The League of Nations mandates
Anachronous world map showing member states of the League during its 26-year history.
The 1864 Geneva Convention, one of the earliest formulations of international law
The League to Enforce Peace published this full-page promotion in The New York Times on Christmas Day 1918. It resolved that the League "should ensure peace by eliminating causes of dissension, by deciding controversies by peaceable means, and by uniting the potential force of all the members as a standing menace against any nation that seeks to upset the peace of the world".
On his December 1918 trip to Europe, Woodrow Wilson gave speeches that "reaffirmed that the making of peace and the creation of a League of Nations must be accomplished as one single objective".
In 1924, the headquarters of the League was named "Palais Wilson", after Woodrow Wilson, who was credited as the "Founder of the League of Nations"
League of Nations Organisation chart
Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League's headquarters from 1936 until its dissolution in 1946
Child labour in a coal mine, United States, c. 1912
Child labour in Kamerun in 1919
A sample Nansen passport
A map of the world in 1920–45, which shows the League of Nations members during its history
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations concerning the Manchurian Crisis in 1932.
Emperor Haile Selassie I going into exile in Bath, England via Jerusalem
The Gap in the Bridge; the sign reads "This League of Nations Bridge was designed by the President of the U.S.A."
Cartoon from Punch magazine, 10 December 1920, satirising the gap left by the US not joining the League.
World map showing member states of the League of Nations (in green and red) on 18 April 1946, when the League of Nations ceased to exist.
League of Nations archives, Geneva.

A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.

- League of Nations mandate

Current scholarly consensus views that, even though the League failed to achieve its ultimate goal of world peace, it did manage to build new roads towards expanding the rule of law across the globe; strengthened the concept of collective security, giving a voice to smaller nations; helped to raise awareness to problems like epidemics, slavery, child labour, colonial tyranny, refugee crises and general working conditions through its numerous commissions and committees; and paved the way for new forms of statehood, as the mandate system put the colonial powers under international observation.

- League of Nations

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Cover of the English version

Treaty of Versailles

The most important of the peace treaties of World War I.

The most important of the peace treaties of World War I.

Cover of the English version
The heads of the "Big Four" nations at the Paris Peace Conference, 27 May 1919. From left to right: David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George
German delegate Johannes Bell signing the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors, with various Allied delegations sitting and standing in front of him
German colonies (light blue) were made into League of Nations mandates.
Workmen decommissioning a heavy gun, to comply with the treaty
Location of the Rhineland (yellow)
A British news placard announcing the signing of the peace treaty
Senator Borah, Lodge and Johnson refuse Lady Peace a seat, referring to efforts by Republican isolationists to block ratification of Treaty of Versailles establishing the League of Nations
German delegates in Versailles: Professor Walther Schücking, Reichspostminister Johannes Giesberts, Justice Minister Otto Landsberg, Foreign Minister Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau, Prussian State President Robert Leinert, and financial advisor Carl Melchior
Demonstration against the treaty in front of the Reichstag
Medal issued by the Japanese authorities in 1919, commemorating the Treaty of Versailles. Obv: Flags of the five allies of World War I. Rev: Peace standing in Oriental attire with the Palace of Versailles in the background
A crowd awaits the plebiscite results in Oppeln
French soldiers in the Ruhr, which resulted in the American withdrawal from the Rhineland
Adolf Hitler announcing the Anschluß in violation of Art. 80 on the Heldenplatz, Vienna, 15 March 1938
John Maynard Keynes, the principal representative of the British Treasury, referred to the Treaty of Versailles as a "Carthaginian peace".
Commemorative medal issued in 1929 in the Republic of Weimar on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Treaty of Versailles. The obverse depicts George Clemenceau presenting a bound treaty, decorated with skull and crossbones to Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau. Other members of the Conference are standing behind Clemenceau, including Lloyd-George, Wilson and Orlando.
American political cartoon depicting the contemporary view of German reparations, 1921
Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (as of 1923)

The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.

France, along with the British Dominions and Belgium, opposed League of Nations mandates and favored annexation of former German colonies.

Territory of the Saar Basin

Maps of the Territory of the Saar Basin -The Saar Basin (red) -The Saar basin (purple)
Nazi Germany in 1941. The planned Reichsgau of Westmark, which would include the Saar region, is shown here in yellow.

The Territory of the Saar Basin (Saarbeckengebiet, Saarterritorium; Territoire du bassin de la Sarre) was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.

Under the Treaty of Versailles, the highly industrialized Saar Basin, including the Saar Coal District (Saarrevier), was to be occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France under a League of Nations mandate for a period of fifteen years.

