Lead mining in the upper Mississippi River region in the United States in 1865
Promotional poster for Dutch Boy lead paint, United States, 1912
Primary production of lead since 1840
Bricks of lead (alloyed with 4% antimony) are used as radiation shielding.
A 17th-century gold-coated lead sculpture
Lead glass
Lead yellow and red lead
Symptoms of lead poisoning
Kymographic recording of the effect of lead acetate on frog heart experimental set up.
Battery collection site in Dakar, Senegal, where at least 18 children died of lead poisoning in 2008
Radiography of a swan found dead in Condé-sur-l'Escaut (northern France), highlighting lead shot. There are hundreds of lead pellets; a dozen is enough to kill an adult swan within a few days. Such bodies are sources of environmental contamination by lead.

Chemical element with the symbol Pb and atomic number 82.

- Lead
A sample of lead solidified from the molten state

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Galena with minor pyrite

Galena

Natural mineral form of lead sulfide (PbS).

Natural mineral form of lead sulfide (PbS).

Galena with minor pyrite
The rock-salt crystal structure. Each atom has six nearest neighbors, with octahedral geometry.
Galena with baryte and pyrite from Cerro de Pasco, Peru; 5.8 ×
A microscopic picture of Galena
Galena cat's whisker detector

It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver.

Sign on an antique gasoline pump advertising tetraethyllead by the Ethyl Corporation

Tetraethyllead

Sign on an antique gasoline pump advertising tetraethyllead by the Ethyl Corporation

Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula Pb(C2H5)4.

An X ray demonstrating the characteristic finding of lead poisoning in humans—dense metaphyseal lines.

Lead poisoning

An X ray demonstrating the characteristic finding of lead poisoning in humans—dense metaphyseal lines.
Symptoms of lead poisoning
As lead safety standards become more stringent, fewer children in the US are found to have elevated lead levels.
The brains of adults who were exposed to lead as children show decreased volume, especially in the prefrontal cortex, on MRI. Areas of volume loss are shown in color over a template of a normal brain.
Battery recycling workers are at risk for lead exposure. This worker ladles molten lead into billets in a lead-acid battery recovery facility.
A lead warning on a fuel pump. Tetraethyllead, which used to be added to automotive gasoline (and still is added to some aviation gasolines), contributed to soil contamination.
Lead wheel weight eroding on road
Jacketed ammunition (left), bare lead (right)
Tetraethyllead, still used as an additive in some fuels, can be absorbed through the skin.
ALAD enzyme with lead bound
Lead exposure damages cells in the hippocampus, a part of the brain involved in memory. Hippocampi of lead-exposed rats (bottom) show structural damage such as irregular nuclei (IN) and denaturation of myelin (DMS) compared to controls (top).
Basophilic stippling (arrows) of red blood cells in a 53-year-old who had elevated blood lead levels due to drinking repeatedly from glasses decorated with lead paint.
Testing kits are commercially available for detecting lead. These swabs, when wiped on a surface, turn red in the presence of lead.
EDTA, a chelating agent, binds a heavy metal, sequestering it.
Dioscorides noted lead's effect on the mind in the first century AD.
Roman lead water pipes with taps
Turkey vultures, Cathartes aura (shown), and California condors can be poisoned when they eat carcasses of animals shot with lead pellets.

Lead poisoning, also known as plumbism and saturnism, is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.

Lead shot

Shot (pellet)

Lead shot
Shot tower at Clifton Hill, Melbourne, Australia
Selection of post-medieval lead shot
X-ray of lead shot accumulated in the gizzard of a dead swan

Shot is a collective term for small spheres or pellets, often made of lead.

Detail on a pewter fork handle from Norway, showing three scenes: King Olaf II Haraldsson (St. Olaf), his men, and a Viking ship

Pewter

Malleable metal alloy consisting of tin , antimony (approximately 5–10%), copper (2%), bismuth, and sometimes silver.

Malleable metal alloy consisting of tin , antimony (approximately 5–10%), copper (2%), bismuth, and sometimes silver.

