Medical supplies for the front in Addis Ababa.
Anachronous world map showing member states of the League during its 26-year history.
Italian soldiers recruited in 1935 in Montevarchi to fight the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The 1864 Geneva Convention, one of the earliest formulations of international law
Map showing the military actions from 1935 to February 1936
The League to Enforce Peace published this full-page promotion in The New York Times on Christmas Day 1918. It resolved that the League "should ensure peace by eliminating causes of dissension, by deciding controversies by peaceable means, and by uniting the potential force of all the members as a standing menace against any nation that seeks to upset the peace of the world".
Map showing the military actions from February to May 1936
On his December 1918 trip to Europe, Woodrow Wilson gave speeches that "reaffirmed that the making of peace and the creation of a League of Nations must be accomplished as one single objective".
Italian notice, signed by general Emilio De Bono, proclaiming the abolishment of slavery in Tigray in Italian and Amharic. The abolition of slavery was one of the first measures taken by the Italian occupation government in Ethiopia.
In 1924, the headquarters of the League was named "Palais Wilson", after Woodrow Wilson, who was credited as the "Founder of the League of Nations"
Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie I
League of Nations Organisation chart
Pietro Badoglio
Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League's headquarters from 1936 until its dissolution in 1946
Italian artillery operated by Somali Ascari troops
Child labour in a coal mine, United States, c. 1912
Ethiopian prisoner in February 1936
Child labour in Kamerun in 1919
Giuseppe Bottai at the Battle of Amba Aradam
A sample Nansen passport
Italian colonial troops advance on Addis Ababa
A map of the world in 1920–45, which shows the League of Nations members during its history
Italian troops in Addis Ababa, 1936
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations concerning the Manchurian Crisis in 1932.
Death of Antonio Locatelli
Emperor Haile Selassie I going into exile in Bath, England via Jerusalem
Medal commemorating the role of the Italian Eritrean colonial troops in the war
The Gap in the Bridge; the sign reads "This League of Nations Bridge was designed by the President of the U.S.A."
Cartoon from Punch magazine, 10 December 1920, satirising the gap left by the US not joining the League.
Haile Selassie's resistance to the Italian invasion made him Time Man of the Year 1935.
World map showing member states of the League of Nations (in green and red) on 18 April 1946, when the League of Nations ceased to exist.
Haile Selassie passes through Jerusalem on his way to exile in England.
League of Nations archives, Geneva.
The six provinces of Italian East Africa.
Duke of Aosta
Soldiers of the West African Frontier Force removing Italian frontier markers from the Kenya–Italian Somaliland border, 1941
Haile Selassie
Ras Kassa Haile Darge
Ras Desta Damtew
Imru Haile Selassie
Benito Mussolini
Emilio De Bono
Pietro Badoglio

It is seen as an example of the expansionist policy that characterized the Axis powers and the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations before the outbreak of the Second World War.

- Second Italo-Ethiopian War

During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out."

- League of Nations

10 related topics

Alpha

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930

World War II

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930
Adolf Hitler at a German Nazi political rally in Nuremberg, August 1933
Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935
The bombing of Guernica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, sparked fears abroad in Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Japanese Imperial Army soldiers during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Red Army artillery unit during the Battle of Lake Khasan, 1938
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938
German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 23 August 1939
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939
Soldiers of the Polish Army during the defence of Poland, September 1939
Finnish machine gun nest aimed at Soviet Red Army positions during the Winter War, February 1940
German advance into Belgium and Northern France, 10 May-4 June 1940, swept past the Maginot Line (shown in dark red)
London seen from St. Paul's Cathedral after the German Blitz, 29 December 1940
Soldiers of the British Commonwealth forces from the Australian Army's 9th Division during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, September 1941
German Panzer III of the Afrika Korps advancing across the North African desert, April-May 1941
European theatre of World War II animation map, 1939–1945 – Red: Western Allies and the Soviet Union after 1941; Green: Soviet Union before 1941; Blue: Axis powers
German soldiers during the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Axis powers, 1941
Soviet civilians leaving destroyed houses after a German bombardment during the Battle of Leningrad, 10 December 1942
Japanese soldiers entering Hong Kong, 8 December 1941
The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a total loss in the Japanese surprise air attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Sunday 7 December 1941.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill seated at the Casablanca Conference, January 1943
Map of Japanese military advances through mid-1942
US Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942
Red Army soldiers on the counterattack during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943
American 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombing raid on the Focke-Wulf factory in Germany, 9 October 1943
U.S. Navy SBD-5 scout plane flying patrol over USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Lexington (CV-16) during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, 1943
Red Army troops in a counter-offensive on German positions at the Battle of Kursk, July 1943
Ruins of the Benedictine monastery, during the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italian Campaign, May 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944
German SS soldiers from the Dirlewanger Brigade, tasked with suppressing the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation, August 1944
General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944
Yalta Conference held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 3 June 1945.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
Ruins of Warsaw in 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city by the occupying German forces
Defendants at the Nuremberg trials, where the Allied forces prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity
Post-war border changes in Central Europe and creation of the Communist Eastern Bloc
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence at the Independence Hall, 14 May 1948
World War II deaths
Bodies of Chinese civilians killed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Nanking Massacre in December 1937
Schutzstaffel (SS) female camp guards removing prisoners' bodies from lorries and carrying them to a mass grave, inside the German Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945
Prisoner identity photograph taken by the German SS of a Polish Catholic girl who died in Auschwitz. Approximately 230,000 children were held prisoner and used in forced labour and Nazi medical experiments.
Polish civilians wearing blindfolds photographed just before their execution by German soldiers in Palmiry forest, 1940
Soviet partisans hanged by the German army. The Russian Academy of Sciences reported in 1995 civilian victims in the Soviet Union at German hands totalled 13.7 million dead, twenty percent of the 68 million persons in the occupied Soviet Union.
B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers on the Boeing assembly line in Wichita, Kansas, 1944
A V-2 rocket launched from a fixed site in Peenemünde, 21 June 1943
Nuclear Gadget being raised to the top of the detonation "shot tower", at Alamogordo Bombing Range; Trinity nuclear test, New Mexico, July 1945

The exact causes of World War II are debated, but contributing factors included the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Spanish Civil War, the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Soviet–Japanese border conflicts and rising European tensions since World War I.

To prevent a future world war, the League of Nations was created during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.

Axis powers

Military coalition that initiated World War II and fought against the Allies.

Military coalition that initiated World War II and fought against the Allies.

Flags of Germany, Japan, and Italy draping the facade of the Embassy of Japan on the Tiergartenstraße in Berlin (September 1940)
Germany's Führer Adolf Hitler (right) beside Italy's Duce Benito Mussolini (left)
Japan's Prime Minister Hideki Tojo (center) with fellow government representatives of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. To the left of Tojo, from left to right: Ba Maw from Burma, Zhang Jinghui, Wang Jingwei from China. To the right of Tojo, from left to right, Wan Waithayakon from Thailand, José P. Laurel from the Philippines, and Subhas Chandra Bose from India
The signing of the Tripartite Pact by Germany, Japan, and Italy on 27 September 1940 in Berlin. Seated from left to right are the Japanese ambassador to Germany Saburō Kurusu, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Galeazzo Ciano, and Adolf Hitler.
Adolf Hitler, Führer and Reich Chancellor of the German People, 1933–1945
Engelbert Dollfuss, Chancellor of Austria, 1932–1934
Hideo Kodama, a wartime cabinet minister in the Empire of Japan
Japanese writer Shūmei Ōkawa, a key exponent of Japanese nationalism
Lt.Gen Hiroshi Ōshima, Japanese ambassador to Germany before and during World War II
German Führer Adolf Hitler along with General Walther von Brauchitsch, during the victory parade in Warsaw after the defeat of Poland, October 1939
German Heinkel He 111 bomber aircraft during the Battle of Britain
German vehicles advancing during the Second Battle of El Alamein in the North African campaign
German soldiers during the Battle of Stalingrad in the Eastern Front campaign
German submarine U-118 under air attack in June 1943
The Duce Benito Mussolini in an official portrait
Italian soldiers in the North African Campaign in 1941
Italian Fiat M13/40 tanks in the North African Campaign in 1941
Italian battleships Vittorio Veneto and Littorio during the war
Italian Macchi C.200 fighter aircraft during the war
Every territory ever controlled by the Italian Empire at some point in time during World War II
IJN super-dreadnought battleships Yamashiro, Fusō, and battlecruiser Haruna, Tokyo Bay, 1930s
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai
Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter aircraft and other aircraft preparing for takeoff on the aircraft carrier Shōkaku on 7 December 1941, for the attack on Pearl Harbor
The Empire of Japan (darker red) and territories controlled by Japanese puppet states during the war (lighter red). Thailand (darkest red) cooperated with Japan. All are members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
IJA paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
IJN Yamato-class Battleships Yamato and Musashi moored in Truk Lagoon, in 1943
Japanese Military Attaché, Makoto Onodera, visiting Fjell Fortress in Norway, 1943. Behind him is Lieutenant Colonel Eberhard Freiherr von Zedlitz und Neukrich (C-in-C Luftwaffe Feldregiment 502.), and to the right is Fregattenkapitän doktor Robert Morath (Seekommandant in Bergen). Behind Onoderas hand (raised in salute) is General Nikolaus von Falkenhorst (C-in-C German military forces in Norway).
Japanese officers training young Indonesian recruits, circa 1945
Bulgarian soldiers in Vardar Macedonia during the Balkans campaign
Hungarian Toldi I tank as used during the 1941 Axis invasion of the Soviet Union
Hungarian soldiers in the Carpathian mountains in 1944
MÁVAG Héja fighter aircraft, derived from the Reggiane Re.2000, an Italian fighter design
Adolf Hitler meeting with NDH leader Ante Pavelić
Ion Antonescu and Adolf Hitler at the Führerbau in Munich (June 1941)
A formation of Romanian IAR 80 fighter aircraft
The Romanian Mareșal tank destroyer's design was likely used by the Germans to develop the Hetzer
Romanian soldiers on the outskirts of Stalingrad during the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942
Slovakia in 1941
Kingdom of Denmark
Mannerheim with Hitler
Finnish troops passing by the remains of a destroyed Soviet T-34 at the battle of Tali-Ihantala
Manchurian soldiers training in a military exercise
Manchurian pilots of the Manchukuo Air Force
Front row in order from left to right: Karl Wolff, Heinrich Himmler, Francisco Franco and Spain's Foreign Minister Serrano Súñer in Madrid, October 1940
Francisco Franco (centre) and Serrano Súñer (left) meeting with Mussolini (right) in Bordighera, Italy in 1941. At Bordighera, Franco and Mussolini discussed the creation of a Latin Bloc.
Phraya Phahon (far left), Thawan Thamrong (left), and Direk Jayanama (right) with Hideki Tōjō (center) in Tokyo 1942
German and Soviet soldiers during the official transfer of Brest to Soviet control in front of picture of Stalin, in the aftermath of the invasion and partition of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939
France during the war; Occupied and annexed zones by Germany in shades of red, Italian occupation zones in shades of yellow and striped blue, "Free zone" in blue.
Philippe Pétain (left) meeting with Hitler in October 1940
Personal flag of Philippe Pétain, Chief of State of Vichy France
An RAF officer investigates wrecked Iraqi artillery near Habbaniya.
Italian Social Republic
RSI (Repubblica Sociale Italiana) soldiers, March 1944
Greece, 1941–1944
Hitler declaring war on the United States on 11 December 1941
Italian pilots of a Savoia-Marchetti SM.75 long-range cargo aircraft meeting with Japanese officials upon arriving in East Asia in 1942.
German and Japanese direct spheres of influence at their greatest extents in Autumn 1942. Arrows show planned movements to an agreed demarcation line at 70° E, which was, however, never approximated.

