Cover of the English version
Anachronous world map showing member states of the League during its 26-year history.
The heads of the "Big Four" nations at the Paris Peace Conference, 27 May 1919. From left to right: David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson
The 1864 Geneva Convention, one of the earliest formulations of international law
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George
The League to Enforce Peace published this full-page promotion in The New York Times on Christmas Day 1918. It resolved that the League "should ensure peace by eliminating causes of dissension, by deciding controversies by peaceable means, and by uniting the potential force of all the members as a standing menace against any nation that seeks to upset the peace of the world".
German delegate Johannes Bell signing the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors, with various Allied delegations sitting and standing in front of him
On his December 1918 trip to Europe, Woodrow Wilson gave speeches that "reaffirmed that the making of peace and the creation of a League of Nations must be accomplished as one single objective".
German colonies (light blue) were made into League of Nations mandates.
In 1924, the headquarters of the League was named "Palais Wilson", after Woodrow Wilson, who was credited as the "Founder of the League of Nations"
Workmen decommissioning a heavy gun, to comply with the treaty
League of Nations Organisation chart
Location of the Rhineland (yellow)
Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League's headquarters from 1936 until its dissolution in 1946
A British news placard announcing the signing of the peace treaty
Child labour in a coal mine, United States, c. 1912
Senator Borah, Lodge and Johnson refuse Lady Peace a seat, referring to efforts by Republican isolationists to block ratification of Treaty of Versailles establishing the League of Nations
Child labour in Kamerun in 1919
German delegates in Versailles: Professor Walther Schücking, Reichspostminister Johannes Giesberts, Justice Minister Otto Landsberg, Foreign Minister Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau, Prussian State President Robert Leinert, and financial advisor Carl Melchior
A sample Nansen passport
Demonstration against the treaty in front of the Reichstag
A map of the world in 1920–45, which shows the League of Nations members during its history
Medal issued by the Japanese authorities in 1919, commemorating the Treaty of Versailles. Obv: Flags of the five allies of World War I. Rev: Peace standing in Oriental attire with the Palace of Versailles in the background
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations concerning the Manchurian Crisis in 1932.
A crowd awaits the plebiscite results in Oppeln
Emperor Haile Selassie I going into exile in Bath, England via Jerusalem
French soldiers in the Ruhr, which resulted in the American withdrawal from the Rhineland
The Gap in the Bridge; the sign reads "This League of Nations Bridge was designed by the President of the U.S.A."
Cartoon from Punch magazine, 10 December 1920, satirising the gap left by the US not joining the League.
Adolf Hitler announcing the Anschluß in violation of Art. 80 on the Heldenplatz, Vienna, 15 March 1938
World map showing member states of the League of Nations (in green and red) on 18 April 1946, when the League of Nations ceased to exist.
John Maynard Keynes, the principal representative of the British Treasury, referred to the Treaty of Versailles as a "Carthaginian peace".
League of Nations archives, Geneva.
Commemorative medal issued in 1929 in the Republic of Weimar on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Treaty of Versailles. The obverse depicts George Clemenceau presenting a bound treaty, decorated with skull and crossbones to Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau. Other members of the Conference are standing behind Clemenceau, including Lloyd-George, Wilson and Orlando.
American political cartoon depicting the contemporary view of German reparations, 1921
Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (as of 1923)

The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.

- Treaty of Versailles

The Covenant of the League of Nations was signed on 28 June 1919 as Part I of the Treaty of Versailles, and it became effective together with the rest of the Treaty on 10 January 1920.

- League of Nations

36 related topics

Alpha

Clockwise from the top: The road to Bapaume in the aftermath of the Battle of the Somme, 1916

British Mark V tanks crossing the Hindenburg Line, 1918

 sinking after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, 1915

A British Vickers machine gun crew wearing gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, 1916

German Albatros D.III biplane fighters near Douai, France, 1917

World War I

World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918.

World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918.

