Konrad Schumann, an East German border guard, fleeing East Germany towards West Germany in 1962
Anachronous world map showing member states of the League during its 26-year history.
Darfur refugee camp in Chad, 2005
The Soviet Union after World War II
The 1864 Geneva Convention, one of the earliest formulations of international law
Refugees from Herzegovina, painting by Uroš Predić in 1889 made in the aftermath of the Herzegovina Uprising (1875–77)
Lenin, Trotsky and Kamenev celebrating the second anniversary of the October Revolution
The League to Enforce Peace published this full-page promotion in The New York Times on Christmas Day 1918. It resolved that the League "should ensure peace by eliminating causes of dissension, by deciding controversies by peaceable means, and by uniting the potential force of all the members as a standing menace against any nation that seeks to upset the peace of the world".
Turkish refugees from Edirne, 1913
The Soviet Union after World War II
On his December 1918 trip to Europe, Woodrow Wilson gave speeches that "reaffirmed that the making of peace and the creation of a League of Nations must be accomplished as one single objective".
One million Armenians were forced to leave their homes in Anatolia in 1915, and many either died or were murdered on their way to Syria.
The Russian famine of 1921–22 killed an estimated 5 million people.
In 1924, the headquarters of the League was named "Palais Wilson", after Woodrow Wilson, who was credited as the "Founder of the League of Nations"
Children preparing for evacuation from Spain during the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939.
Construction of the bridge through the Kolyma (part of the Road of Bones from Magadan to Jakutsk) by the workers of Dalstroy.
League of Nations Organisation chart
Czech refugees from the Sudetenland, October 1938
Five Marshals of the Soviet Union in 1935. Only two of them – Budyonny and Voroshilov – survived Great Purge. Blyukher, Yegorov and Tukhachevsky were executed.
Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League's headquarters from 1936 until its dissolution in 1946
Polish child refugees and war orphans in Balachadi, British India, 1941
The Battle of Stalingrad, considered by many historians as a decisive turning point of World War II.
Child labour in a coal mine, United States, c. 1912
Russian refugees near Stalingrad, 1942
From left to right, the Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill confer in Tehran, 1943.
Child labour in Kamerun in 1919
Polish refugees in Teheran, Iran, at an American Red Cross evacuation camp, 1943
Map showing greatest territorial extent of the Soviet Union and the states that it dominated politically, economically and militarily in 1960, after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 but before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961 (total area: c. 35,000,000 km2)
A sample Nansen passport
A Dutch school teacher leads a group of refugee children just disembarked from a ship at Tilbury Docks in Essex during 1945.
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev (left) with US President John F. Kennedy in Vienna, 3 June 1961.
A map of the world in 1920–45, which shows the League of Nations members during its history
German refugees from East Prussia, 1945
Nikolai Podgorny visiting Tampere, Finland on 16 October 1969
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations concerning the Manchurian Crisis in 1932.
Jewish refugees from Europe protest at a refugee camp in Cyprus, 1947
Soviet general secretary Leonid Brezhnev and US President Jimmy Carter sign the SALT II arms limitation treaty in Vienna on 18 June 1979
Emperor Haile Selassie I going into exile in Bath, England via Jerusalem
UNHCR tents at a refugee camp following episodes of xenophobic violence and rioting in South Africa, 2008
Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with US President Ronald Reagan
The Gap in the Bridge; the sign reads "This League of Nations Bridge was designed by the President of the U.S.A."
Cartoon from Punch magazine, 10 December 1920, satirising the gap left by the US not joining the League.
A camp in Guinea for refugees from Sierra Leone
The Pan-European Picnic took place in August 1989 on the Hungarian-Austrian border.
World map showing member states of the League of Nations (in green and red) on 18 April 1946, when the League of Nations ceased to exist.
Refugee camp in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
T-80 tank on Red Square during the August Coup
League of Nations archives, Geneva.
Erstaufnahmelager Jenfelder Moorpark
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War
Refugees from Vietnam land at Hamburg on the Cap Anamur II in 1986
Internally displaced Azerbaijanis from Nagorno-Karabakh, 1993
For over 30 years, several tens of thousands of Sahrawi refugees have been living in the region of Tindouf, Algeria, in the heart of the desert.
Country emblems of the Soviet Republics before and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union (note that the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (fifth in the second row) no longer exists as a political entity of any kind and the emblem is unofficial)
After challenging Queen Jezebel, Elijah takes refuge in a cave until the voice of God calls him in this 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld.
Sukarno and Voroshilov in a state meeting on 1958.
Pro-refugee protest in Melbourne, Australia, with a banner reading "No one is illegal" with a Circle A
1960s Cuba-Soviet friendship poster with Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev
A Syrian refugee girl in Istanbul, Turkey
Soviet stamp 1974 for friendship between USSR and India as both nations shared strong ties, although India was a prominent member of Non-Aligned Movement
Refugee children from Syria at a clinic in Ramtha, Jordan, August 2013
Gerald Ford, Andrei Gromyko, Leonid Brezhnev and Henry Kissinger speaking informally at the Vladivostok Summit in 1974
Refugee camp in South Sudan, 2016
Mikhail Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush signing bilateral documents during Gorbachev's official visit to the United States in 1990
1987 Soviet stamp
Military parade on the Red Square in Moscow, 7 November 1964
The Grand Kremlin Palace, the seat of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, 1982
Nationalist anti-government riots in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 1990
A medium-range SS-20 non-ICBM ballistic missile, the deployment of which in the late 1970s launched a new arms race in Europe in which NATO deployed Pershing II missiles in West Germany, among other things
From left to right: Yuri Gagarin, Pavel Popovich, Valentina Tereshkova and Nikita Khrushchev at the Lenin's Mausoleum in 1963
Soyuz rocket at the Baikonur Cosmodrome
The DneproGES, one of many hydroelectric power stations in the Soviet Union
Picking cotton in Armenia in the 1930s
Workers of the Salihorsk potash plant, Belarus, 1968
Volzhsky Avtomobilny Zavod (VAZ) in 1969
Soviet stamp depicting the 30th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency, published in 1987, a year following the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
Soviet stamp showing the orbit of Sputnik 1
Aeroflot's flag during the Soviet era
Population of the Soviet Union (red) and the post-Soviet states (blue) from 1961 to 2009 as well as projection (dotted blue) from 2010 to 2100
Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, visiting the Lviv confectionery, Ukrainian SSR, 1967
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
People in Samarkand, Uzbek SSR, 1981
Svaneti man in Mestia, Georgian SSR, 1929
An early Soviet-era poster discouraging unsafe abortion practices
Cover of Bezbozhnik in 1929, magazine of the Society of the Godless. The first five-year plan of the Soviet Union is shown crushing the gods of the Abrahamic religions.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow during its demolition in 1931
A paranja burning ceremony in the Uzbek SSR as part of Soviet Hujum policies
World War II military deaths in Europe by theater and by year. Nazi Germany suffered 80% of its military deaths in the Eastern Front.
2001 stamp of Moldova shows Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space
People in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, 9 May 2018
Soviet singer-songwriter, poet and actor Vladimir Vysotsky in 1979
Valeri Kharlamov represented the Soviet Union at 11 Ice Hockey World Championships, winning eight gold medals, two silvers and one bronze
One of the many impacts of the approach to the environment in the USSR is the Aral Sea (see status in 1989 and 2014)
Landscape near Karabash, Chelyabinsk Oblast, an area that was previously covered with forests until acid rainfall from a nearby copper smelter killed all vegetation
Ethnographic map of the Soviet Union, 1941
Ethnographic map of the Soviet Union, 1970

The first modern definition of international refugee status came about under the League of Nations in 1921 from the Commission for Refugees.

- Refugee

The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and was soon expelled after invading Finland.

- League of Nations

Current scholarly consensus views that, even though the League failed to achieve its ultimate goal of world peace, it did manage to build new roads towards expanding the rule of law across the globe; strengthened the concept of collective security, giving a voice to smaller nations; helped to raise awareness to problems like epidemics, slavery, child labour, colonial tyranny, refugee crises and general working conditions through its numerous commissions and committees; and paved the way for new forms of statehood, as the mandate system put the colonial powers under international observation.

- League of Nations

Most European refugees (principally Jews and Slavs) fleeing the Nazis and the Soviet Union were barred from going to the United States until after World War II.

- Refugee

In September 1934, the country joined the League of Nations.

- Soviet Union

In some countries with internal conflict, there is also nostalgia for the USSR, especially for refugees of the post-Soviet conflicts who have been forced to flee their homes and have been displaced.

- Soviet Union

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