Lebanon

Location of Lebanon (in green)
Map of Phoenicia and trade routes
Location of Lebanon (in green)
The Fall of Tripoli to the Egyptian Mamluks and destruction of the Crusader state, the County of Tripoli, 1289
Location of Lebanon (in green)
Byblos is believed to have been first occupied between 8800 and 7000 BC and continuously inhabited since 5000 BC, making it among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Fakhreddine II Palace, 17th century
1862 map drawn by the French expedition of Beaufort d'Hautpoul, later used as a template for the 1920 borders of Greater Lebanon.
Map of the French Mandate and the states created in 1920
Martyrs' Square in Beirut during celebrations marking the release by the French of Lebanon's government from Rashayya prison on 22 November 1943
Demonstrators calling for the withdrawal of Syrian forces.
The Green Line that separated west and east Beirut, 1982
Map showing the Blue Line demarcation line between Lebanon and Israel, established by the UN after the Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon in 1978
Map showing power balance in Lebanon, 1983: Green – controlled by Syria, purple – controlled by Christian groups, yellow – controlled by Israel, blue – controlled by the UN
Demonstrations in Lebanon triggered by the assassination of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on 14 February 2005
Over 20,000 Syrian and Palestinian refugees live in the Shatila refugee camp on the outskirts of Beirut.
Women protesters forming a line between riot police and protesters in Riad el Solh, Beirut; 19 November 2019
Kadisha Valley, a view from Qannoubine Monastery
Lebanon from space. Snow cover can be seen on the western Mount Lebanon and eastern Anti-Lebanon mountain ranges
The Lebanon cedar is the national emblem of Lebanon.
Mount Lebanon is a mountain range in Lebanon. It averages above 2,500 m (8,200 ft) in elevation.
The Lebanese parliament building at the Place de l'Étoile
One of many protests in Beirut
The Grand Serail in Beirut
United Nations Lebanon headquarters in Beirut
Soldiers of the Lebanese army, 2009
Corinthian capitals of the Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek
A proportional representation of Lebanon exports, 2019
Beirut Central District
Lebanese real GDP 1970-2017
Port of Beirut
Beirut is the tourism hub of the country
AUB College Hall in Beirut.
Haigazian University in Beirut.
Beirut located on the Mediterranean Sea is the most populous city in Lebanon.
Saint George Maronite Cathedral and the Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque, Beirut.
Distribution of main religious groups of Lebanon according to last municipal election data.
Temple of Bacchus is considered among the best preserved Roman temples in the world, c. 150 AD
Sursock Museum in Beirut
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Sabah and Salah Zulfikar in Paris and Love (1972)
Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium in Beirut
Al Ansar FC in Beirut
Saint Joseph University of Beirut's Campus of Innovation and Sports on Damascus Street, Beirut
'Pilgrimage to the Cedars of Libanon' - painting by a Hungarian painter, Csontváry Kosztka Tivadar.

Country in Western Asia.

- Lebanon

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Mount Lebanon

Fakhreddine Mosque, in Deir al-Qamar, was built in 1493.
Snow on Mount Lebanon
Armed men from Mount Lebanon, late 19th century.

Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, ;, ṭūr levnon, , Mont Liban) is a mountain range in Lebanon.

Maronites

Maronite Patriarch and bishops in Rome, 1906
Maronite villagers building a church in the region of Mount Lebanon, 1920s.
Our Lady of Lebanon Cathedral Brooklyn in New York City.
An estimate of the distribution of Lebanon's main religious groups, 1991, based on a map by GlobalSecurity.org
Lebanon religious groups distribution.
Byzantium Location 550 690 1025
An estimate of the area distribution of Lebanon's main religious groups.
Lebanese flag
Maronite division among main Syriac Christian groups.

The Maronites (الموارنة; ) are a Christian ethnoreligious group native to the Levant region of the Middle East, whose members traditionally belong to the Syriac Maronite Church, with the largest concentration long residing near Mount Lebanon in modern Lebanon.

Lebanese Arabic

Lebanese Arabic vowel chart.
Said Akl's statue in the American University of Science and Technology's campus in Beirut, Lebanon

Lebanese Arabic (عَرَبِيّ لُبْنَانِيّ, Lebanese: ʿarabe libnēne), or simply Lebanese (لُبْنَانِيّ, Lebanese: libnēne), is a variety of North Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic.

Maronite Church

Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the pope and the worldwide Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.

Seat of the patriarchate in Bkerké, Lebanon
Seat of the patriarchate in Bkerké, Lebanon
St. Maron Russian orthodox icon
Remains of the arch of Brad Cathedral north of Aleppo, where Saint Maron's tomb was attached.
Maronite monk and pilgrims, Mount Lebanon
1779 painting of a Maronite nun from Mount Lebanon, with brown jilbab, blue headscarf and black hijab.
Archbishop of Beirut Tobia Aoun (1803–1871)
Saint John Maron, the first and 63rd patriarch after Saint Peter, wrote under the icon, the glory of Lebanon is given to him.
Saint Charbel
The Peshitta is the standard Syriac Bible, used by the Maronite Church, amongst others. The illustration is of the Peshitta text of Exodus 13:14–16 produced in Amida in the year 464.
The Monastery of Saint Anthony of Qozhaya, in the Zgharta district, North Lebanon.
A map depicting the dioceses of the Maronite Church by number of faithful
Maronite Pastoral Center in St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.

The current seat of the Maronite Patriarchate is in Bkerke, northeast of Beirut, Lebanon.