Clockwise from the top: The road to Bapaume in the aftermath of the Battle of the Somme, 1916

British Mark V tanks crossing the Hindenburg Line, 1918

 sinking after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, 1915

A British Vickers machine gun crew wearing gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, 1916

German Albatros D.III biplane fighters near Douai, France, 1917
Rival military coalitions in 1914: Triple Entente in green; Triple Alliance in brown. Only the Triple Alliance was a formal "alliance"; the others listed were informal patterns of support.
, a, Germany's first response to the British Dreadnought
Sarajevo citizens reading a poster with the proclamation of the Austrian annexation in 1908
Traditionally thought to show the arrest of Gavrilo Princip (right), historians now believe this photo depicts an innocent bystander, Ferdinand Behr
Crowds on the streets in the aftermath of the anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, 29 June 1914
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910. Bosnia-Herzegovina was annexed in 1908.
Cheering crowds in London and Paris on the day war was declared.
Serbian Army Blériot XI "Oluj", 1915
German soldiers on the way to the front in 1914; at this stage, all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.
French bayonet charge during the Battle of the Frontiers; by the end of August, French casualties exceeded 260,000, including 75,000 dead.
World empires and colonies around 1914
The British Indian infantry divisions were withdrawn from France in December 1915, and sent to Mesopotamia.
Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment at Ovillers-la-Boisselle, on the Somme, July 1916
Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench, first day on the Somme, 1916
Dead German soldiers at Somme 1916
King George V (front left) and a group of officials inspect a British munitions factory in 1917.
Battleships of the Hochseeflotte, 1917
U-155 exhibited near Tower Bridge in London, after the 1918 Armistice
Refugee transport from Serbia in Leibnitz, Styria, 1914
Bulgarian soldiers in a trench, preparing to fire against an incoming aeroplane
Austro-Hungarian troops executing captured Serbians, 1917. Serbia lost about 850,000 people during the war, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Australian troops charging near a Turkish trench during the Gallipoli Campaign
Mehmed V greeting Wilhelm II on his arrival at Constantinople
Kaiser Wilhelm II inspecting Turkish troops of the 15th Corps in East Galicia, Austria-Hungary (now Poland). Prince Leopold of Bavaria, the Supreme Commander of the German Army on the Eastern Front, is second from the left.
Russian forest trench at the Battle of Sarikamish, 1914–1915
Isonzo Offensives 1915-1917
Austro-Hungarian trench at 3,850 metres in the Ortler Alps, one of the most challenging fronts of the war
Romanian troops during the Battle of Mărășești, 1917
Emperor Nicholas II and Commander-in-Chief Nikolai Nikolaevich in the captured Przemysl. The Russian Siege of Przemyśl was the longest siege of the war.
"They shall not pass", a phrase typically associated with the defence of Verdun
President Wilson asking Congress to declare war on Germany, 2 April 1917
The Allied Avenue, 1917 painting by Childe Hassam, that depicts Manhattan's Fifth Avenue decorated with flags from Allied nations
French infantry advance on the Chemin des Dames, April 1917
Canadian Corps troops at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, 1917
10.5 cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 and Ottoman artillerymen at Hareira in 1917 before the Southern Palestine offensive
British artillery battery on Mount Scopus in the Battle of Jerusalem, 1917. Foreground, a battery of 16 heavy guns. Background, conical tents and support vehicles.
Ottoman troops during the Mesopotamian campaign
French soldiers under General Gouraud, with machine guns amongst the ruins of a cathedral near the Marne, 1918
British 55th (West Lancashire) Division soldiers blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918
Between April and November 1918, the Allies increased their front-line rifle strength while German strength fell by half.
Aerial view of ruins of Vaux-devant-Damloup, France, 1918
16th Bn (Canadian Scottish), advancing during the Battle of the Canal du Nord, 1918
An American major, piloting an observation balloon near the front, 1918
German Revolution, Kiel, 1918
Italian troops reach Trento during the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, 1918. Italy's victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front and secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Ferdinand Foch, second from right, pictured outside the carriage in Compiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war there. The carriage was later chosen by Nazi Germany as the symbolic setting of Pétain's June 1940 armistice.
The signing of the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, by Sir William Orpen
Greek prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos signing the Treaty of Sèvres
Dissolution of Austria-Hungary after war
Map of territorial changes in Europe after World WarI (as of 1923)
Czechoslovak Legion, Vladivostok, 1918
Transporting Ottoman wounded at Sirkeci
Emergency military hospital during the Spanish flu pandemic, which killed about 675,000 people in the United States alone, Camp Funston, Kansas, 1918
Tanks on parade in London at the end of World War I
A Russian armoured car, 1919
38-cm "Lange Max" of Koekelare (Leugenboom),the biggest gun in the world in 1917
A Canadian soldier with mustard gas burns, c. 1917–1918
British Vickers machine gun, 1917
The
Royal Air Force Sopwith Camel. In April 1917, the average life expectancy of a British pilot on the Western Front was 93 flying hours.
Luftstreitkräfte Fokker Dr.I being inspected by Manfred von Richthofen, also known as the Red Baron.
Mobile radio station in German South West Africa, using a hydrogen balloon to lift the antenna
Austro-Hungarian soldiers executing men and women in Serbia, 1916
HMS Baralong
French soldiers making a gas and flame attack on German trenches in Flanders
Armenians killed during the Armenian Genocide. Image taken from Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, written by Henry Morgenthau Sr. and published in 1918.
German prisoners in a French prison camp during the later part of the war
British prisoners guarded by Ottoman forces after the First Battle of Gaza in 1917
Poster urging women to join the British war effort, published by the Young Women's Christian Association
Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps First Contingent in Bermuda, winter 1914–1915, before joining 1 Lincolnshire Regiment in France in June 1915. The dozen remaining after Guedecourt on 25 September 1916, merged with a Second Contingent. The two contingents suffered 75% casualties.
Sackville Street (now O'Connell Street) after the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin
The Deserter, 1916: Anti-war cartoon depicting Jesus facing a firing squad with soldiers from five European countries
Possible execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies in 1917. The original French text accompanying this photograph notes, however, that the uniforms are those of 1914–15 and that the execution may be that of a spy at the beginning of the war.
Bolshevik leaders Lenin and Trotsky promised "Peace, Land and Bread" to the impoverished masses
Young men registering for conscription, New York City, 5 June 1917
Military recruitment in Melbourne, Australia, 1914
British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914
1917 political cartoon about the Zimmermann Telegram. The message was intercepted by the British; its publication caused outrage and contributed to the U.S. entry into World War I.
The Italian Redipuglia War Memorial, which contains the remains of 100,187 soldiers
A typical village war memorial to soldiers killed in World War I
A 1919 book for veterans, from the US War Department
Poster showing women workers, 1915
War memorial to soldiers of the 49th Bengalee Regiment (Bangali Platoon) in Kolkata, India, who died in the war.