Italy condemned the Western powers for enacting sanctions on Italy in 1935 for its actions in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War that Italy claimed was a response to an act of Ethiopian aggression against tribesmen in Italian Eritrea in the Walwal incident of 1934.

Protests by the League of Nations, especially the British, who had interests in that area, led to no serious action, although The League did try to enforce economic sanctions upon Italy, but to no avail.

Benito Mussolini

Italian politician and journalist who founded and led the National Fascist Party.

Italian politician and journalist who founded and led the National Fascist Party.

Birthplace of Benito Mussolini in Predappio; the building now hosts exhibitions on contemporary history
Mussolini's booking file following his arrest by the police on 19 June 1903, Bern, Switzerland
A portrait of Mussolini in the early 1900s
Mussolini as director of Avanti!
Members of Italy's Arditi corps in 1918 holding daggers, a symbol of their group. The Arditi black uniform and use of the fez were adopted by Mussolini in the creation of his Fascist movement.
Mussolini as an Italian soldier, 1917
Mussolini as a bersagliere during WWI
The platform of Fasci italiani di combattimento, as published in "Il Popolo d'Italia" on 6 June 1919
Mussolini in the 1920s
Mussolini and the Quadrumvirsduring the March on Rome in 1922: from left to right: Michele Bianchi, Emilio De Bono, Italo Balbo, and Cesare Maria De Vecchi
Socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti was murdered a few days after he openly denounced fascist violence during the 1924 elections.
Mussolini in his early years in power
The inauguration of Littoria in 1932
Portrait of Mussolini
From 1925, Mussolini styled himself Il Duce (the leader)
Benito Mussolini and Fascist Blackshirt youth in 1935
Colorized photograph of Mussolini wearing the commander-in-chief uniform
Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War
From left to right:
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Italian Foreign Minister Count Ciano, as they prepare to sign the Munich Agreement
Mussolini's personal standard
On 25 October 1936, an alliance was declared between Italy and Germany, which came to be known as the Rome-Berlin Axis.
Mussolini in a portrait
Italian Empire in 1939
Cover of Newsweek magazine, 13 May 1940, headlined: "Il Duce: key man of the Mediterranean"
Mussolini in an official portrait
Marshal Pietro Badoglio succeeded Mussolini as Prime Minister.
Mussolini rescued by German troops from his prison in Campo Imperatore on 12 September 1943.
Italian Social Republic (RSI) as of 1943 in yellow and green. The green areas were German military operational zones under direct German administration.
Mussolini inspecting fortifications, 1944
A rain-soaked Mussolini reviewing adolescent soldiers in northern Italy, late 1944.
Cross marking the place in Mezzegra where Mussolini was shot
From left to right, the bodies of Bombacci, Mussolini, Petacci, Pavolini and Starace in Piazzale Loreto, 1945.
Mussolini with Adolf Hitler in Berlin, 1937
Front page of the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera on 11 November 1938: the fascist regime has approved the racial laws.
Tomb of Mussolini in the family crypt, in the cemetery of Predappio

In 1936, Ethiopia was conquered following the Second Italo–Ethiopian War and merged into Italian East Africa (AOI) with Eritrea and Somalia.

In the end, the League of Nations proved powerless, and Greece was forced to comply with Italian demands.

The three emblems in use: Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

Humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide, which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

Humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide, which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

The three emblems in use: Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal
The three emblems in use: Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal
The Red Cross, after the Battle of Gravelotte in 1870.
Henry Dunant, author of A Memory of Solferino
Original document of the First Geneva Convention, 1864
Cross of the Serbian Red Cross Society
"Committee of the Five": Gustave Moynier, Guillaume-Henri Dufour, Henry Dunant, Louis Appia, Théodore Maunoir
Memorial commemorating the first use of the Red Cross symbol in an armed conflict during the Battle of Dybbøl (Denmark) in 1864; jointly erected in 1989 by the national Red Cross societies of Denmark and Germany
War 1914–1918. Geneva, Rath Museum. International Prisoners-of-War Agency. Researches department. German section. Express messages and communications to families.
Group picture of the volunteers – mostly women – in front of the Musée Rath in 1914
Red Cross ambulance from 1917
Ernest Hemingway in a US Red Cross Hospital in 1918
War 1939–1945. Geneva, Central Prisoners of war Agency, Electoral building / Palace of the General Council
Photo taken by Rossel at Theresienstadt. Most of the children were murdered at Auschwitz in the fall of 1944.
Marcel Junod, delegate of the ICRC, visiting POWs in Germany
Telegram by ICRC delegate Fritz Bilfinger from Hiroshima three weeks after the atomic bombing
Budapest 1945. Repatriation of 2000 Italian prisoners of war.
The ICRC Headquarters in Geneva
Henry Davison, Founding father of the League of Red Cross societies
A stamp from the Faroe Islands
A stamp from Turkey
Peace Nobel Prize ceremony in 1963. From left to right: Crown Prince Harald of Norway, King Olav of Norway, ICRC president Leopold Boissier, League Chairman John A. MacAulay.
Entry to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Museum in Geneva
A Turkish Red Crescent staff conducting activities for children
The emblem of the International Committee of the Red Cross (French: Comité international de la Croix-rouge)
Emblem of the IFRC
Ambulance of the Italian Red Cross
An ambulance owned by the Mexican Red Cross
An Israeli stamp commemorating the 25th anniversary of Magen David Adom, issued 11 January 1955
The Logistics Centre of the Finnish Red Cross in Tampere, Finland
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The flag of Switzerland – basis of the original Red Cross
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Flag of the Ottoman Empire (later Turkey) – basis of original Red Crescent
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International emblem for Magen David Adom outside Israel.
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A Magen David Adom worker in the Tel Aviv civil defense, 1939
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Gōtarō Mikami's Red Cross flag with which in 1905 he deflected from his field hospital in Manchuria the onslaught of the Russian army
The MV Red Cross in New York harbour ca 1915

In 1920, the task of repatriation was handed over to the newly founded League of Nations, which appointed the Norwegian diplomat and scientist Fridtjof Nansen as its "High Commissioner for Repatriation of the War Prisoners".

During the Abyssinian war between Ethiopia and Italy from 1935 to 1936, the League contributed aid supplies worth about 1.7 million Swiss francs.

Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers

Abyssinia Crisis

International crisis in 1935 that originated in what was called the Walwal incident during the ongoing conflict between the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Ethiopia (then commonly known as "Abyssinia").

International crisis in 1935 that originated in what was called the Walwal incident during the ongoing conflict between the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Ethiopia (then commonly known as "Abyssinia").

Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers

The League of Nations ruled against Italy and voted for economic sanctions,

Italy ignored the sanctions, quit the League, made special deals with the United Kingdom and France and ultimately annexed and occupied Abyssinia after it had won the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.

Haile Selassie in full dress uniform, 1970

Haile Selassie

Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974.

Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974.

