League of Nations

Anachronous world map showing member states of the League during its 26-year history.
The 1864 Geneva Convention, one of the earliest formulations of international law
The League to Enforce Peace published this full-page promotion in The New York Times on Christmas Day 1918. It resolved that the League "should ensure peace by eliminating causes of dissension, by deciding controversies by peaceable means, and by uniting the potential force of all the members as a standing menace against any nation that seeks to upset the peace of the world".
On his December 1918 trip to Europe, Woodrow Wilson gave speeches that "reaffirmed that the making of peace and the creation of a League of Nations must be accomplished as one single objective".
In 1924, the headquarters of the League was named "Palais Wilson", after Woodrow Wilson, who was credited as the "Founder of the League of Nations"
League of Nations Organisation chart
Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League's headquarters from 1936 until its dissolution in 1946
Child labour in a coal mine, United States, c. 1912
Child labour in Kamerun in 1919
A sample Nansen passport
A map of the world in 1920–45, which shows the League of Nations members during its history
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations concerning the Manchurian Crisis in 1932.
Emperor Haile Selassie I going into exile in Bath, England via Jerusalem
The Gap in the Bridge; the sign reads "This League of Nations Bridge was designed by the President of the U.S.A."
Cartoon from Punch magazine, 10 December 1920, satirising the gap left by the US not joining the League.
World map showing member states of the League of Nations (in green and red) on 18 April 1946, when the League of Nations ceased to exist.
League of Nations archives, Geneva.

The first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.

- League of Nations

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Alpha

A peace sign, which is widely associated with pacifism

Pacifism

Opposition or resistance to war, militarism or violence.

Opposition or resistance to war, militarism or violence.

A peace sign, which is widely associated with pacifism
World Day of Prayer for Peace in Assisi, 2011
Anti-war activist arrested in San Francisco during the March 2003 protests against the war in Iraq
Vereshchagin's painting The Apotheosis of War (1871) came to be admired as one of the earliest artistic expressions of pacifism
Penn's Treaty with the Lenape.
"Peace". Caricature of Henry Richard, a prominent advocate of pacifism in the mid-19th century
"Leading Citizens want War and declare War; Citizens Who are Led fight the War" 1910 cartoon
The Deserter (1916) by Boardman Robinson
A World War I-era female peace protester
The soldiers of the Red Army in Russia, who on religious grounds refused to shoot at the target (evangelicals or Baptists). Between 1918 and 1929
Refugees from the Spanish Civil War at the War Resisters' International children's refuge in the French Pyrenees
A peace strike rally at University of California, Berkeley, April 1940
A demonstrator offers a flower to military police at an anti-Vietnam War protest, 1967
Protest against the deployment of Pershing II missiles in Europe, Bonn, West Germany, 1981
Blessed are the Peacemakers (1917) by George Bellows
The shadow of the cross symbolizes the connection between religion and war in Constantine's Sword
Remarque's anti-war novel All Quiet on the Western Front was banned and burned by war-glorifying Nazis
March of Peace, which took place in Moscow in March 2014
Henry David Thoreau, early proponent of anarcho-pacifism
Jewish armed resistance against the Nazis during World War II

These and other initiatives were pivotal in the change in attitudes that gave birth to the League of Nations after the war.

Taft in 1909

William Howard Taft

The 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth chief justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.

The 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth chief justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.