Mandate for Syria and Lebanon

The Kingdom of Syria in 1918
The Syrian National Congress in 1919
Seal of the states under French mandate after WWI (among them Syria) around 1925. The text is 'DOUANE DES ÉTATS SOUS MANDAT FRANÇAIS' (Customs of the states under French mandate)
Bulletin Officiel des Actes Administratifs du Haut Commissariat, 14 May 1930, announcing the constitutions of the states within the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon
Map showing the states of the French Mandate from 1921 to 1922
General Gourard proclaims the creation of the State of Greater Lebanon
A 10-piastre Syrian stamp used in the Alawite State, bearing an overprint overprinted "ALAOUITES"
General Gouraud crossing through al-Khandaq street on 13 September 1920, Aleppo

The Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon (Mandat pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded in the aftermath of the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, concerning Syria and Lebanon.

Greater Lebanon

Location of Greater Lebanon (green) within the Mandate of Syria and Lebanon
Map of Greater Lebanon's borders compared with the border of the previous territory of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (black dashed line), overlaid on a map of modern-day religious groups distribution
map of the 1860-64 French expedition
Proclamation of the state of Greater Lebanon on 1 September 1920 in the Pine Residence.
Arrete no 318, which created "l'Etat du Grand Liban"
Constitution of the Lebanese Republic
The first Lebanese flag, hand-drawn and signed by the deputies of the Lebanese parliament, 11 November 1943
A Greater Lebanon five-piastre coin, 1924

The State of Greater Lebanon (دولة لبنان الكبير Dawlat Lubnān al-Kabīr; État du Grand Liban) was a state declared on 1 September 1920, which became the Lebanese Republic (الجمهورية اللبنانية al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah; République libanaise) in May 1926, and is the predecessor of modern Lebanon.

Lebanese Civil War

Multifaceted armed conflict that took place from 1975 to 1990.

Monument at Martyrs' Square in Beirut, 1982
Soldiers in Mount Lebanon during the mutasarrif period
U.S. Marine sits in a foxhole outside Beirut during the 1958 Lebanon crisis
Palestinian Fatah fighters in Beirut in 1979
Flag of the Amal Movement
Map showing power balance in Lebanon, 1976: Dark Green – controlled by Syria; Purple – controlled by Maronite groups; Light Green – controlled by Palestinian militias
The Green Line that separated West and East Beirut, 1982
UNIFIL base, 1981
Map showing the Blue Line demarcation line between Lebanon and Israel, established by the UN after the Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon in 1978
Map showing power balance in Lebanon, 1983: Green – controlled by Syria; Purple – controlled Maronite groups, Yellow – controlled by Israel, Blue – controlled by the United Nations
Israeli troops in South Lebanon, June 1982
An aerial view of the stadium used as an ammunition supply site for the PLO after Israeli airstrikes in 1982
US Navy Amphibian arriving in Beirut, 1982
Picture of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing
USS New Jersey (BB-62) fires a salvo against targets in the Shouf, 9 January 1984
War-damaged buildings still standing in Beirut, 2006
Since 1990, Lebanon has undergone a thorough re-constructive process, in which the Downtown of Beirut was fully restructured according to international standards
Map of the East Beirut canton (Marounistan). One of many unrecognized administrations during the Lebanese Civil War

It resulted in an estimated 120,000 fatalities and an exodus of almost one million people from Lebanon.

Mediterranean Sea

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are island countries in the sea.

History of Lebanon

Parts of Lebanon and neighbouring countries formed a part of the Roman Empire
Approximate territory of "Phoenicia" (northern Canaan, Syro-Phoenicia) in the Late Bronze Age, before Phoenician colonisation in the Mediterranean
Fakhreddine II
Portrait of Fakhreddine while he was in Tuscany, stating "Faccardino grand emir dei Drusi" translated as "Fakhreddine: great emir of the Druze"
Fakhreddine II Palace in Deir el Qamar
Christian Church and Druze Khalwa in Shuf Mountains: Historically; the Druzes and the Christians in the Shuf Mountains lived in complete harmony.
Christian refugees during the 1860 strife between Druze and Maronites in Lebanon
Lebanese soldiers, 1861–1914
Lebanese dress from the late 19th century.
Greater Lebanon (green) in the Mandate of Syria
Flag of Greater Lebanon during the French mandate (1920–1943)
Flag as drawn and approved by the members of the Lebanese parliament during the declaration of independence in 1943
Beirut in 1950
Map showing power balance in Lebanon, 1976:
Dark Green – controlled by Syria;
Purple – controlled by Maronite groups;
Light Green – controlled by Palestinian militias
Map showing power balance in Lebanon, 1983: Green – controlled by Syria, purple – controlled by Christian groups, yellow – controlled by Israel, blue – controlled by the United Nations
The Green Line that separated West and East Beirut, 1982
Bachir Gemayel with Philipe Habib
Explosion at the Marine barracks seen from afar
Portrait of Elie Hobeika
Map of the Shebaa farms
Anti-Syrian protesters heading to Martyrs' Square in Beirut on foot and in vehicles, 13 March 2005
A building in Ghazieh, near Sidon, bombed by the Israeli Air Force (IAF), 20 July 2006
Protesters in Beirut. Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque, 20 October 2019
Aftermath of the 4 August 2020 Beirut explosion

The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.

Lebanese people

Salma Hayek
Carlos Ghosn
Amal Clooney
Lebanese residents as a percentage of country's total population
A Druze family of the Lebanon, late 1800s
Christian men from Mount Lebanon, late 1800s

The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: , ) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.