The Paris Peace Conference of 1919–1920 imposed various settlements on the defeated powers, with the best-known of these being the Treaty of Versailles.

The 1919 Treaty of Versailles dealt with Germany and, building on Wilson's 14th point, brought into being the League of Nations on 28 June 1919.

Johannes Bell of Germany is portrayed as signing the peace treaties on 28 June 1919 in The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, by Sir William Orpen.

Paris Peace Conference (1919–1920)

The formal meeting in 1919 and 1920 of the victorious Allies after the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

The formal meeting in 1919 and 1920 of the victorious Allies after the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

Johannes Bell of Germany is portrayed as signing the peace treaties on 28 June 1919 in The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, by Sir William Orpen.
Mandates of the League of Nations
The British Air Section at the conference
The Australian delegation, with Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes in the center
Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, and David Lloyd George confer at the Paris Peace Conference (Noël Dorville, 1919)
From left to right: Marshal Ferdinand Foch, Clemenceau, Lloyd George and the Italians Vittorio Emanuele Orlando and Sidney Sonnino
The Japanese delegation at the Paris Peace Conference
The Japanese delegation at the Conference, with (seated left to right) former Foreign Minister Baron Makino Nobuaki, former Prime Minister Marquis Saionji Kinmochi, and Japanese Ambassador to Great Britain Viscount Chinda Sutemi
"The Big Four" made all the major decisions at the Paris Peace Conference (from left to right, David Lloyd George of Britain, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the United States).
Ukraine map presented by the Ukrainian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference in a bid that was ultimately rejected, which led to the incorporation of Ukraine into the Soviet Union. The Kuban was then mostly Ukrainian.
European Theatre of the Russian Civil War and three South Caucasian republics in the summer of 1918
The Zionist state claimed at the conference
British memorandum on Palestine before the conference
Proposal of the autonomous or independant region by the Aromanian delegation, known as "Terra Vlachorum", "Vlach" being another term used by the Aromanian to identify themselves

Its major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations and the five peace treaties with the defeated states; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to Britain and France; the imposition of reparations upon Germany; and the drawing of new national boundaries, sometimes involving plebiscites, to reflect ethnic boundaries more closely.

