Lead(II) oxide

lead oxidePbOlead monoxideIleadlead (II)lead (II) oxidelead monoxide (PbO)litharge of silverPbO
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.wikipedia
119 Related Articles

Litharge

golden lithargelead oxide
PbO occurs in two polymorphs: litharge having a tetragonal crystal structure, and massicot having an orthorhombic crystal structure.
Litharge (from Greek lithargyros, lithos (stone) + argyros (silver) λιθάργυρος) is one of the natural mineral forms of lead(II) oxide, PbO.

Massicot

PbO occurs in two polymorphs: litharge having a tetragonal crystal structure, and massicot having an orthorhombic crystal structure.
Massicot is lead (II) oxide mineral with an orthorhombic lattice structure.

Lead glass

crystalcrystal glassleaded glass
Modern applications for PbO are mostly in lead-based industrial glass and industrial ceramics, including computer components.
Lead glass contains typically 18–40% (by weight) lead(II) oxide (PbO), while modern lead crystal, historically also known as flint glass due to the original silica source, contains a minimum of 24% PbO.

Lead

Pblead orelead mining
Modern applications for PbO are mostly in lead-based industrial glass and industrial ceramics, including computer components. Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
Lead monoxide exists in two polymorphs, litharge α-PbO (red) and massicot β-PbO (yellow), the latter being stable only above around 488 °C.

Lead(II) nitrate

lead nitratePb(NO 3 ) 2 S
Known since the Middle Ages by the name plumb dulcis (from Latin: Plumbum Dulce, sweet lead), the production of lead(II) nitrate from either metallic lead or lead oxide in nitric acid was small-scale, for direct use in making other lead compounds.

Amphoterism

amphotericamphiproticampholyte
It is an amphoteric oxide.
Amphoteric oxides include lead oxide and zinc oxide, among many others.

Oxide

oxidesmetal oxideO
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.

Lead oxide

leadlead dross
At this temperature it is also the end product of oxidation of other lead oxides in air:

Lead(II) sulfide

PbSlead sulfidelead sulphide
The usual lead ore is galena (lead(II) sulfide).

Plumbite

With strong bases, PbO dissolves to form plumbite (also called plumbate(II)) salts:
For example, lead(II) oxide (PbO) dissolves in alkali to form salts containing the anion:

Refractive index

index of refractionrefractive indicesrefraction index
Depending on the glass, the benefit of using PbO in glass can be one or more of increasing the refractive index of the glass, decreasing the viscosity of the glass, increasing the electrical resistivity of the glass, and increasing the ability of the glass to absorb X-rays.
A relatively high refractive index and low density can be obtained with glasses containing light metal oxides such as Li 2 O and MgO, while the opposite trend is observed with glasses containing PbO and BaO as seen in the diagram at the right.

Ceramic glaze

glazeglazedglazes
Historically PbO was also used extensively in ceramic glazes for household ceramics, and it is still used, but not extensively any more.
Ceramic manufacturers primarily use lead(II) oxide (PbO) as a flux for its low melting range, wide firing range, low surface tension, high index of refraction, and resistance to devitrification.

Strontium oxide

SrOstrontiaR
Strontium oxide is preferred for the faceplate.
Lead(II) oxide can be used in the neck and funnel, but causes discoloration when used in the faceplate.

Polymorphism (materials science)

polymorphpolymorphspolymorphism
PbO occurs in two polymorphs: litharge having a tetragonal crystal structure, and massicot having an orthorhombic crystal structure.

Galena

argentiferous galenagalenitelead
The usual lead ore is galena (lead(II) sulfide).

Sulfur dioxide

sulphur dioxideSO 2 SO2
:2 PbS + 3 O 2 → 2 PbO + 2 SO 2

Carbon monoxide

COcarbon monoxide (CO)carbon monoxide poisoning
Metallic lead is obtained by reducing the PbO with carbon monoxide at around 1,200 °C:

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )

X-ray crystallography

X-ray diffractionprotein crystallographyX-ray
As determined by X-ray crystallography, both polymorphs, tetragonal and orthorhombic feature a pyramidal four-coordinate lead center.

Tetragonal crystal system

tetragonaltetragonal systembody-centered tetragonal
PbO occurs in two polymorphs: litharge having a tetragonal crystal structure, and massicot having an orthorhombic crystal structure. As determined by X-ray crystallography, both polymorphs, tetragonal and orthorhombic feature a pyramidal four-coordinate lead center.

Orthorhombic crystal system

orthorhombicorthorombicorthorhombic system
PbO occurs in two polymorphs: litharge having a tetragonal crystal structure, and massicot having an orthorhombic crystal structure. As determined by X-ray crystallography, both polymorphs, tetragonal and orthorhombic feature a pyramidal four-coordinate lead center.

Stereochemistry

stereochemicalstereochemiststereochemically
The pyramidal nature indicates the presence of a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons.

Lone pair

lone electron pairlone pairsfree electron pair
The pyramidal nature indicates the presence of a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons.