Leather

leather goodsdeerskinpigskincordovanleatherworkerpig leatheranimal hidesanimal skinsleather makingleathers
Leather is a natural durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides and skins.wikipedia
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Tanning (leather)

tannerytanningtanner
Leather is a natural durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides and skins.
Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.

Cattle

cowscowsteer
The most common raw materials is cattle hide.
Cattle are commonly raised as livestock for meat (beef or veal, see beef cattle), for milk (see dairy cattle), and for hides, which are used to make leather.

Rawhide (material)

rawhidehideanimal hide
Leather is a natural durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides and skins.
It is similar to parchment, much lighter in color than leather made by traditional vegetable tanning.

Liming (leather processing)

liminglimed
Preparatory stages may include: soaking, unhairing, liming, deliming, bating, bleaching, and pickling.
Liming is a process used for parchment or leather processing, in which hides are soaked in an alkali solution.

Deliming

Preparatory stages may include: soaking, unhairing, liming, deliming, bating, bleaching, and pickling.
The deliming operation in leather processing is a drum/paddle or pit based operation where two main objectives are met:

Tannin

tanninshamamelitannintan
is tanned using tannins extracted from vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills. It is the oldest known method. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of materials and the color of the skin. The color tan derives its name from the appearance of undyed vegetable-tanned leather. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, and if left to soak and then dry, it shrinks and becomes harder. This is a feature of oak-bark-tanned leather that is exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and partly congeals, becoming rigid and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armor after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding.
The term tannin (from Anglo-Norman tanner, from Medieval Latin tannāre, from tannum, oak bark) refers to the use of oak and other bark in tanning animal hides into leather.

Currier

curryingcurriersleather buyer
This currying process after tanning supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water.
A currier is a specialist in the leather processing industry.

Tanbark

oak barkbarkhemlock bark
is tanned using tannins extracted from vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills. It is the oldest known method. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of materials and the color of the skin. The color tan derives its name from the appearance of undyed vegetable-tanned leather. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, and if left to soak and then dry, it shrinks and becomes harder. This is a feature of oak-bark-tanned leather that is exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and partly congeals, becoming rigid and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armor after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding.
It is traditionally used for tanning hides into leather.

Neatsfoot oil

Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically.
Neatsfoot oil is used as a conditioning, softening and preservative agent for leather.

Russia leather

Full-grain leather contains the entire grain layer, without any removal of the surface. Rather than wearing out, it develops a patina during its useful lifetime. It is usually considered the highest quality leather. Furniture and footwear are often made from full-grain leather. Full-grain leather is typically finished with an aniline dye. Russia leather is a form of full-grain leather.
Russia leather is a particular form of bark-tanned cow leather.

Bark mill

Bark Millsmillbarking mill
is tanned using tannins extracted from vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills. It is the oldest known method. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of materials and the color of the skin. The color tan derives its name from the appearance of undyed vegetable-tanned leather. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, and if left to soak and then dry, it shrinks and becomes harder. This is a feature of oak-bark-tanned leather that is exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and partly congeals, becoming rigid and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armor after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding.
Bark mills, also known as Catskill’s mills, were water, steam, horse, ox or wind-powered edge mills used to process the bark, roots, and branches of various tree species into a fine powder known as tanbark, used for tanning leather.

Suede

microsuedeSueding textile fabrics
Split leather is created from the corium left once the top-grain has been separated from the hide, known as the drop split. In thicker hides, the drop split can be further split into a middle split and a flesh split. Splits are often used to create suede. Split leather can also have a polyurethane or vinyl layer applied to the surface and embossed to give it the appearance of a grain, known as bicast leather, which is slightly stiffer than top-grain leather but has a more consistent texture.
Suede is a type of leather with a napped finish, commonly used for jackets, shoes, shirts, purses, furniture, and other items.