The main result was the Treaty of Versailles with Germany; Article 231 of the treaty placed the whole guilt for the war on "the aggression of Germany and her allies".

Official portrait, 1938

Adolf Hitler

Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Germany from 1933 until his death in 1945.

Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Germany from 1933 until his death in 1945.

Official portrait, 1938
Adolf Hitler as an infant (
The house in Leonding, Austria where Hitler spent his early adolescence (photo taken in July 2012)
The Alter Hof in Munich. Watercolour by Adolf Hitler, 1914
Hitler (far right, seated) with his army comrades of the Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment16 (
Hitler's German Workers' Party (DAP) membership card
Hitler poses for the camera, 1930
Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch trial, 1 April 1924. From left to right: Heinz Pernet, Friedrich Weber, Wilhelm Frick, Hermann Kriebel, Erich Ludendorff, Hitler, Wilhelm Brückner, Ernst Röhm, and Robert Wagner.
Dust jacket of Mein Kampf (1926–28 edition)
Hitler and Nazi Party treasurer Franz Xaver Schwarz at the dedication of the renovation of the Palais Barlow on Brienner Straße in Munich into the Brown House headquarters, December 1930
Hitler, at the window of the Reich Chancellery, receives an ovation on the evening of his inauguration as chancellor, 30 January 1933
Hitler and Paul von Hindenburg on the Day of Potsdam, 21 March 1933
In 1934, Hitler became Germany's head of state with the title of Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor of the Reich).
Hitler's personal standard
Ceremony honouring the dead (Totenehrung) on the terrace in front of the Hall of Honour (Ehrenhalle) at the Nazi party rally grounds, Nuremberg, September 1934
Benito Mussolini with Hitler on 25 October 1936, when the axis between Italy and Germany was declared.
Hitler and the Japanese foreign minister, Yōsuke Matsuoka, at a meeting in Berlin in March 1941. In the background is Joachim von Ribbentrop.
October 1938: Hitler is driven through the crowd in Cheb (Eger), in the Sudetenland
Hitler reviews troops on the march during the campaign against Poland (September 1939).
Hitler visits Paris with architect Albert Speer (left) and sculptor Arno Breker (right), 23 June 1940
Boundaries of the Nazi planned Greater Germanic Reich
Hitler announcing the declaration of war against the United States to the Reichstag on 11 December 1941
The destroyed map room at the Wolf's Lair, Hitler's eastern command post, after the 20 July plot
Hitler on 20 April 1945 in his last public appearance, in the Reich Chancellery garden, ten days before he and Eva Braun committed suicide
Front page of the US Armed Forces newspaper, Stars and Stripes, 2 May 1945, announcing Hitler's death
A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in the liberated Buchenwald concentration camp (April 1945)
Hitler's order for Aktion T4, dated 1 September 1939
Hitler during a meeting at the headquarters of Army Group South in June 1942
Hitler in 1942 with his long-time lover Eva Braun.
Hitler shaking hands with Bishop Ludwig Müller in Germany in the 1930s
Outside the building in Braunau am Inn, Austria, where Hitler was born, is a memorial stone placed as a reminder of the horrors of World War II. The inscription translates as:
 
For peace, freedom
and democracy
never again fascism
millions of dead warn [us]

After his early release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda.

Germany withdrew from the League of Nations and the World Disarmament Conference in October 1933.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, 1919