Detail on a pewter fork handle from Norway, showing three scenes: King Olaf II Haraldsson (St. Olaf), his men, and a Viking ship
Pewter plate
Pewter vase
alt=An ornate pewter cream pitcher|Pewter cream pitcher c. 1780

Copper and antimony (and in antiquity lead) act as hardeners but lead may be used in lower grades of pewter, imparting a bluish tint.

Neurotoxins can be found in a number of organisms, including some strains of cyanobacteria, that can be found in algal blooms or washed up on shore in a green scum.

Neurotoxin

Neurotoxins are toxins that are destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

Neurotoxins are toxins that are destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

Neurotoxins can be found in a number of organisms, including some strains of cyanobacteria, that can be found in algal blooms or washed up on shore in a green scum.
Illustration of typical multipolar neuron
Astrocytes surrounding capillaries in the brain to form the blood brain barrier
The puffer fish is known for carrying lethal amounts of tetrodotoxin.
Inhibited signaling response resulting from neuron exposure to tetrodotoxin.
Mechanism of Botulinum Toxin neurotoxicity
Anatoxin-a
Caramboxin
An Astrocyte, a cell notable for maintaining the blood brain barrier
Lead pipes and solder are common sources of ingested lead.
Male baby exhibiting Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS).

Common examples of neurotoxins include lead, ethanol (drinking alcohol), glutamate, nitric oxide, botulinum toxin (e.g. Botox), tetanus toxin, and tetrodotoxin.

The King of Na gold seal, bestowed by Emperor Guangwu of Han to Wana (Yayoi Japan) in 57 AD.

Movable type

System and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual alphanumeric characters or punctuation marks) usually on the medium of paper.

System and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual alphanumeric characters or punctuation marks) usually on the medium of paper.

The King of Na gold seal, bestowed by Emperor Guangwu of Han to Wana (Yayoi Japan) in 57 AD.
The intricate frontispiece of the Diamond Sutra from Tang Dynasty China, the oldest extant woodblock-printed book, AD 868 (British Museum)
Chinese characters are arranged in the shape of buddha on a page remain of Amitayurdhyana Sutra printed in 1103 (Northern Song Dynasty) by ceramic movable type. Found in Baixiang Pagoda, Wenzhou.
A revolving typecase for wooden type in China, from Wang Zhen's book published in 1313
Copperplate printed 5000-cash paper money in year 1215 (Jin Dynasty) with bronze movable type counterfeit markers
Korean movable type from 1377 used for the Jikji
Printed pages of the Jikji
The Printing Revolution in the 15th century: Within several decades around 270 European towns took up movable-type printing.
European output of movable-type printing from Gutenberg to 1800
Editing with movable metal – cca. 1920
A piece of cast metal type, Garamond style long s i ligature. See also: Sort.
A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick
Ceramic type from the collections of University of Reading.

Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony—and these materials remained standard for 550 years.

Dutch Boy Paint logo (front)

Lead paint

Dutch Boy Paint logo (front)
Dutch Boy Paint logo (rear)
Lead paint can crack and form flakes, which then contaminate the surrounding environment.
EPA poster on protecting children from lead poisoning

Lead paint or lead-based paint is paint containing lead.

Zinc, a typical metal, reacting with hydrochloric acid, a typical acid

Amphoterism

Amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid and as a base.

Amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid and as a base.

Zinc, a typical metal, reacting with hydrochloric acid, a typical acid

Many metals (such as zinc, tin, lead, aluminium, and beryllium) form amphoteric oxides or hydroxides.

Droplet of solidified molten tin

Tin

Chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50.

Chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50.

Droplet of solidified molten tin
Ceremonial giant bronze dirk of the Plougrescant-Ommerschans type, Plougrescant, France, 1500–1300 BC.
Ball-and-stick models of the structure of solid stannous chloride.
Sample of cassiterite, the main ore of tin
World production and price (US exchange) of tin.
World consumption of refined tin by end-use, 2006
A coil of lead-free solder wire
Tin plated metal from a can.
Pewter plate
Artisans working with tin sheets.
A 21st-century reproduction barn lantern made of punched tin.

Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4.