Patent leather

Patent
Patent leather is leather that has been given a high-gloss finish by the addition of a coating. Inventor Seth Boyden developed the first mass-production process, using a linseed oil-based lacquer, in Newark, New Jersey, in 1818. Modern versions usually have a plastic coating, similar to bicast leather.
Patent leather is a type of coated leather that has a high-gloss finish.

Aniline leather

anilinesemi-aniline
Full-grain leather contains the entire grain layer, without any removal of the surface. Rather than wearing out, it develops a patina during its useful lifetime. It is usually considered the highest quality leather. Furniture and footwear are often made from full-grain leather. Full-grain leather is typically finished with an aniline dye. Russia leather is a form of full-grain leather.
Aniline leather is a type of leather dyed exclusively with soluble dyes.

Bicast leather

Split leather is created from the corium left once the top-grain has been separated from the hide, known as the drop split. In thicker hides, the drop split can be further split into a middle split and a flesh split. Splits are often used to create suede. Split leather can also have a polyurethane or vinyl layer applied to the surface and embossed to give it the appearance of a grain, known as bicast leather, which is slightly stiffer than top-grain leather but has a more consistent texture.
Bicast leather (also spelled as bi-cast leather or bycast leather) is a material made with a split leather backing covered with an embossed layer of polyurethane or vinyl.

Shell cordovan

cordovanhorsehide
Shell cordovan is a horse leather made not from the outer skin but an under layer found only in equine species called the shell.
Shell cordovan (or cordovan) is a type of leather commonly used in high-end shoemaking.

Bonded leather

composition leather
Bonded leather, also called reconstituted leather, is a material that uses leather scraps that are shredded and bonded together with polyurethane or latex onto a fiber mesh. The amount of leather fibers in the mix varies from 10% to 90%, affecting the properties of the product.
It is made as a layered structure of a fiber or paper backer covered with a layer of shredded leather fibers mixed with a polyurethane binder that is embossed with a leather-like texture.

Mink oil

Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically.
Mink oil is also used for treating, conditioning and preserving nearly all kinds of leather.

Ostrich leather

leatherostrichostrich boots
Ostrich leather has a characteristic "goose bump" look because of the large follicles where the feathers grew.
The leather is distinctive for its pattern of bumps or vacant quill follicles, ranged across a smooth field in varying densities.

Kangaroo leather

hidesleather hidesused for leather
Kangaroo leather is used to make items that must be strong and flexible.
Kangaroo leather is a strong light weight leather derived from the hide of the kangaroo.

Nubuck

Nubuck is top-grain leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface.
Nubuck (pronounced ) is top-grain cattle leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface.

Kanpur

CawnporeKanpur (Uttar Pradesh)Kanpur, UP
In Kanpur, the self-proclaimed "Leather City of World"—with 10,000 tanneries as of 2011 and a city of three million on the banks of the Ganges—pollution levels were so high, that despite an industry crisis, the pollution control board decided to shut down 49 high-polluting tanneries out of 404 in July 2009.
The city is famous for its leather and textile industries.

Motorcycle personal protective equipment

motorcycle leathersmotorcycle suitracing leathers
Some motorcyclists favor kangaroo leather for motorcycle leathers because of its light weight and abrasion resistance.
Gloves are generally made of leather or Kevlar and some include carbon fiber knuckle protection.

Bleach

bleachingbleaching powderchlorine bleach
Preparatory stages may include: soaking, unhairing, liming, deliming, bating, bleaching, and pickling.
which is used in bleaching wood pulp, cotton, wool, leather and clay.

Bookbinding

bookbinderbindingbound
is tanned using tannins extracted from vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills. It is the oldest known method. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of materials and the color of the skin. The color tan derives its name from the appearance of undyed vegetable-tanned leather. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, and if left to soak and then dry, it shrinks and becomes harder. This is a feature of oak-bark-tanned leather that is exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and partly congeals, becoming rigid and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armor after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding.
A variation of the hardcover which is more durable is the calf-binding, where the cover is either half or fully clad in leather, usually from a calf.