Taft in 1909
Yale College photograph of Taft
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II with William Howard Taft of the Philippine Commission in Jolo, Sulu (March 27, 1901)
Roosevelt introduces Taft as his crown prince: Puck magazine cover cartoon, 1906.
One of a series of candid photographs known as the Evolution of a Smile, taken just after a formal portrait session, as Taft learns by telephone from Roosevelt of his nomination for president.
1908 Taft/Sherman poster
1908 electoral vote results
1909 inauguration
Newton McConnell cartoon showing Canadian suspicions that Taft and others were only interested in Canada when prosperous.
Taft and Porfirio Díaz, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, 1909
Official White House portrait of Taft by Anders Zorn, c. 1911
Taft promoted Associate Justice Edward Douglass White to be Chief Justice of the United States.
1909 Puck magazine cover: Roosevelt departs, entrusting his policies to Taft
Taft with Archibald Butt (second from right)
Taft and Roosevelt – political enemies in 1912
Campaign advertisement arguing Taft deserved a second term
Electoral vote by state, 1912. States won by Taft are in red.
Taft (left) with President Warren G. Harding and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial, May 30, 1922
Chief Justice Taft, c. 1921
The U.S. Supreme Court in 1925. Taft is seated in the bottom row, middle.
Time cover, June 30, 1924
Taft insisted that Charles Evans Hughes succeed him as chief justice.
Taft's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery
Four-cent stamp issued for Taft (1930)

When Wilson proposed establishment of a League of Nations, Taft expressed public support.

Klaipėda

City in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.

City in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.

Klaipėda city seal, 1446 (diameter 200 mm). From the Archive of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, Berlin.
Preserved historic timber framed architecture
Historical illustration of Memel (1684)
Spit fortress
Klaipėda Town Hall was the temporary residence of the King Frederick William III of Prussia, his wife Queen Louise and their children.
Central Post Office, the former residence of Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander and monarchs of Prussia
Early 20th-century view of the city
Supreme Commander of the Lithuanian Army Silvestras Žukauskas in Klaipėda, 1925
Visit of Adolf Hitler following the German annexation of the city, March 1939
Private boats in Klaipėda
Costa Pacifica in Klaipėda
Klaipėda's climate is under the influence of the Baltic Sea.
The Dutchman's Cap
The port of Klaipėda handled more than 31 million tons of cargo in 2010
K and D complex
A narrow gauge railway station in 1920
Palanga International Airport
View to the Klaipėda central ferry port terminal – the Old Ferry port
Klaipėda Bus Station
Old town of Klaipėda
One of Klaipėda's most recognizable symbols – The Meridianas
Klaipėda Drama Theatre
Look alike fachwerk style building "Old Mill hotel"
Port of Klaipėda in 1852
Biržos Bridge, photographed before 1930. The bascule bridge was an important source of income for the city.
Klaipėda Old Town in 1932
Klaipėda is famous for Švyturys brewery, established in 1784.
Klaipėda beach
Arka Monument for united Lithuania
Klaipėda University
Ieva Simonaitytė Public Library
Sculpture next to Klaipėda Railway Station
Statue of a boy in Klaipėda harbor
Modern buildings in Klaipėda
Litas commemorative coin dedicated to Klaipėda city (2002)

The League of Nations protested the revolt, but accepted the transfer in February 1923.

Adolf Hitler greets UK Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at the beginning of the Bad Godesberg meeting on 24 September 1938, where Hitler demanded annexation of Czech border areas without delay (see Godesberg Memorandum)

Appeasement

International context is a diplomatic policy of making political, material, or territorial concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.

International context is a diplomatic policy of making political, material, or territorial concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.

Adolf Hitler greets UK Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at the beginning of the Bad Godesberg meeting on 24 September 1938, where Hitler demanded annexation of Czech border areas without delay (see Godesberg Memorandum)
Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, circa 1942
UK Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Seyss-Inquart and Hitler in Vienna, March 1938
From left to right: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured before signing the Munich Agreement, which gave the Czechoslovak border areas to Germany.
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, landing at Heston Aerodrome on 30 September 1938 after his meeting with Hitler at Munich. In his hand he holds the peace agreement between Britain and Germany.

Chamberlain's policy of appeasement emerged from the failure of the League of Nations and the failure of collective security.

Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood

British lawyer, politician and diplomat.

British lawyer, politician and diplomat.

Lord Robert Cecil by Sir William Orpen
Viscount (formerly Sir Edward) Grey. Cecil wished to replace Lloyd George as Prime Minister with Grey, whom he greatly admired
Lord Cecil of Chelwood, 1929.

He was one of the architects of the League of Nations and a defender of it, whose service to the organisation saw him awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937.

European diplomatic alignments shortly before the World War I. Germany and the Ottoman Empire allied after the outbreak of war.