Haile Selassie in full dress uniform, 1970
Ras Makonnen Woldemikael and his son Lij Tafari Makonnen
Dejazmatch Tafari, as governor of Harar
Empress Zewditu with one of her trusted priests
Ras Tafari at his investiture as regent on 11 February 1917
Haile Selassie with President Lyndon B. Johnson at the White House
Cover of Time magazine, 3 November 1930
The Emperor with President Kennedy outside the White House
Haile Selassie in 1934
When the struggle to resist Italy appeared doomed, Haile Selassie traveled to the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela for fasting and prayer.
The Emperor arrives in Jerusalem. May 1936
A plate from the dinner service sold by Haile Selassie in England in 1937
Haile Selassie in 1942
Newspaper illustration drawn by Charles H. Alston for the U.S. Office of War Information Domestic Operations Branch News Bureau, 1943
Meeting with Crown Prince Akihito in 1955
Haile Selassie with Brigadier Daniel Sandford (left) and Colonel Wingate (right) in Dambacha Fort, after its capture, 15 April 1941
Plaque commemorating the visit of Haile Selassie I to Mexico, 1954 – Etiopía Station, line 3 of the Mexico City Metro
Haile Selassie photographed during a radio broadcast
Haile Selassie with U.S. President John F. Kennedy, October 1963
Haile Selassie with President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt in Addis Ababa for the Organisation of African Unity summit, 1963.
A parade in honor of Haile Selassie, turns onto Pennsylvania Avenue from New York Avenue; crowds line the street. Washington, D.C 1963
Haile Selassie I in Toledo (Spain) in April 1971. Picture by Eduardo Butragueño.
The 1973 oil crisis, the severity of which is demonstrated by this graph, hit Ethiopia amidst a devastating famine, compounding its effect and undermining support for the emperor.
The deposition of Emperor Haile Selassie I (above rear window) from the Jubilee Palace on 12 September 1974, marking the coup d'état's action on that day and the assumption of power by the Derg.
Prince Makonnen, son of Haile Selassie I

He led the failed efforts to defend Ethiopia during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War and spent most of the period of Italian occupation exiled in England.

He secured Ethiopia's admission to the League of Nations in 1923 by promising to eradicate slavery; each emperor since Tewodros II had issued proclamations to halt slavery, but without effect: the internationally scorned practice persisted well into Haile Selassie's reign with an estimated 2 million slaves in Ethiopia in the early 1930s.

President Woodrow Wilson of the United States was an avowed opponent of secret diplomacy.

Hoare–Laval Pact

President Woodrow Wilson of the United States was an avowed opponent of secret diplomacy.

The Hoare–Laval Pact was an initially secret December 1935 proposal by British Foreign Secretary Samuel Hoare and French Prime Minister Pierre Laval for ending the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.

In the United Kingdom many people and the official opposition supported League of Nations sanctions against Fascist Italy, as did the Dominions.

Austrian citizens gather in the Heldenplatz to hear Hitler's declaration of annexation.

Anschluss

The annexation of the Federal State of Austria into the German Reich on 13 March 1938.

The annexation of the Federal State of Austria into the German Reich on 13 March 1938.

Austrian citizens gather in the Heldenplatz to hear Hitler's declaration of annexation.
The territory of the German Reich and Austria after World War I
The German Confederation 1815-1866
The dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918
German military map during the Second World War, with no border between Germany and Austria (top right; also showing Alsace as part of Germany because it was directly incorporated into the Reich)
Soldiers of the Austrian Federal Army in Vienna, 12 February 1934.
Supporters of Schuschnigg campaigning for the independence of Austria in March 1938, shortly before the Anschluss.
Seyss-Inquart and Hitler with Himmler and Heydrich to the right in Vienna, March 1938
Cheering crowds greet the Nazis in Vienna.
Hitler crosses the border into Austria in March 1938.
Hitler announces the Anschluss on the Heldenplatz, Vienna, 15 March 1938.
Immediately after the Anschluss, Vienna’s Jews were forced to wash pro-independence slogans from the city’s pavements.
Voting ballot from 10 April 1938. The ballot text reads "Do you agree with the reunification of Austria with the German Reich that was enacted on 13 March 1938, and do you vote for the party of our leader Adolf Hitler?" The large circle is labelled "Yes", the smaller "No".
Gate to the garage yard in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp
"Stairs of Death" at Mauthausen-Gusen with prisoners forced to carry a granite block up 186 steps to the top of the quarry.
A map showing the border changes of Germany in the various years 1933 (red), 1939 (pink) and 1943 (orange).
"Red-White-Red Book" published by the Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1946 describes the events of Austria between 1938-1945 by the Founders of the Second Austrian Republic.
The SS raid a Jewish community center, Vienna, March 1938.

