Lead

Pblead orelead miningplumbumPb 2+ lead mineslead minePb(II) 210 PbA heavy metal
Lead is a chemical element with the symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.wikipedia
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Heavy metals

heavy metalheavy elementsheavy element
It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials.
The definitions surveyed in this article encompass up to 96 out of the 118 known chemical elements; only mercury, lead and bismuth meet all of them.

Compounds of lead

Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group.
Compounds of lead exist in two main oxidation states: +2 and +4.

Carbon group

group 1414group IV
Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. The sum of lead's first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, lead's upper neighbor in the carbon group.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).

Galena

argentiferous galenagalenitelead
Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome.
It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver.

Silver

Agsilver orenative silver
Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome.
Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Post-transition metal

other metalPost-transition metalsB metals
Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal.
All proposals include gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, and bismuth.

Lead poisoning

leadlead contaminationlead exposure
In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, and its use has since been phased out of many applications.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.

Amphoterism

amphotericamphiproticampholyte
Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds.
Many metals (such as copper, zinc, tin, lead, aluminium, and beryllium) form amphoteric oxides or hydroxides.

Lead paint

lead-based paintleadpaint
These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding.
Lead paint or lead-based paint is paint containing lead.

Neurotoxin

neurotoxicneurotoxinsneurotoxicity
Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones; it damages the nervous system and interferes with the function of biological enzymes, causing neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems.
Common examples of neurotoxins include lead, ethanol (drinking alcohol), glutamate, nitric oxide, botulinum toxin (e.g. Botox), tetanus toxin, and tetrodotoxin.

Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
The sum of lead's first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, lead's upper neighbor in the carbon group.
Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4.

Ductility

ductilemalleablemalleability
Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point.
Ductility and malleability are not always coextensive – for instance, while gold has high ductility and malleability, lead has low ductility but high malleability; one ounce of gold can be drawn into more than 80 Km of thin gold wire.

Stable nuclide

Observationally Stablestablestable isotope
Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes are endpoints of major nuclear decay chains of heavier elements.
These comprise the first 82 elements from hydrogen to lead, with the two exceptions, technetium (element 43) and promethium (element 61), that do not have any stable nuclides.

Lanthanum

La57La 3+
The similarity of ionization energies is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum (atomic number 57) to lutetium (71), and the relatively small radii of the elements from hafnium (72) onwards.
Although it is classified as a rare earth element, lanthanum is the 28th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, almost three times as abundant as lead.

Lead oxide

leadlead dross
Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds.
Lead oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with formulas including lead (Pb) and oxygen (O).

Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismindustrial era
Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution.
This technology was applied to lead from 1678 and to copper from 1687.

Tungsten

WwolframTungsten (W)
Some rarer metals are denser: tungsten and gold are both at 19.3 g/cm 3, and osmium—the densest metal known—has a density of 22.59 g/cm 3, almost twice that of lead.
Its density is 19.25 times that of water, comparable to that of uranium and gold, and much higher (about 1.7 times) than that of lead.

Antimony

Sbantimonialantimonium
Lead's tensile strength, at 12–17 MPa, is low (that of aluminium is 6 times higher, copper 10 times, and mild steel 15 times higher); it can be strengthened by adding small amounts of copper or antimony.
Metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery.

Solder

lead-free soldersilver soldersoldered
These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding.

Osmium

Osos'''miumosmiophilic
Some rarer metals are denser: tungsten and gold are both at 19.3 g/cm 3, and osmium—the densest metal known—has a density of 22.59 g/cm 3, almost twice that of lead.
Osmium has a blue-gray tint and is the densest stable element; it is approximately twice as dense as lead and slightly denser than iridium.

Gold

Aunative goldgold dust
Some rarer metals are denser: tungsten and gold are both at 19.3 g/cm 3, and osmium—the densest metal known—has a density of 22.59 g/cm 3, almost twice that of lead.
By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm 3, and that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588 g/cm 3.

Gasoline

petrolgasleaded gasoline
These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding.
The dangers of compounds containing lead were well-established by then and Kettering was directly warned by Robert Wilson of MIT, Reid Hunt of Harvard, Yandell Henderson of Yale, and Charles Kraus of the University of Potsdam in Germany about its use.

Bismuth

BiBi 3+ 83
(This distinction formerly fell to bismuth, with an atomic number of 83, until its only primordial isotope, bismuth-209, was found in 2003 to decay very slowly.) The four stable isotopes of lead could theoretically undergo alpha decay to isotopes of mercury with a release of energy, but this has not been observed for any of them; their predicted half-lives range from 10 35 to 10 189 years (at least 10 25 times the current age of the universe).
The free element is 86% as dense as lead.

Lead(II) chloride

PbCl 2 lead chloridechloride
Lead(II) carbonate is a common constituent; the sulfate or chloride may also be present in urban or maritime settings.
Lead(II) chloride is one of the most important lead-based reagents.

Zinc

ZnZn 2+ zinc alloy
Lead's close-packed face-centered cubic structure and high atomic weight result in a density of 11.34 g/cm 3, which is greater than that of common metals such as iron (7.87 g/cm 3 ), copper (8.93 g/cm 3 ), and zinc (7.14 g/cm 3 ).
Other metals long known to form binary alloys with zinc are aluminium, antimony, bismuth, gold, iron, lead, mercury, silver, tin, magnesium, cobalt, nickel, tellurium, and sodium.