Lebanon

Lebanese🇱🇧Lebanese RepublicRepublic of LebanonLBNLBcountryLEBLibanaisethe Lebanon
Lebanon (لبنان ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese Republic (الجمهورية اللبنانية ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; République libanaise), is a country in Western Asia.wikipedia
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Syria

SyrianSyrian Arab RepublicSyrian government
It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

Syria

SyrianSyrian Arab RepublicSyrian government
It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

Israel

🇮🇱IsraeliState of Israel
It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.
It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest.

Cyprus

🇨🇾CypriotCYP
It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.
Cyprus (Κύπρος ; Kıbrıs ), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece.

History of Lebanon

historymedieval Mamluk periodits rich history
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity.
The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.

Culture of Lebanon

Lebanese cultureLebaneseculture
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora.
The culture of Lebanon and the Lebanese people emerged from various civilizations over thousands of years.

Demographics of Lebanon

LebaneseLebanondemographics
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Lebanon, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Lebanese Arabic

LebaneseLebanese dialectLebanon
Lebanon (لبنان ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese Republic (الجمهورية اللبنانية ; Lebanese pronunciation: ; République libanaise), is a country in Western Asia.
Lebanese Arabic or Lebanese is a variety of North Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic.

Lebanese Civil War

civil warcivil war in LebanonLebanon
Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and armed conflict (1948 Arab–Israeli War, Lebanese Civil War 1975–1990, 2005 Cedar Revolution, 2006 Lebanon War, 2007 Lebanon conflict, 2006–08 Lebanese protests, 2008 conflict in Lebanon, and since 2011 Syrian Civil War spillover).
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.

Beirut

Beirut, LebanonBerytusBeruta
Because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, and its capital, Beirut, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and armed conflict (1948 Arab–Israeli War, Lebanese Civil War 1975–1990, 2005 Cedar Revolution, 2006 Lebanon War, 2007 Lebanon conflict, 2006–08 Lebanese protests, 2008 conflict in Lebanon, and since 2011 Syrian Civil War spillover).
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

Lebanese people

LebaneseLebanese descentLebanon
Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora.
The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation: ) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.

Mount Lebanon Governorate

Mount LebanonMont-LibanMount Lebanon region
The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims.
Mount Lebanon Governorate is one of the eight governorates of Lebanon.

Lebanese Maronite Christians

MaroniteMaronitesMaronite Christian
As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity.
Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.

List of Prime Ministers of Lebanon

Prime MinisterPrime Minister of LebanonLebanese Prime Minister
Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Lebanon (officially titled President of the Council of Ministers) since the creation of the office in 1926.

Riad Al Solh

Riad SolhRiad Bey Al SolhRiad al-Sulh
Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Riad Al Solh (1894 – 17 July 1951) was the first prime minister of Lebanon after the country's independence.

Arabs

ArabArabianArabic
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity.
Today, Arabs primarily inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

Greater Lebanon

LebanonFrench LebanonState of Greater Lebanon
Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit (as opposed to the mountain range) was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (متصرفية جبل لبنان; Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı), continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon (دولة لبنان الكبير ; État du Grand Liban) in 1920, and eventually in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943.
The State of Greater Lebanon (دولة لبنان الكبير '; État du Grand Liban) was a state declared on 1 September 1920, which became the Lebanese Republic''' (République libanaise) in May 1926, and is the predecessor of modern Lebanon.

Phoenicia

PhoenicianPhoeniciansPhoenicio
Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years (c. 1550–539 BC).
Scholars generally agree that it included the coastal areas of today's Lebanon, northern Israel and southern Syria reaching as far north as Arwad, but there is some dispute as to how far south it went, the furthest suggested area being Ashkelon.

Arab League

ArabALLeague of Arab States
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League (1945), the Non-Aligned Movement (1961), Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (1969) and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie (1973).
It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

Majid Arslan

Emir Majid ArslanEmir Majid Arslan IIEmir Majid
Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Emir Majid Toufic Arslan (February 1908 — September 18, 1983) was a Lebanese Druze leader and head of the Arslan feudal Druze ruling family.

Bechara El Khoury

Bechara KhouryBishara Al KhouriBishara Khoury
Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Bechara El Khoury (10 August 1890 – 11 January 1964 in Rechmaya) was the first post-independence President of Lebanon, holding office from 21 September 1943 to 18 September 1952, apart from an 11-day interruption (11–22 November) in 1943.

Consociationalism

power-sharingpower sharingconsociationalist
Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities.
When consociationalism is organised along religious confessional lines, it is known as confessionalism, as is the case in Lebanon.

Phoenicia under Roman rule

PhoeniciaSyro-PhoenicianRoman Lebanon
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Sasanid Persian empires.
The Phoenicia under Roman rule relates to the Roman control of Syro-Phoenician city states (in the area of modern Lebanon), that lasted from 64 BC to the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.

2006 Lebanon War

2006 Israel-Lebanon conflictSecond Lebanon War2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict
Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and armed conflict (1948 Arab–Israeli War, Lebanese Civil War 1975–1990, 2005 Cedar Revolution, 2006 Lebanon War, 2007 Lebanon conflict, 2006–08 Lebanese protests, 2008 conflict in Lebanon, and since 2011 Syrian Civil War spillover).
The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights.

Cedar Revolution

Syrian withdrawalLebanese Independenceend
Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and armed conflict (1948 Arab–Israeli War, Lebanese Civil War 1975–1990, 2005 Cedar Revolution, 2006 Lebanon War, 2007 Lebanon conflict, 2006–08 Lebanese protests, 2008 conflict in Lebanon, and since 2011 Syrian Civil War spillover).
The Cedar Revolution (Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الاستقلال - intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations in Lebanon (especially in the capital Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.