Lebanon

Lebanese🇱🇧Lebanese RepublicLBNRepublic of LebanoncountryLBLEBLibanaiseThe Lebanon
Lebanon (لبنان ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese Republic (الجمهورية اللبنانية ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; République libanaise), is a country in Western Asia.wikipedia
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Syria

SyrianSyrian Arab RepublicSyrian government
It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

Israel

🇮🇱IsraeliState of Israel
It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.
It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest.

Cyprus

🇨🇾CypriotCYP
It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.
Cyprus (Κύπρος ; Kıbrıs ), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece.

History of Lebanon

historymedieval Mamluk period1861 massacres
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity.
The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.

Culture of Lebanon

Lebanese culturecultureLebanese
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora.
The culture of Lebanon and the Lebanese people emerged from various civilizations over thousands of years.

Lebanese Arabic

LebaneseLebanese dialectLebanese pronunciation
Lebanon (لبنان ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese Republic (الجمهورية اللبنانية ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; République libanaise), is a country in Western Asia.
Lebanese Arabic or Lebanese is a variety of North Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic.

Demographics of Lebanon

Lebanese1932 censusdemographic tensions
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Lebanon, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Lebanese Maronite Christians

MaroniteMaronitesMaronite Christian
As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity.
Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.

Arabs

ArabArabianArabic
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity.
Today, Arabs primarily inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

Mount Lebanon Governorate

Mount LebanonMont-LibanMount Lebanon region
The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims.
Mount Lebanon Governorate is one of the eight governorates of Lebanon.

Lebanese Civil War

civil warcivil war in LebanonLebanon
Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.

Beirut

Beirut, LebanonBerytusBayrūt
Because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, and its capital, Beirut, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East".
Beirut (بيروت,, ; French: Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

List of Prime Ministers of Lebanon

Prime MinisterPrime Minister of LebanonLebanese Prime Minister
Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Lebanon (officially titled President of the Council of Ministers) since the creation of the office in 1926.

Lebanese people

LebaneseLebanese descentLebanon
Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora.
The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation: ) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.

Riad Al Solh

Riad SolhRiadRiad al-Sulh
Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Riad Al Solh (1894 – 17 July 1951) was the first prime minister of Lebanon after the country's independence.

Majid Arslan

Emir Majid ArslanEmir Majid Arslan IIEmir Majid
Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Emir Majid Toufic Arslan (February 1908 — September 18, 1983) was a Lebanese Druze leader and head of the Arslan feudal Druze ruling family.

Arab League

ALArabLeague of Arab States
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League (1945), the Non-Aligned Movement (1961), Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (1969) and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie (1973).
It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

Consociationalism

power-sharingpower sharingconsociational state
Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities.
When consociationalism is organised along religious confessional lines, it is known as confessionalism, as is the case in Lebanon.

Bechara El Khoury

Bechara KhouryBishara Al KhouriBishara Khoury
Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Bechara El Khoury (10 August 1890 – 11 January 1964 in Rechmaya) was the first post-independence President of Lebanon, holding office from 21 September 1943 to 18 September 1952, apart from an 11-day interruption (11–22 November) in 1943.

Greater Lebanon

LebanonFrench LebanonState of Greater Lebanon
Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit (as opposed to the mountain range) was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (متصرفية جبل لبنان; Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı), continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon (دولة لبنان الكبير ; État du Grand Liban) in 1920, and eventually in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943.
The State of Greater Lebanon (دولة لبنان الكبير '; État du Grand Liban) was a state declared on 1 September 1920, which became the Lebanese Republic''' (République libanaise) in May 1926, and is the predecessor of modern Lebanon.

Phoenicia

PhoenicianPhoeniciansPhoenicio
Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years (c. 1550–539 BC).
Phoenicia (from the, ) was a thalassocratic, ancient Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilization that originated in the Levant, specifically Lebanon, in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

Economy of the Middle East

areas of growthGDP per capitaMiddle East
In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
The economy of the Middle East consists of the economies of Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kurdistan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen.

Phoenicia under Roman rule

PhoeniciaRoman LebanonSyro-Phoenician
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Sasanid Persian empires.
The Phoenicia under Roman rule relates to the Roman control of Syro-Phoenician city states (in the area of modern Lebanon), that lasted from 64 BC to the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.

Phoenician language

PhoenicianPhoenician-PunicCanaanite-Phoenician
The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white", apparently from its snow-capped peaks.
The area where Phoenician was spoken includes modern-day Lebanon, coastal Syria, coastal northern Israel, parts of Cyprus and, at least as a prestige language, some adjacent areas of Anatolia.

Phoenicia under Hellenistic rule

PhoeniciaHellenisticHellenistic period
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Sasanid Persian empires.
The Persian Empire, including modern Lebanon, eventually fell to Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia.