League of Nations

Anachronous world map showing member states of the League during its 26-year history.
The 1864 Geneva Convention, one of the earliest formulations of international law
The League to Enforce Peace published this full-page promotion in The New York Times on Christmas Day 1918. It resolved that the League "should ensure peace by eliminating causes of dissension, by deciding controversies by peaceable means, and by uniting the potential force of all the members as a standing menace against any nation that seeks to upset the peace of the world".
On his December 1918 trip to Europe, Woodrow Wilson gave speeches that "reaffirmed that the making of peace and the creation of a League of Nations must be accomplished as one single objective".
In 1924, the headquarters of the League was named "Palais Wilson", after Woodrow Wilson, who was credited as the "Founder of the League of Nations"
League of Nations Organisation chart
Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League's headquarters from 1936 until its dissolution in 1946
Child labour in a coal mine, United States, c. 1912
Child labour in Kamerun in 1919
A sample Nansen passport
A map of the world in 1920–45, which shows the League of Nations members during its history
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations concerning the Manchurian Crisis in 1932.
Emperor Haile Selassie I going into exile in Bath, England via Jerusalem
The Gap in the Bridge; the sign reads "This League of Nations Bridge was designed by the President of the U.S.A."
Cartoon from Punch magazine, 10 December 1920, satirising the gap left by the US not joining the League.
World map showing member states of the League of Nations (in green and red) on 18 April 1946, when the League of Nations ceased to exist.
League of Nations archives, Geneva.

The first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.

- League of Nations

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition of countries led by France, the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918).

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition of countries led by France, the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918).

Major European diplomatic alignments shortly before the war
1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente
The Council of Four (from left to right): David Lloyd George, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson in Versailles, 1919
The British Empire in 1914
HMS Dreadnought; the 1902, 1904 and 1907 agreements with Japan, France and Russia allowed Britain to refocus resources during the Anglo-German naval arms race.
Canadian Army recruitment poster
Indian soldiers of the 2nd Rajput Light Infantry on the Western Front, winter of 1914–15
Russian troops marching to the front
Russian recruiting poster; the caption reads 'World on fire; Second Patriotic War'
French bayonet charge, 1914; huge casualties in the early months of the war had to be replaced by French colonial troops.
French Zouaves of the Army of Africa
French artillery in action near Gallipoli, 1915
The Japanese carrier Wakamiya conducted the first ship-launched aerial attack in 1914.
Antonio Salandra, Italian PM March 1914 - June 1916
Alpini troops marching in the snow at 3,000 m altitude, 1917
The Serbian Army in retreat, 1915
The Yser Front, 1917 by Belgian artist Georges-Émile Lebacq
Belgian Congolese Force Publique troops in German East Africa, 1916
Eleftherios Venizelos with Constantine during the Balkan Wars
A unit of the National Defence Army Corps on its way to the front in 1918
Colonel Christodoulou of the National Defence Army Corps interrogates Bulgarian prisoners, September 1918
Nicholas accepts the surrender of Scutari, April 1913; Montenegro's major gain from the Balkan War, it was relinquished several months later.
Montenegrin soldiers leaving for the front, October 1914
Romanian 250 mm Negrei Model 1916 mortar at the National Military Museum
Vlaicu III
Romanian troops at Mărășești
Brazilian soldiers in World War I
Military leaders of World War I: Alphonse Jacques de Dixmude (Belgium), Armando Diaz (Italy), Ferdinand Foch (France), John J. Pershing (United States), and David Beatty (United Kingdom)
Marshal Foch's Victory-Harmony Banner
Russian High Command
President Raymond Poincaré and King George V, 1915
First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, 1914
Douglas Haig and Ferdinand Foch inspecting the Gordon Highlanders, 1918
Greek war poster
USAAS recruiting poster, 1918
The use of naval convoys to transport US troops to France, 1917
Braziliian ship Cruzador Bahia
The Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Paris, 1919
A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers

These changes meant the Allies who negotiated the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 included France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the US; Part One of the Treaty agreed to the establishment of the League of Nations on 25 January 1919.

A view of Geneva by Frances Elizabeth Wynne, 4 August 1858

Geneva

Second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

Second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

A view of Geneva by Frances Elizabeth Wynne, 4 August 1858
L'Escalade is what Genevans call the failed surprise attack of 12 December 1602 by troops sent by Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, to take Geneva. This imaginative image was drawn by Matthias Quad, or the workshop of Frans Hogenberg, around 1603. Invaders are pictured crossing the moat in the center left while reinforcements are entering Plainpalais at the bottom. A column of defenders is in the center, headed toward the Savoyards. Lake Léman is at center top.
Aerial view (1966)
Satellite view of Geneva; Cointrin Airport is centre left.
The Geneva area seen from the Salève in France. The Jura mountains are on the horizon.
Confluence of the Rhône and the Arve
Average temperature and precipitation 1961–1990
Coat of arms of Geneva as part of the pavement in front of the Reformation Wall, 2013
The Flowered Clock at the Quai du Général-Guisan (English Garden), during the 2012 Geneva Festival
Rue Pierre-Fatio in Geneva
Apartment buildings in the Quartier des Grottes
Geneva, with Lake Geneva in the background
Reformation Wall in Geneva; from left to right: William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox
Fireworks at the Fêtes de Genève, 2012
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
The University of Geneva.
Geneva railway station
TCMC (Tramway Cornavin – Meyrin – CERN)
Geneva Sécheron railway station
TOSA Bus at PALEXPO Flash bus stops
The World Intellectual Property Organization.
The assembly hall of the Palace of Nations.
Gustave Ador
Christiane Brunner
John Calvin, c. 1550
Isaac Casaubon
Michel Decastel, 2012
Jean Henri Dunant, 1901
Kat Graham, 2017
Francois Huber
Paul Lachenal, 1939
Lenin in Switzerland, 1916
Amelie Mauresmo, 2014
Liliane Maury Pasquier, 2007
Pierre Prévost
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Ferdinand de Saussure
Michael Schade, 2012
Michel Simon, 1964
Johann Vogel, 2006
Voltaire
St. Pierre Cathedral
Collège Calvin
International Committee of the Red Cross (CICR)
Conservatory and Botanical Garden of the City of Geneva
Notre-Dame Church
Russian Orthodox Church
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Hôtel de Ville and the Tour Baudet
Institut et Musée Voltaire
Mallet House and Museum international de la Réforme
Tavel House
Brunswick Monument
Musée d'Art et d'Histoire
The Villa La Grange

The oldest international school in the world is the International School of Geneva, founded in 1924 along with the League of Nations.

Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

Theodore Roosevelt

American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

In the end, on March 19, 1920, Wilson had Democratic Senators vote against the League with the Lodge Reservations and the United States never joined the League of Nations.

Weimar Republic

The government of Germany from 1918 to 1933, during which it was a constitutional federal republic for the first time in history; hence it is also referred to, and unofficially proclaimed itself, as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik).

The government of Germany from 1918 to 1933, during which it was a constitutional federal republic for the first time in history; hence it is also referred to, and unofficially proclaimed itself, as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik).

Weimar Republic in 1930
Weimar Republic in 1930
Naval jack of the Kaiserliche Marine (1903–1919)
Weimar Republic in 1930
Naval jack of the Reichsmarine (1918–1935)
Sailors during the mutiny in Kiel, November 1918
Philipp Scheidemann addresses a crowd from a window of the Reich Chancellery, 9 November 1918
Official postcard of the National Assembly
Chart of the definite constitution, the so-called Weimar Constition of 11 August 1919. It replaces the law concerning the provisional Reich power of 10 February 1919.
One-million mark notes used as notepaper, October 1923
A 50 million mark banknote issued in 1923, worth approximately one U.S. dollar when issued, would have been worth approximately 12 million U.S. dollars nine years earlier, but within a few weeks inflation made the banknote practically worthless.
A begging disabled WWI veteran (Berlin, 1923)
Wilhelm Marx's Christmas broadcast, December 1923
The "Golden Twenties" in Berlin: a jazz band plays for a tea dance at the hotel Esplanade, 1926
The Elephant Celebes by Max Ernst (1921)
Troops of the German Army feeding the poor in Berlin, 1931
Gross national product (inflation adjusted) and price index in Germany, 1926–1936 while the period between 1930 and 1932 is marked by a severe deflation and recession
Unemployment rate in Germany between 1928 and 1935 as during Brüning's policy of deflation (marked in purple), the unemployment rate soared from 15.7% in 1930 to 30.8% in 1932.
Communist Party (KPD) leader Ernst Thälmann (person in foreground with raised clenched fist) and members of the Roter Frontkämpferbund (RFB) marching through Berlin-Wedding, 1927
Federal election results 1919–1933: the Communist Party (KPD) (red) and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) (brown) were radical enemies of the Weimar Republic and the surge in unemployment during the Great Depression led to a radicalisation of many voters as the Nazi Party rose from 3% of the total votes in 1928 to 44% in 1933 while the DNVP (orange) lost its conservative wing and subsequently joined the radical opposition in 1929.
Nazi Party (NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler saluting members of the Sturmabteilung in Brunswick, Lower Saxony, 1932
The SA had nearly two million members at the end of 1932.
Poster for the nationalist "Black–White–Red" coalition of Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP leader), Franz von Papen, and Franz Seldte

The following year, it joined the League of Nations, which marked its reintegration into the international community.

Axis powers

Military coalition that initiated World War II and fought against the Allies.

Military coalition that initiated World War II and fought against the Allies.

Flags of Germany, Japan, and Italy draping the facade of the Embassy of Japan on the Tiergartenstraße in Berlin (September 1940)
Germany's Führer Adolf Hitler (right) beside Italy's Duce Benito Mussolini (left)
Japan's Prime Minister Hideki Tojo (center) with fellow government representatives of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. To the left of Tojo, from left to right: Ba Maw from Burma, Zhang Jinghui, Wang Jingwei from China. To the right of Tojo, from left to right, Wan Waithayakon from Thailand, José P. Laurel from the Philippines, and Subhas Chandra Bose from India
The signing of the Tripartite Pact by Germany, Japan, and Italy on 27 September 1940 in Berlin. Seated from left to right are the Japanese ambassador to Germany Saburō Kurusu, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Galeazzo Ciano, and Adolf Hitler.
Adolf Hitler, Führer and Reich Chancellor of the German People, 1933–1945
Engelbert Dollfuss, Chancellor of Austria, 1932–1934
Hideo Kodama, a wartime cabinet minister in the Empire of Japan
Japanese writer Shūmei Ōkawa, a key exponent of Japanese nationalism
Lt.Gen Hiroshi Ōshima, Japanese ambassador to Germany before and during World War II
German Führer Adolf Hitler along with General Walther von Brauchitsch, during the victory parade in Warsaw after the defeat of Poland, October 1939
German Heinkel He 111 bomber aircraft during the Battle of Britain
German vehicles advancing during the Second Battle of El Alamein in the North African campaign
German soldiers during the Battle of Stalingrad in the Eastern Front campaign
German submarine U-118 under air attack in June 1943
The Duce Benito Mussolini in an official portrait
Italian soldiers in the North African Campaign in 1941
Italian Fiat M13/40 tanks in the North African Campaign in 1941
Italian battleships Vittorio Veneto and Littorio during the war
Italian Macchi C.200 fighter aircraft during the war
Every territory ever controlled by the Italian Empire at some point in time during World War II
IJN super-dreadnought battleships Yamashiro, Fusō, and battlecruiser Haruna, Tokyo Bay, 1930s
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai
Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter aircraft and other aircraft preparing for takeoff on the aircraft carrier Shōkaku on 7 December 1941, for the attack on Pearl Harbor
The Empire of Japan (darker red) and territories controlled by Japanese puppet states during the war (lighter red). Thailand (darkest red) cooperated with Japan. All are members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
IJA paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
IJN Yamato-class Battleships Yamato and Musashi moored in Truk Lagoon, in 1943
Japanese Military Attaché, Makoto Onodera, visiting Fjell Fortress in Norway, 1943. Behind him is Lieutenant Colonel Eberhard Freiherr von Zedlitz und Neukrich (C-in-C Luftwaffe Feldregiment 502.), and to the right is Fregattenkapitän doktor Robert Morath (Seekommandant in Bergen). Behind Onoderas hand (raised in salute) is General Nikolaus von Falkenhorst (C-in-C German military forces in Norway).
Japanese officers training young Indonesian recruits, circa 1945
Bulgarian soldiers in Vardar Macedonia during the Balkans campaign
Hungarian Toldi I tank as used during the 1941 Axis invasion of the Soviet Union
Hungarian soldiers in the Carpathian mountains in 1944
MÁVAG Héja fighter aircraft, derived from the Reggiane Re.2000, an Italian fighter design
Adolf Hitler meeting with NDH leader Ante Pavelić
Ion Antonescu and Adolf Hitler at the Führerbau in Munich (June 1941)
A formation of Romanian IAR 80 fighter aircraft
The Romanian Mareșal tank destroyer's design was likely used by the Germans to develop the Hetzer
Romanian soldiers on the outskirts of Stalingrad during the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942
Slovakia in 1941
Kingdom of Denmark
Mannerheim with Hitler
Finnish troops passing by the remains of a destroyed Soviet T-34 at the battle of Tali-Ihantala
Manchurian soldiers training in a military exercise
Manchurian pilots of the Manchukuo Air Force
Front row in order from left to right: Karl Wolff, Heinrich Himmler, Francisco Franco and Spain's Foreign Minister Serrano Súñer in Madrid, October 1940
Francisco Franco (centre) and Serrano Súñer (left) meeting with Mussolini (right) in Bordighera, Italy in 1941. At Bordighera, Franco and Mussolini discussed the creation of a Latin Bloc.
Phraya Phahon (far left), Thawan Thamrong (left), and Direk Jayanama (right) with Hideki Tōjō (center) in Tokyo 1942
German and Soviet soldiers during the official transfer of Brest to Soviet control in front of picture of Stalin, in the aftermath of the invasion and partition of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939
France during the war; Occupied and annexed zones by Germany in shades of red, Italian occupation zones in shades of yellow and striped blue, "Free zone" in blue.
Philippe Pétain (left) meeting with Hitler in October 1940
Personal flag of Philippe Pétain, Chief of State of Vichy France
An RAF officer investigates wrecked Iraqi artillery near Habbaniya.
Italian Social Republic
RSI (Repubblica Sociale Italiana) soldiers, March 1944
Greece, 1941–1944
Hitler declaring war on the United States on 11 December 1941
Italian pilots of a Savoia-Marchetti SM.75 long-range cargo aircraft meeting with Japanese officials upon arriving in East Asia in 1942.
German and Japanese direct spheres of influence at their greatest extents in Autumn 1942. Arrows show planned movements to an agreed demarcation line at 70° E, which was, however, never approximated.

Protests by the League of Nations, especially the British, who had interests in that area, led to no serious action, although The League did try to enforce economic sanctions upon Italy, but to no avail.

Cartoon showing Senators Lodge, Borah and Hiram Johnson blocking Peace

Covenant of the League of Nations

Cartoon showing Senators Lodge, Borah and Hiram Johnson blocking Peace

The Covenant of the League of Nations was the charter of the League of Nations.

Boundaries in 1921.

Interwar period

Post WWI Conflict Map In New-York Tribune November 9 1919 Page 26.jpg'' printed this map on 9 November 1919, of the armed conflicts in Central and Eastern Europe in 1919, one year after World War I had ended: 1. Baltic States War of Independence & Russian Civil War

Post WWI Conflict Map In New-York Tribune November 9 1919 Page 26.jpg'' printed this map on 9 November 1919, of the armed conflicts in Central and Eastern Europe in 1919, one year after World War I had ended: 1. Baltic States War of Independence & Russian Civil War

Boundaries in 1921.
A map of Europe in 1923
Actors Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford in 1920
Unemployed men outside a soup kitchen opened by Chicago gangster Al Capone during the Depression, 1931
Cheering crowds greet Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini in Munich, 1938
The Second British Empire at its territorial peak in 1921
George V with the British and Dominion prime ministers at the 1926 Imperial Conference
The French Empire from 1919 to 1949.
The "Golden Twenties" in Berlin: a jazz band plays for a tea dance at the hotel Esplanade, 1926
A Japanese poster promoting the Axis cooperation in 1938.
Ambitions of fascist Italy in Europe in 1936.
Legend: Albania, which was a client state, was considered a territory to be annexed.
Maximum extent of Imperial Italy (pink areas denote territory captured during the Second World War)
Italian newspaper in Tunisia that represented Italians living in the French protectorate of Tunisia.
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese march into Zhengyangmen of Beijing after capturing the city in July 1937

The important stages of interwar diplomacy and international relations included resolutions of wartime issues, such as reparations owed by Germany and boundaries; American involvement in European finances and disarmament projects; the expectations and failures of the League of Nations; the relationships of the new countries to the old; the distrustful relations of the Soviet Union to the capitalist world; peace and disarmament efforts; responses to the Great Depression starting in 1929; the collapse of world trade; the collapse of democratic regimes one by one; the growth of efforts at economic autarky; Japanese aggressiveness toward China, occupying large amounts of Chinese land, as well as border disputes between the Soviet Union and Japan, leading to multiple clashes along the Soviet and Japanese occupied Manchurian border; Fascist diplomacy, including the aggressive moves by Mussolini's Italy and Hitler's Germany; the Spanish Civil War; Italy's invasion and occupation of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in the Horn of Africa; the appeasement of Germany's expansionist moves against the German-speaking nation of Austria, the region inhabited by ethnic Germans called the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, the remilitarisation of the League of Nations demilitarised zone of the German Rhineland region, and the last, desperate stages of rearmament as the Second World War increasingly loomed.

Location of the Rhineland, as defined by the Treaty of Versailles, along the Rhine

Remilitarization of the Rhineland

The remilitarizaton of the Rhineland (Rheinlandbesetzung) began on 8 March 1936, when German military forces entered the Rhineland, which directly contravened the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Treaties.

The remilitarizaton of the Rhineland (Rheinlandbesetzung) began on 8 March 1936, when German military forces entered the Rhineland, which directly contravened the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Treaties.

Location of the Rhineland, as defined by the Treaty of Versailles, along the Rhine
Border between France and Germany after World War I (1919–1926).
Baron Konstantin von Neurath in 1939. As Foreign Minister in 1936, Neurath played a decisive role in German decision-making that led to the remilitarization.
The German War Minister General Werner von Blomberg.
Goebbels, Hitler, and von Blomberg
General Maurice Gamelin, the French Supreme Commander, 1936
Albert Sarraut, the French prime minister at the time of the crisis
Georges Mandel in 1932. The combative conservative Mandel was the only French minister to advocate war in response to the remilitarization. He was minister in charge of the postal service.
Pierre-Étienne Flandin, the French foreign minister at the time of the crisis
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, unknown date

Under strong pressure from British public opinion, which was strongly for collective security, the British government took the lead in pressing the League of Nations for sanctions against Italy.

Austrian citizens gather in the Heldenplatz to hear Hitler's declaration of annexation.

Anschluss

The annexation of the Federal State of Austria into the German Reich on 13 March 1938.

The annexation of the Federal State of Austria into the German Reich on 13 March 1938.

Austrian citizens gather in the Heldenplatz to hear Hitler's declaration of annexation.
The territory of the German Reich and Austria after World War I
The German Confederation 1815-1866
The dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918
German military map during the Second World War, with no border between Germany and Austria (top right; also showing Alsace as part of Germany because it was directly incorporated into the Reich)
Soldiers of the Austrian Federal Army in Vienna, 12 February 1934.
Supporters of Schuschnigg campaigning for the independence of Austria in March 1938, shortly before the Anschluss.
Seyss-Inquart and Hitler with Himmler and Heydrich to the right in Vienna, March 1938
Cheering crowds greet the Nazis in Vienna.
Hitler crosses the border into Austria in March 1938.
Hitler announces the Anschluss on the Heldenplatz, Vienna, 15 March 1938.
Immediately after the Anschluss, Vienna’s Jews were forced to wash pro-independence slogans from the city’s pavements.
Voting ballot from 10 April 1938. The ballot text reads "Do you agree with the reunification of Austria with the German Reich that was enacted on 13 March 1938, and do you vote for the party of our leader Adolf Hitler?" The large circle is labelled "Yes", the smaller "No".
Gate to the garage yard in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp
"Stairs of Death" at Mauthausen-Gusen with prisoners forced to carry a granite block up 186 steps to the top of the quarry.
A map showing the border changes of Germany in the various years 1933 (red), 1939 (pink) and 1943 (orange).
"Red-White-Red Book" published by the Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1946 describes the events of Austria between 1938-1945 by the Founders of the Second Austrian Republic.
The SS raid a Jewish community center, Vienna, March 1938.

On 18 March 1938, the German government communicated to the Secretary General of the League of Nations about the inclusion of Austria.

Official campaign portrait, 1944

Franklin D. Roosevelt

American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

Official campaign portrait, 1944
Eleanor and Franklin with their first two children, 1908
Roosevelt in 1944
Roosevelt supported Governor Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential election.
Theodore Roosevelt was Franklin Roosevelt's distant cousin and an important influence on his career.
Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913
Cox and Roosevelt in Ohio, 1920
Rare photograph of Roosevelt in a wheelchair, with Fala and Ruthie Bie, the daughter of caretakers at his Hyde Park estate. Photo taken by his cousin Margaret Suckley (February 1941).
Gov. Roosevelt with his predecessor Al Smith, 1930
Results of the 1930 gubernatorial election in New York
Roosevelt in the early 1930s
1932 electoral vote results
Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law, August 14, 1935
1936 re-election handbill for Roosevelt promoting his economic policy
1936 electoral vote results
Roosevelt with Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas and other dignitaries in Brazil, 1936
The Roosevelts with King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, sailing from Washington, D.C., to Mount Vernon, Virginia, on the USS Potomac during the first U.S. visit of a reigning British monarch (June 9, 1939)
Foreign trips of Roosevelt during his presidency
1940 electoral vote results
Roosevelt and Winston Churchill aboard HMS Prince of Wales for 1941 Atlantic Charter meeting
Territory controlled by the Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in June 1942
The Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in December 1944
1944 electoral vote results
Official portrait of President Roosevelt by Frank O. Salisbury, c. 1947
200x200px

During the campaign, Cox and Roosevelt defended the Wilson administration and the League of Nations, both of which were unpopular in 1920.