Palau District Police greet the UN Visiting Mission to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1973)

United Nations trust territories

[[Image:UN Trust Territory successors.svg|thumb|Modern successor states of UN trust territories

[[Image:UN Trust Territory successors.svg|thumb|Modern successor states of UN trust territories

Palau District Police greet the UN Visiting Mission to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1973)
Arrival of UN Visiting Mission in Majuro, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1978). The sign reads "Please release us from the bondage of your trusteeship agreement."
UN trust territories by trustee

]]United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946.

Free City of Danzig

Semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.

Semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.

Danzig, surrounded by Germany and Poland
Passport of the Free City of Danzig
Danzig, surrounded by Germany and Poland
Polish passport issued at Danzig by the "Polish Commission for Gdańsk" in 1935 and extended again in 1937, before the holder immigrated to British Palestine the following year
Danzig police arrest a protester in the aftermath of the 1933 Parliamentary Elections
Population density of Poland and the Free City of Danzig (Gdańsk), 1930
Eddi Arent in 1971
Ingrid van Bergen in 2010
Günter Grass in 2006
Klaus Kinski in the 1980s
Rupert Neudeck 2007
Wolfgang Völz in 2011
The Lutheran Supreme Parish Church of St. Mary's in Danzig's Rechtstadt quarter
The Archcathedral of the Holy Trinity, Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Bernard in Oliva, Danzig
The Great Synagogue on Reitbahn Street in Danzig's Rechtstadt quarter
Flag of the Danzig Senate
German Nazi propaganda poster: "Danzig is German"
Hitler gives a speech in Danzig on 19 September 1939
1 September 1939: German troops remove Polish insignia at the Polish–Danzig border near Zoppot

The Free City was under League of Nations protection and put into a binding customs union with Poland.

Unlike Mandatory territories, which were entrusted to member countries, the Free City of Danzig (like the Territory of the Saar Basin) remained directly under the authority of the League of Nations.

Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition of countries led by France, the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918).

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition of countries led by France, the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918).

Major European diplomatic alignments shortly before the war
1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente
The Council of Four (from left to right): David Lloyd George, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson in Versailles, 1919
The British Empire in 1914
HMS Dreadnought; the 1902, 1904 and 1907 agreements with Japan, France and Russia allowed Britain to refocus resources during the Anglo-German naval arms race.
Canadian Army recruitment poster
Indian soldiers of the 2nd Rajput Light Infantry on the Western Front, winter of 1914–15
Russian troops marching to the front
Russian recruiting poster; the caption reads 'World on fire; Second Patriotic War'
French bayonet charge, 1914; huge casualties in the early months of the war had to be replaced by French colonial troops.
French Zouaves of the Army of Africa
French artillery in action near Gallipoli, 1915
The Japanese carrier Wakamiya conducted the first ship-launched aerial attack in 1914.
Antonio Salandra, Italian PM March 1914 - June 1916
Alpini troops marching in the snow at 3,000 m altitude, 1917
The Serbian Army in retreat, 1915
The Yser Front, 1917 by Belgian artist Georges-Émile Lebacq
Belgian Congolese Force Publique troops in German East Africa, 1916
Eleftherios Venizelos with Constantine during the Balkan Wars
A unit of the National Defence Army Corps on its way to the front in 1918
Colonel Christodoulou of the National Defence Army Corps interrogates Bulgarian prisoners, September 1918
Nicholas accepts the surrender of Scutari, April 1913; Montenegro's major gain from the Balkan War, it was relinquished several months later.
Montenegrin soldiers leaving for the front, October 1914
Romanian 250 mm Negrei Model 1916 mortar at the National Military Museum
Vlaicu III
Romanian troops at Mărășești
Brazilian soldiers in World War I
Military leaders of World War I: Alphonse Jacques de Dixmude (Belgium), Armando Diaz (Italy), Ferdinand Foch (France), John J. Pershing (United States), and David Beatty (United Kingdom)
Marshal Foch's Victory-Harmony Banner
Russian High Command
President Raymond Poincaré and King George V, 1915
First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, 1914
Douglas Haig and Ferdinand Foch inspecting the Gordon Highlanders, 1918
Greek war poster
USAAS recruiting poster, 1918
The use of naval convoys to transport US troops to France, 1917
Braziliian ship Cruzador Bahia
The Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Paris, 1919
A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers

These changes meant the Allies who negotiated the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 included France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the US; Part One of the Treaty agreed to the establishment of the League of Nations on 25 January 1919.

By 1917, they controlled the western part of German East Africa which would become the Belgian League of Nations Mandate of Ruanda-Urundi or modern-day Rwanda and Burundi.