Woodrow Wilson

American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, 1919
Wilson, c. undefined mid-1870s
Ellen Wilson in 1912
Wilson in 1902
Prospect House, Wilson's home on Princeton's campus
Governor Wilson, 1911
Results of the 1910 gubernatorial election in New Jersey. Wilson won the counties in blue.
1912 electoral vote map
Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet (1918)
Wilson giving his first State of the Union address, the first such address since 1801
Map of Federal Reserve Districts–black circles, Federal Reserve Banks–black squares, District branches–red circles and Washington HQ–star/black circle
In a 1913 cartoon, Wilson primes the economic pump with tariff, currency and antitrust laws
Official presidential portrait of Woodrow Wilson (1913)
Uncle Sam entering Mexico in 1916 to punish Pancho Villa. Uncle Sam says "I've had about enough of this."
Wilson and "Jingo", the American War Dog. The editorial cartoon ridicules jingoes baying for war.
The Wilson family
Wilson accepts the Democratic Party nomination, 1916
1916 electoral vote map
Map of the great powers and their empires in 1914
Liberty Loan drive in front of City Hall, New Orleans. On City Hall is a banner reading "Food will win the war—don't waste it".
Women workers in ordnance shops, Pennsylvania, 1918
The "Big Four" at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, following the end of World War I. Wilson is standing next to Georges Clemenceau at right.
Several new European states were established at the Paris Peace Conference
Wilson returning from the Versailles Peace Conference, 1919.
June 3, 1919, Newspapers of the 1919 bombings
Republican nominee Warren G. Harding defeated Democratic nominee James Cox in the 1920 election
The final resting place of Woodrow Wilson at the Washington National Cathedral
Quotation from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People as reproduced in the film The Birth of a Nation.
World War I draft card, the lower left corner to be removed by men of African background to help keep the military segregated
Political cartoon published in New York Evening Mail about the East St. Louis riots of 1917. Original caption reads "Mr. President, why not make America safe for democracy?"
1934 $100,000 gold certificate depicting Wilson.
Stamps memorializing Wilson
Woodrow Wilson Monument in Prague

He was the leading architect of the League of Nations, and his progressive stance on foreign policy came to be known as Wilsonianism.

It was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles that he signed.

Second Polish Republic

Country in Central and Eastern Europe that existed between 1918 and 1939.

Country in Central and Eastern Europe that existed between 1918 and 1939.

The Second Polish Republic in 1930
Coat of arms of Poland, 1919-1927
The Second Polish Republic in 1930
Polish defences at Miłosna, during the decisive Battle of Warsaw, August 1920
Marshal Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922
The May Coup d'État (1926)
Ignacy Mościcki, President of Poland (left), Warsaw, 10 November 1936, awarding the Marshal's buława to Edward Rydz-Śmigły
The PZL.37 Łoś was a Polish twin-engine medium bomber.
Polish pavilion at Expo 1937 in Paris
Polish pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City
Poland's MS Batory, and MS Piłsudski, at the sea port of Gdynia, 18 December 1937
The Eastern Trade Fair in Lwów, 1936
Gdynia, a modern Polish seaport established in 1926
Industry and communications in Poland before the start of the Second World War
The CWS T-1 Torpedo was the first serially-built car manufactured in Poland.
Ciągówka Ursus was the first Polish farm tractor, produced from 1922 to 1927 in the Ursus Factory.
Prime Minister Kazimierz Bartel, also a scholar and mathematician
The National Museum in Warsaw (Polish: Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie), popularly known as the MNW, opened in 1938.
Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski, Polish mathematicians and cryptologists who worked at breaking the German Enigma ciphers before and during the Second World War
Poland's population density in 1930
Contemporary map showing language frequency in 1931 across Poland; red: more than 50% native Polish speakers; green: more than 50% native language other than Polish, including Yiddish, Hebrew, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Russian and less frequent others
Officers from the Second Mountain Brigade of the Polish Legions in the First World War establishing the Polish-Czechoslovak border; they are pictured near the summit of Popadia in Gorgany during the formation of the Second Republic, 1915.
Physical map of the Second Polish Republic
Polish infantry marching, 1939
Polish soldiers with anti-aircraft artillery near Warsaw Central Station during the first days of September, 1939
Polish 7TP light tanks
ORP Orzeł was the lead ship of her class of submarines serving in the Polish Navy during the Second World War.

The victorious Allies of the First World War confirmed the rebirth of Poland in the Treaty of Versailles of June 1919.

The extent of the eastern half of the interwar territory of Poland was settled diplomatically in 1922 and internationally recognised by the League of Nations.

Free City of Danzig

Semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.

Semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.