However, Mussolini needed German support in Ethiopia (see Second Italo-Abyssinian War).

On 18 March 1938, the German government communicated to the Secretary General of the League of Nations about the inclusion of Austria.

Clockwise from top-left: members of the XI International Brigade at the Battle of Belchite; Granollers after being bombed by Nationalists aviation in 1938; Bombing of an airfield in Spanish Morocco; Republican soldiers at the siege of the Alcázar; Nationalist soldiers operating an anti-aircraft gun; The Lincoln Battalion

Spanish Civil War

Civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939 between the Republicans and the Nationalists.

Civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939 between the Republicans and the Nationalists.

Clockwise from top-left: members of the XI International Brigade at the Battle of Belchite; Granollers after being bombed by Nationalists aviation in 1938; Bombing of an airfield in Spanish Morocco; Republican soldiers at the siege of the Alcázar; Nationalist soldiers operating an anti-aircraft gun; The Lincoln Battalion
On 12 April 1931, the Republicans won the elections and the Spanish Second Republic was proclaimed two days later. King Alfonso XIII went into exile.
General Emilio Mola was the chief planner of the coup.
Murder of prominent parliamentary conservative José Calvo Sotelo was a major catalyst for the coup.
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Republican and Nationalist conscription age limits
Republican forces during the battle of Irún in 1936
Manuel Azaña was the intellectual leader of the Second Republic and headman of the Republican side during most of the Civil War.
Republican volunteers at Teruel, 1936
Militias of the Falange in Saragossa, October 1936
Italian troops manning a 10 cm howitzer at Guadalajara, 1937
German officer from the Condor Legion instructing Nationalist infantry soldiers, Ávila
Condor Legion Junkers Ju 87
The Etkar André battalion of the International Brigades
Polish volunteers in the International Brigades
Review of Soviet armored fighting vehicles used to equip the Republican People's Army during the Spanish Civil War
Loire 46 of the Spanish Republican Air Force.
Map showing Spain in September 1936:
Surrender of Republican soldiers in the Somosierra area, 1936
Leonese anarchist Buenaventura Durruti died after he arrived in Madrid to reinforce the morale of the Republicans during an unsuccessful Francoist siege in Madrid. His funeral, headed (in the image) by Lluís Companys, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia, and Joan García i Oliver, Minister of Justice of the Spanish Republic, was in Barcelona.
Map showing Spain in October 1937:
Ruins of Guernica
Map showing Spain in July 1938:
Map showing Spain in February 1939:
Franco arriving in San Sebastian in 1939
Franco declares the end of the war, though small pockets of Republicans fought on.
Children preparing for evacuation, some giving the Republican salute. The Republicans showed a raised fist whereas the Nationalists gave the Roman salute.
one-peseta Nationalist note, 1937
one-peseta Republican note, 1937
Women pleading with Nationalists for the lives of prisoners, Constantina, 1936
Twenty-six republicans were assassinated by Franco's Nationalists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, between August and September 1936. This mass grave is located at the small town of Estépar, in Burgos Province. The excavation occurred in July–August 2014.
Victims of the Paracuellos massacre committed by the Republicans. The Republicans committed many acts of torture, murder, and war crimes throughout the war known as the Red Terror (Spain).
Spanish Civil War grave sites. Location of known burial places. Colors refer to the type of intervention that has been carried out. Green: No Interventions Undertaken so far. White: Missing grave. Yellow: Transferred to the Valle de los Caídos. Red: Fully or Partially Exhumed. Blue star: Valle de los Caídos. Source: Ministry of Justice of Spain
Nationalist SM.81 aircraft bomb Madrid in late November 1936.
Children take refuge during the Francoist bombing over Madrid (1936–1937). In spite of that Republicans managed to repulse this siege.
Bombing in Barcelona, 1938
The Puente Nuevo bridge, Ronda. Both Nationalists and Republicans are claimed to have thrown prisoners from the bridge to their deaths in the canyon.
"Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus by Communist militiamen. The photograph in the London Daily Mail had the caption "Spanish Reds' war on religion".
Two women and a man posing at the Siege of the Alcázar in Toledo, 1936
Women from FAI during the Spanish Social Revolution.
In Catalonia, a square near the Barcelona waterfront named Plaça de George Orwell.
Tribute and plaque in memory of murdered or persecuted teachers, Navarre, 1936 and later
Spanish children in exile in Mexico

The League of Nations' reaction to the war was influenced by a fear of communism, and was insufficient to contain the massive importation of arms and other war resources by the fighting factions.