Collective security

[[File:Major Military Alliances.svg|thumb|375px|Major security alliances

[[File:Major Military Alliances.svg|thumb|375px|Major security alliances

European diplomatic alignments shortly before the World War I. Germany and the Ottoman Empire allied after the outbreak of war.
In 1938, France betrayed Czechoslovakia and signed the Munich Agreement with Nazi Germany, effectively dishonoring the French-Czechoslovak alliance.
The leaders of some of the SEATO nations in Manila, hosted by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos on 24 October 1966
Member states of NATO

The term "collective security" has also been cited as a principle of the United Nations and earlier the League of Nations.

Territory of the Saar Basin

Region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.

Region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.

Maps of the Territory of the Saar Basin -The Saar Basin (red) -The Saar basin (purple)
Nazi Germany in 1941. The planned Reichsgau of Westmark, which would include the Saar region, is shown here in yellow.

Under the Treaty of Versailles, the highly industrialized Saar Basin, including the Saar Coal District (Saarrevier), was to be occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France under a League of Nations mandate for a period of fifteen years.

Soviet parade in Lwów, September 1939, following the city's surrender

Soviet invasion of Poland

Military operation by the Soviet Union without a formal declaration of war.

Military operation by the Soviet Union without a formal declaration of war.

Soviet parade in Lwów, September 1939, following the city's surrender
Planned and actual divisions of Poland, according to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Hitler watching German soldiers marching into Poland in September 1939
Advancing Red Army troops, Soviet invasion of Poland, 1939.
Instructions of Józef Beck, Polish minister of foreign affairs for Wacław Grzybowski, Polish ambassador to the Soviet Union concerning the Soviet invasion of Poland, 17.09.1939
Disposition of all troops following the Soviet invasion
German and Soviet officers shaking hands following the invasion
Soviet propaganda appealing to Ukrainian peasants in Eastern Poland.
" The liberation of our brothers and sisters in the Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia on 17 September 1939" Postage stamps from the USSR, 1940.
Polish prisoners of war captured by the Red Army during the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939
Red Army soldier guarding a Polish PWS-26 trainer aircraft shot down near the city of Równe (Rivne) in the Soviet occupied part of Poland, 18 September 1939.
Soviet document, proving the mass execution of Polish officers in the Katyn massacre

The League of Nations and the peace treaties of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference did not, as it had been hoped, help to promote ideas of reconciliation along European ethnic lines.

Map of the Battle of the Niemen River: Polish troops (blue) maneuvered through the Lithuanian lines (pink) to the rear of the Russian forces (red)

Suwałki Agreement

Agreement signed in the town of Suwałki between Poland and Lithuania on October 7, 1920.

Agreement signed in the town of Suwałki between Poland and Lithuania on October 7, 1920.

Map of the Battle of the Niemen River: Polish troops (blue) maneuvered through the Lithuanian lines (pink) to the rear of the Russian forces (red)
Attendees of the Suwałki Conference, 1920, in front of the building of the conference.
Polish (left) and Lithuanian (right) delegates at the negotiation table during the Suwałki Conference
Selected lines of demarcation between Lithuania and Poland, 1919–1939. Light orange line denotes the line drawn by the Suwałki Agreement.

Under pressure from the League of Nations, Poland agreed to negotiate, hoping to buy time and divert attention from the upcoming Żeligowski's Mutiny.

The map shows the eastern border of Lithuania that was recognised by the treaty by the thick dashed line. It was almost identical to the ethnic Lithuanian lands of the 13th to the 16th centuries but disputed by Belarusians.

Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty

Signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920.

Signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920.

The map shows the eastern border of Lithuania that was recognised by the treaty by the thick dashed line. It was almost identical to the ethnic Lithuanian lands of the 13th to the 16th centuries but disputed by Belarusians.
The lands occupied by Poland, which were assigned to Lithuania under the peace treaty, are marked in green

An intervention was made by the League of Nations, which brokered the Suwałki Agreement on October 7, 1920, which was to have taken effect on October 10.