Danzig, surrounded by Germany and Poland
Passport of the Free City of Danzig
Danzig, surrounded by Germany and Poland
Polish passport issued at Danzig by the "Polish Commission for Gdańsk" in 1935 and extended again in 1937, before the holder immigrated to British Palestine the following year
Danzig police arrest a protester in the aftermath of the 1933 Parliamentary Elections
Population density of Poland and the Free City of Danzig (Gdańsk), 1930
Eddi Arent in 1971
Ingrid van Bergen in 2010
Günter Grass in 2006
Klaus Kinski in the 1980s
Rupert Neudeck 2007
Wolfgang Völz in 2011
The Lutheran Supreme Parish Church of St. Mary's in Danzig's Rechtstadt quarter
The Archcathedral of the Holy Trinity, Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Bernard in Oliva, Danzig
The Great Synagogue on Reitbahn Street in Danzig's Rechtstadt quarter
Flag of the Danzig Senate
German Nazi propaganda poster: "Danzig is German"
Hitler gives a speech in Danzig on 19 September 1939
1 September 1939: German troops remove Polish insignia at the Polish–Danzig border near Zoppot

It was created on 15 November 1920 in accordance with the terms of Article 100 (Section XI of Part III) of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles after the end of World War I.

The Free City was under League of Nations protection and put into a binding customs union with Poland.

Prussia

Historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centered on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea.

Historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centered on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea.

The Kingdom of Prussia at its territorial peak in 1870
Situation after the conquest in the late 13th century. Areas in purple under control of the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights
The Kingdom of Prussia at its territorial peak in 1870
The Teutonic Order (orange) following the Second Peace of Thorn (1466)
The Kingdom of Prussia at its territorial peak in 1870
Prussian Homage by Jan Matejko. After admitting the dependence of Prussia to the Polish Crown, Albert of Prussia receives Ducal Prussia as a fief from King Sigismund I the Old of Poland in 1525
The "Great Elector" and his wife
Frederick I, King in Prussia
King Frederick William I, "the Soldier-King"
King Frederick II, "the Great"
Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600–1795
King Frederick William III
King Frederick William IV
Otto von Bismarck
Expansion of Prussia, 1807–1871
Emperor Wilhelm I
Prussia in the German Empire from 1871 to 1918
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Federal states of the Weimar Republic, with Prussia in light gray. After World War I the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia came largely to the 2nd Polish Republic; Posen-West Prussia and the West Prussia district were formed from the remaining parts.
Adolf Hitler
Paul von Hindenburg
Map of the current states of Germany (in dark green) that are completely or mostly situated inside the old borders of Imperial Germany's Kingdom of Prussia
Prussian King's Crown (Hohenzollern Castle Collection)
In 1649, Kursenieki settlements along the Baltic coastline of East Prussia spanned from Memel (Klaipėda) to Danzig (Gdańsk).
The Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin
King Frederick William I of Prussia welcoming the expelled Salzburg Protestants
The Berlin Cathedral {{circa|1900}}
Prussian deportations (Polenausweisungen) were the mass expulsions of ethnic Poles between 1885 and 1890.

Almost all of Germany's territorial losses, specified in the Treaty of Versailles, were areas that had been part of Prussia: Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium; North Schleswig to Denmark; the Memel Territory to Lithuania; the Hultschin area to Czechoslovakia.

Danzig became the Free City of Danzig under the administration of the League of Nations.

Weimar Republic

The government of Germany from 1918 to 1933, during which it was a constitutional federal republic for the first time in history; hence it is also referred to, and unofficially proclaimed itself, as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik).

The government of Germany from 1918 to 1933, during which it was a constitutional federal republic for the first time in history; hence it is also referred to, and unofficially proclaimed itself, as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik).

Weimar Republic in 1930
Weimar Republic in 1930
Naval jack of the Kaiserliche Marine (1903–1919)
Weimar Republic in 1930
Naval jack of the Reichsmarine (1918–1935)
Sailors during the mutiny in Kiel, November 1918
Philipp Scheidemann addresses a crowd from a window of the Reich Chancellery, 9 November 1918
Official postcard of the National Assembly
Chart of the definite constitution, the so-called Weimar Constition of 11 August 1919. It replaces the law concerning the provisional Reich power of 10 February 1919.
One-million mark notes used as notepaper, October 1923
A 50 million mark banknote issued in 1923, worth approximately one U.S. dollar when issued, would have been worth approximately 12 million U.S. dollars nine years earlier, but within a few weeks inflation made the banknote practically worthless.
A begging disabled WWI veteran (Berlin, 1923)
Wilhelm Marx's Christmas broadcast, December 1923
The "Golden Twenties" in Berlin: a jazz band plays for a tea dance at the hotel Esplanade, 1926
The Elephant Celebes by Max Ernst (1921)
Troops of the German Army feeding the poor in Berlin, 1931
Gross national product (inflation adjusted) and price index in Germany, 1926–1936 while the period between 1930 and 1932 is marked by a severe deflation and recession
Unemployment rate in Germany between 1928 and 1935 as during Brüning's policy of deflation (marked in purple), the unemployment rate soared from 15.7% in 1930 to 30.8% in 1932.
Communist Party (KPD) leader Ernst Thälmann (person in foreground with raised clenched fist) and members of the Roter Frontkämpferbund (RFB) marching through Berlin-Wedding, 1927
Federal election results 1919–1933: the Communist Party (KPD) (red) and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) (brown) were radical enemies of the Weimar Republic and the surge in unemployment during the Great Depression led to a radicalisation of many voters as the Nazi Party rose from 3% of the total votes in 1928 to 44% in 1933 while the DNVP (orange) lost its conservative wing and subsequently joined the radical opposition in 1929.
Nazi Party (NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler saluting members of the Sturmabteilung in Brunswick, Lower Saxony, 1932
The SA had nearly two million members at the end of 1932.
Poster for the nationalist "Black–White–Red" coalition of Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP leader), Franz von Papen, and Franz Seldte