As the conquest of Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War made the Italian government confident in its military power, Benito Mussolini joined the war to secure Fascist control of the Mediterranean, supporting the Nationalists to a greater extent than the National-Socialists did.

Italy

Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.
The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin)
Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds.
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Italian Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I. It was inaugurated in 1911, on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy.
The fascist dictator Benito Mussolini titled himself Duce and ruled the country from 1922 to 1943.
Areas controlled by the Italian Empire at its peak
Italian partisans in Milan during the Italian Civil War, April 1945
Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union
Funerals of the victims of the Bologna bombing of 2 August 1980, the deadliest attack ever perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead
Italian government task force to face the COVID-19 emergency
Topographic map of Italy
Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands
National and regional parks in Italy
Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park.
The Italian wolf, the national animal of Italy
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Italy.
The Supreme Court of Cassation, Rome
An Alfa Romeo 159 vehicle of the Carabinieri corps
Group photo of the G7 leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina
Heraldic coat of arms of the Italian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Italy exports, 2019
Milan is the economic capital of Italy, and is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.
A Carrara marble quarry
The Autostrada dei Laghi ("Lakes Motorway"), the first motorway built in the world
FS' Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h
Trieste, the main port of the northern Adriatic and starting point of the Transalpine Pipeline
ENI is considered one of the world's oil and gas "Supermajors".
Solar panels in Piombino. Italy is one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy.
Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, physics and astronomy
Enrico Fermi, creator of the world's first first nuclear reactor
The Amalfi Coast is one of Italy's major tourist destinations.
Map of Italy's population density at the 2011 census
Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe and North Africa.
Linguistic map showing the languages spoken in Italy
Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory
Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the world's oldest academic institution.
Olive oil and vegetables are central to the Mediterranean diet.
Carnival of Venice
The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
The Birth of Venus (1484–1486), Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the mount of Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco, 1465
Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of modern political science and ethics
Pinocchio is one of the world's most translated books and a canonical piece of children's literature.
Clockwise from top left: Thomas Aquinas, proponent of natural theology and the Father of Thomism; Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the Western world; Cesare Beccaria, considered the Father of criminal justice and modern criminal law; and Maria Montessori, credited with the creation of the Montessori education
La Scala opera house
Statues of Pantalone and Harlequin, two stock characters from the Commedia dell'arte, in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala
Dario Fo, one of the most widely performed playwrights in modern theatre, received international acclaim for his highly improvisational style.
Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire
Luciano Pavarotti, considered one of the finest tenors of the 20th century and the "King of the High Cs"
Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of Italo disco and electronic dance music, is known as the "Father of disco".
Entrance to Cinecittà in Rome
The Azzurri in 2012. Football is the most popular sport in Italy.
Starting in 1909, the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours' second oldest.
A Ferrari SF21 by Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful Formula One team
Prada shop at Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan
The traditional recipe for spaghetti with tomato and basil sauce
Italian wine and salumi
The Frecce Tricolori, with the smoke trails representing the national colours of Italy, during the celebrations of the Festa della Repubblica
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world.

Historians regard Mutilated victory as a "political myth", used by fascists to fuel Italian imperialism and obscure the successes of liberal Italy in the aftermath of World War I. Italy also gained a permanent seat in the League of Nations's executive council.

In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and founded Italian East Africa, resulting in an international alienation and leading to Italy's withdrawal from the League of Nations; Italy allied with Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan and strongly supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish civil war.