Leaf

leavesaxilfoliagelaminaaxilsalternatemesophyllveinsleaf axilsimple
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.wikipedia
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Plant stem

stemstemsinternode
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, and flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from leaves both in their structure and origin.
The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches (with leaves, conifer cones, or inflorescences (flowers)). Adventitious roots may also be produced from the nodes.

Bulb

bulbousbulbsbulbous plants
Some leaves, such as bulb scales, are not above ground.
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.

Cataphyll

cataphyllscorm-scalecorm-scales
Succulent plants often have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls and spines.
In plant morphology, a cataphyll (sometimes also called a cataphyllum, or cataphyll leaf ) is a reduced, small leaf.

Petiole (botany)

petiolepetiolespetiolate
Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, and flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from leaves both in their structure and origin.
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

Eucalyptus

eucalypteucalyptus treeeucalypts
In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral.
The leaves on a mature eucalyptus plant are commonly lanceolate, petiolate, apparently alternate and waxy or glossy green.

Willow

willowssallowSalix
For instance plants adapted to windy conditions may have pendent leaves, such as in many willows and eucalyptss.
The leaves are typically elongated, but may also be round to oval, frequently with serrated edges.

Photosynthesis

photosyntheticphotosynthesizephotosynthesizing
In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral. A leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis.
Although all cells in the green parts of a plant have chloroplasts, the majority of those are found in specially adapted structures called leaves.

Leaf window

epidermal windowleaf-top windowswindow plants
Some window plants such as Fenestraria species and some Haworthia species such as Haworthia tesselata and Haworthia truncata are examples of xerophytes.
Leaf window, also known as epidermal window, is a specialized leaf structure consisting of a translucent area where sunlight can enter into the interior surfaces of the plant's modified leaf where photosynthesis can occur.

Transpiration

transpiretranspiredtranspiring
Functionally, in addition to carrying out photosynthesis, the leaf is the principal site of transpiration, providing the energy required to draw the transpiration stream up from the roots, and guttation.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.

Epidermis (botany)

epidermisepidermalepidermal cells
The leaves draw water from the ground in the transpiration stream through a vascular conducting system known as xylem and obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by diffusion through openings called stomata in the outer covering layer of the leaf (epidermis), while leaves are orientated to maximise their exposure to sunlight.
The epidermis (from the Greek ἐπιδερμίς, meaning "over-skin") is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.

Plant cuticle

cuticlecuticlescuticular
Their surfaces are waterproofed by the plant cuticle and gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere is controlled by minute (length and width measured in tens of µm) openings called stomata which open or close to regulate the rate exchange of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapour into and out of the internal intercellular space system.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.

Moss

mossesBryophytafirst terrestrial plants
Many structures of non-vascular plants, such as the phyllids of mosses and liverworts and even of some foliose lichens, which are not plants at all (in the sense of being members of the kingdom Plantae), look and function much like leaves.
The individual plants are usually composed of simple leaves that are generally only one cell thick, attached to a stem that may be branched or unbranched and has only a limited role in conducting water and nutrients.

Nepenthes

tropical pitcher plantsNepenthaceaenepenthacean
Leaves also function to store chemical energy and water (especially in succulents) and may become specialised organs serving other functions, such as tendrils of peas and other legumes, the protective spines of cacti and the insect traps in carnivorous plants such as Nepenthes and Sarracenia.
Nepenthes species usually consist of a shallow root system and a prostrate or climbing stem, often several metres long and up to 15 m or more, and usually 1 cm or less in diameter, although this may be thicker in a few species (e.g. N. bicalcarata). From the stems arise alternate, sword-shaped leaves with entire leaf margins.

Deciduous

deciduous forestdeciduous treedeciduous trees
Deciduous plants in frigid or cold temperate regions typically shed their leaves in autumn, whereas in areas with a severe dry season, some plants may shed their leaves until the dry season ends.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.

Xylem

protoxylemcohesion-tension theorytranspirational pull
The leaves draw water from the ground in the transpiration stream through a vascular conducting system known as xylem and obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by diffusion through openings called stomata in the outer covering layer of the leaf (epidermis), while leaves are orientated to maximise their exposure to sunlight.
Transpirational pull: Similarly, the evaporation of water from the surfaces of mesophyll cells to the atmosphere also creates a negative pressure at the top of a plant. This causes millions of minute menisci to form in the mesophyll cell wall. The resulting surface tension causes a negative pressure or tension in the xylem that pulls the water from the roots and soil.

Fern

fernspteridologistpteridology
This occurred independently in several separate lineages of vascular plants, in progymnosperms like Archaeopteris, in Sphenopsida, ferns and later in the gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ferns have fronds
Like other vascular plants, ferns have complex leaves called megaphylls, that are more complex than the microphylls of clubmosses.

Plant

plantsfloraplant kingdom
Many structures of non-vascular plants, such as the phyllids of mosses and liverworts and even of some foliose lichens, which are not plants at all (in the sense of being members of the kingdom Plantae), look and function much like leaves.
Chlorophyll, a green-colored, magnesium-containing pigment is essential to this process; it is generally present in plant leaves, and often in other plant parts as well.

Phylloclade

cladodes
Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, and flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from leaves both in their structure and origin.
In one definition, phylloclades are a subset of cladodes, namely those that greatly resemble or perform the function of leaves, as in Butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) as well as Phyllanthus and some Asparagus species.

Phyllotaxis

decussateoppositealternate
Different terms are usually used to describe the arrangement of leaves on the stem (phyllotaxis):
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek "leaf" and "arrangement").

Rose

rosesRosawild rose
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem.

Phloem

secondary phloemtranslocationcompanion cell
Vascular plants transport sucrose in a special tissue called the phloem.
After the growth period, when the meristems are dormant, the leaves are sources, and storage organs are sinks.

Raffia palm

raffiaRaphia(Raphia spp.)
The longest leaves are those of the Raffia palm, R. regalis which may be up to 25 m long and 3 m wide.
R. taedigera is the source of raffia fibers, which are the veins of the leaves, and this species produces a fruit called "brazilia pods", "uxi nuts" or "uxi pods".

Bud

budsflower budterminal bud
It is often the location of a bud.
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem.

Dorsiventral

dorsiventrally flattened
A leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis.
dorsum, "the back", venter, "the belly") organ is one that has two surfaces differing from each other in appearance and structure, as an ordinary leaf.

Frond

frondspinnapinnae
Ferns have fronds
A frond is a large, divided leaf.