League of Nations

The League of NationsCouncil of the League of NationsLeagueLeague CouncilLeague of Nations CouncilCouncil1920a new international orderAssemblyLeague of Nations Building
The League of Nations, abbreviated as LN or LoN, (Société des Nations, abbreviated as "SDN" or "SdN" and meaning "Society of Nations") was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.wikipedia
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Paris Peace Conference, 1919

Paris Peace ConferenceVersailles Peace Conference1919 Paris Peace Conference
It was founded on 10 January 1920 following the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War; in 1919 US President Woodrow Wilson was to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his role as the leading architect of the league.
The conference involved diplomats from 32 countries and nationalities, and its major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations, as well as the five peace treaties with the defeated states; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to Britain and France; the imposition of reparations upon Germany; and the drawing of new national boundaries (sometimes with plebiscites) to better reflect ethnic boundaries.

Covenant of the League of Nations

League of Nations CovenantLeague CovenantCovenant
The organisation's primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. The Covenant of the League of Nations was signed on 28 June 1919 as Part I of the Treaty of Versailles, and it became effective together with the rest of the Treaty on 10 January 1920.
The Covenant of the League of Nations was the charter of the League of Nations.

Treaty of Versailles

Versailles TreatyVersaillesVersailles Peace Treaty
The Covenant of the League of Nations was signed on 28 June 1919 as Part I of the Treaty of Versailles, and it became effective together with the rest of the Treaty on 10 January 1920.
The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.

Winter War

Soviet-Finnish WarSoviet invasion of FinlandRusso-Finnish War
The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and was soon expelled after invading Finland.
The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
It was founded on 10 January 1920 following the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War; in 1919 US President Woodrow Wilson was to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his role as the leading architect of the league.
However, despite the conclusive Allied victory (and the creation of the League of Nations during the Peace Conference, intended to prevent future wars), a second world war would follow just over twenty years later.

United Nations

UNU.N.the United Nations
The League lasted for 26 years; the United Nations (UN) replaced it after the end of the Second World War and inherited several agencies and organisations founded by the League.
The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations.

Axis powers

AxisAxis forcesAxis power
After some notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s.
On 23 October 1932, Mussolini declared support for a Four Power Directorate that included Britain, France, Germany, and Italy, to bring about an orderly treaty revision outside of what he considered the outmoded League of Nations.

Allies of World War I

AlliesAlliedAllied Powers
The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the victorious First World War Allies (France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Japan were the permanent members of the Executive Council) to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed.
These changes meant the Allies who negotiated the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 included France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the US; Part One of the Treaty agreed to the establishment of the League of Nations on 25 January 1919.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war.
To prevent a future world war, the League of Nations was created during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.

Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson

G. Lowes DickinsonDickinsonDickinson, G. Lowes
Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, a British political scientist, coined the term "League of Nations" in 1914 and drafted a scheme for its organisation.
Within a fortnight of the war's breaking out he drew up the idea of a League of Nations, and his subsequent writings helped to shape public opinion towards the creation of the League.

League of Nations Union

Australian League of Nations UnionLeague of Free Nations AssociationLeague of Nations Association
Together with Lord Bryce, he played a leading role in the founding of the group of internationalist pacifists known as the Bryce Group, later the League of Nations Union.
The League of Nations Union (LNU) was an organization formed in October 1918 in the United Kingdom to promote international justice, collective security and a permanent peace between nations based upon the ideals of the League of Nations.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and was soon expelled after invading Finland.
In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations.

Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood

Lord Robert CecilRobert CecilThe Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
In London Balfour commissioned the first official report into the matter in early 1918, under the initiative of Lord Robert Cecil.
He was one of the architects of the League of Nations and a defender of it, whose service to the organisation saw him awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937.

Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch

Perpetual Peaceewigen Friedens
The concept of a peaceful community of nations had been proposed as far back as 1795, when Immanuel Kant's Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch outlined the idea of a league of nations to control conflict and promote peace between states.
The essay does not treat republican governments as sufficient by themselves to produce peace: freedom of emigration (hospitality) and a league of nations are necessary to consciously enact his six-point program.

Arms control

disarmamentarms reductionArmaments: regulation and reduction
The organisation's primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.
After the World War I, the League of Nations was set up which attempted to limit and reduce arms.

Inter-Allied Women's Conference

The Inter-Allied Women's Conference asked to be allowed to submit suggestions to the peace negotiations and commissions and were granted the right to sit on commissions dealing specifically with women and children.
Finally, on 10 April women were allowed to present a resolution to the League of Nations Commission.

Permanent Court of International Justice

World CourtPCIJHague Tribunal
The Executive Council would create a Permanent Court of International Justice to make judgements on the disputes.
It was an international court attached to the League of Nations.

Benito Mussolini

MussoliniBenitoDuce
During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting Red Cross medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out."
In the end, the League of Nations proved powerless, and Greece was forced to comply with Italian demands.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and was soon expelled after invading Finland.
On September 1934, the country joined the League of Nations.

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

Red CrossRed CrescentICRM
During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting Red Cross medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out."
In 1920, the task of repatriation was handed over to the newly founded League of Nations, which appointed the Norwegian diplomat and scientist Fridtjof Nansen as its "High Commissioner for Repatriation of the War Prisoners".

Collective security

collective defencecollective defensecollective self-defense
The organisation's primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.
The term "collective security" has also been cited as a principle of the United Nations, and the League of Nations before that.

Henry Cabot Lodge

LodgeHenry C. LodgeHenry Cabot Lodge, Sr.
Senate Republicans led by Henry Cabot Lodge wanted a League with the reservation that only Congress could take the U.S. into war.
The failure of that treaty ensured that the United States never joined the League of Nations.

Free City of Danzig

DanzigLeague of Nations High Commissioner for DanzigFree City of Gdańsk
Its principal sections were Political, Financial and Economics, Transit, Minorities and Administration (administering the Saar and Danzig), Mandates, Disarmament, Health, Social (Opium and Traffic in Women and Children), Intellectual Cooperation and International Bureaux, Legal, and Information.
The Free City was under League of Nations protection and put into a binding customs union with Poland.

Catherine Marshall (suffragist)

Catherine MarshallCatherine Marshall (suffragette)Katherine (or Catherine) Marshall
Upon reading the Rules of Procedure for the League of Nations, Catherine Marshall, a British suffragist, discovered that the guidelines were completely undemocratic and they were modified based on her suggestion.
She moved from women's votes to peace and worked in Geneva supporting the League of Nations.

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUnited Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural OrganizationUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
These included the Disarmament Commission, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Mandates Commission, the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation (precursor to UNESCO), the Permanent Central Opium Board, the Commission for Refugees, and the Slavery Commission.
It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.