Under the Locarno Treaties of 1925, Germany moved toward normalising relations with its neighbours, recognising most territorial changes under the Treaty of Versailles and committing to never go to war.

The following year, it joined the League of Nations, which marked its reintegration into the international community.

Cartoon showing Senators Lodge, Borah and Hiram Johnson blocking Peace

Covenant of the League of Nations

Cartoon showing Senators Lodge, Borah and Hiram Johnson blocking Peace

The Covenant of the League of Nations was the charter of the League of Nations.

It was signed on 28 June 1919 as Part I of the Treaty of Versailles, and became effective together with the rest of the Treaty on 10 January 1920.

Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition of countries led by France, the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918).

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition of countries led by France, the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918).

Major European diplomatic alignments shortly before the war
1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente
The Council of Four (from left to right): David Lloyd George, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson in Versailles, 1919
The British Empire in 1914
HMS Dreadnought; the 1902, 1904 and 1907 agreements with Japan, France and Russia allowed Britain to refocus resources during the Anglo-German naval arms race.
Canadian Army recruitment poster
Indian soldiers of the 2nd Rajput Light Infantry on the Western Front, winter of 1914–15
Russian troops marching to the front
Russian recruiting poster; the caption reads 'World on fire; Second Patriotic War'
French bayonet charge, 1914; huge casualties in the early months of the war had to be replaced by French colonial troops.
French Zouaves of the Army of Africa
French artillery in action near Gallipoli, 1915
The Japanese carrier Wakamiya conducted the first ship-launched aerial attack in 1914.
Antonio Salandra, Italian PM March 1914 - June 1916
Alpini troops marching in the snow at 3,000 m altitude, 1917
The Serbian Army in retreat, 1915
The Yser Front, 1917 by Belgian artist Georges-Émile Lebacq
Belgian Congolese Force Publique troops in German East Africa, 1916
Eleftherios Venizelos with Constantine during the Balkan Wars
A unit of the National Defence Army Corps on its way to the front in 1918
Colonel Christodoulou of the National Defence Army Corps interrogates Bulgarian prisoners, September 1918
Nicholas accepts the surrender of Scutari, April 1913; Montenegro's major gain from the Balkan War, it was relinquished several months later.
Montenegrin soldiers leaving for the front, October 1914
Romanian 250 mm Negrei Model 1916 mortar at the National Military Museum
Vlaicu III
Romanian troops at Mărășești
Brazilian soldiers in World War I
Military leaders of World War I: Alphonse Jacques de Dixmude (Belgium), Armando Diaz (Italy), Ferdinand Foch (France), John J. Pershing (United States), and David Beatty (United Kingdom)
Marshal Foch's Victory-Harmony Banner
Russian High Command
President Raymond Poincaré and King George V, 1915
First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, 1914
Douglas Haig and Ferdinand Foch inspecting the Gordon Highlanders, 1918
Greek war poster
USAAS recruiting poster, 1918
The use of naval convoys to transport US troops to France, 1917
Braziliian ship Cruzador Bahia
The Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Paris, 1919
A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers

These changes meant the Allies who negotiated the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 included France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the US; Part One of the Treaty agreed to the establishment of the League of Nations on 25 January 1919.