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Capacity (law)

capacityincapacitylegal capacity
As legal personality is a prerequisite to legal capacity (the ability of any legal person to amend (enter into, transfer, etc.) rights and obligations), it is a prerequisite for an international organization to be able to sign international treaties in its own name.

Personhood

personspersonPersonhood USA
While natural persons acquire legal personality "naturally", simply by being born (or before that, in some jurisdictions), juridical persons must have legal personality conferred on them by some "unnatural", legal process, and it is for this reason that they are sometimes called "artificial" persons.
According to law, only a natural person or legal personality has rights, protections, privileges, responsibilities, and legal liability.

Juridical person

legal entityjuristic personlegal entities
In law a human person is called a "natural person" (sometimes also a physical person), and a non-human person is called a juridical person (sometimes also a juridic, juristic, artificial, legal, or fictitious person, persona ficta).
A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity.

Natural person

naturalnatural personsindividual
While natural persons acquire legal personality "naturally", simply by being born (or before that, in some jurisdictions), juridical persons must have legal personality conferred on them by some "unnatural", legal process, and it is for this reason that they are sometimes called "artificial" persons. In law a human person is called a "natural person" (sometimes also a physical person), and a non-human person is called a juridical person (sometimes also a juridic, juristic, artificial, legal, or fictitious person, persona ficta).
In jurisprudence, a natural person is a person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization.

Corporation sole

the Crowncorporations solesole ownership
In some common law jurisdictions a distinction is drawn between corporation aggregate (such as a company, which is composed of a number of members) and a corporation sole, which is a public office of legal personality separated from the individual holding the office; (both entities have separate legal personality).
A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single ("sole") incorporated office, occupied by a single ("sole") natural person.

Lawsuit

litigationsuedcivil suit
They may sue and be sued, enter contracts, incur debt, and own property.
A lawsuit may involve dispute resolution of private law issues between individuals, business entities or non-profit organizations.

Corporation

corporatecorporationsincorporated
A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity; a legal person in legal context) and recognized as such in law for certain purposes.

European economic interest grouping

EEIGARTE GEIEEconomic Interest Grouping
A European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) is a type of legal entity of the European corporate law created on 1985-07-25 under European Community (EC) Council Regulation 2137/85.

Company

companiesenterpriseenterprises
with a discrete legal personality, perpetual succession, and a common seal.

Partnership

partnerpartnershipssilent partner
This was not a problem in the era before the Industrial Revolution, when the typical business venture was either a sole proprietorship or partnership—the owners were simply liable for the debts of the business.
The partners in a partnership may be individuals, businesses, interest-based organizations, schools, governments or combinations.

Corporate law

business lawcompany lawcorporate
It is pertinent to the philosophy of law, as it is essential to laws affecting a corporation (corporations law).
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.

Commonwealth realm

Commonwealth realmsrealmsCommonwealth
The evolution of the Commonwealth realms has resulted in the Crown having both a shared and a separate character, with the one individual being equally monarch of each state and acting as such in right of a particular realm as a distinct legal person guided only by the advice of the cabinet of that jurisdiction.

Intergovernmental organization

intergovernmental organisationintergovernmentalintergovernmental organizations
Treaties are formed when lawful representatives (governments) of several states go through a ratification process, providing the IGO with an international legal personality.

Shareholder

shareholdersstockholderstockholders
In many jurisdictions, artificial personality allows that entity to be considered under law separately from its individual members (for example in a company limited by shares, its shareholders).
Shareholders are considered by some to be a subset of stakeholders, which may include anyone who has a direct or indirect interest in the business entity.

Law of agency

agentagencyagents
"Piercing the corporate veil" refers to looking at the individual natural persons acting as agents involved in a company action or decision; this may result in a legal decision in which the rights or duties of a corporation or public limited company are treated as the rights or liabilities of that corporation's members or directors.
Others treat the partnership as a business entity and, like a corporation, vest the partnership with a separate legal personality.

The Crown

British CrownCrownAustralian Crown
The terms the state, the Crown, the Crown in Right of [jurisdiction], Her Majesty the Queen in Right of [jurisdiction], and similar are all synonymous and the monarch's legal personality is sometimes referred to simply as the relevant jurisdiction's name.

Limited liability company

LLClimited liability companieslimited liability corporation
A limited liability company (LLC) is a hybrid legal entity having certain characteristics of both a corporation and a partnership or sole proprietorship (depending on how many owners there are).

Whanganui River

WhanganuiCobham Bridge over the Whanganui Riverriver
In March 2017 it became the world's second (after Te Urewera) natural resource to be given its own legal identity, with the rights, duties and liabilities of a legal person.

Investment trust

investment truststrusttrusts
The name is somewhat misleading, given that (according to law) an investment "trust" is not in fact a "trust" in the legal sense at all, but a separate legal person or a company.

Voluntary association

associationassociationsvoluntary organisation
In most countries, an unincorporated association does not have separate legal personality, and few members of the association usually enjoy limited liability.

Cooperative

co-operativeco-opcooperatives
A cooperative is a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members.

Treaty of Lisbon

Lisbon TreatyLisbonReform Treaty
Prominent changes included the [[Voting in the Council of the European Union#Current qualified majority voting rules (since 2014)|move]] from unanimity to qualified majority voting in at least 45 policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of Ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

Piercing the corporate veil

pierce the corporate veilLifting the corporate veilcorporate veil
"Piercing the corporate veil" refers to looking at the individual natural persons acting as agents involved in a company action or decision; this may result in a legal decision in which the rights or duties of a corporation or public limited company are treated as the rights or liabilities of that corporation's members or directors.
The House of Lords upheld that refusal based on the separate legal personality of the company.

Collegium (ancient Rome)

collegiumcollegiacollege
The concept of legal personhood for organizations of people is at least as old as Ancient Rome: a variety of collegial institutions enjoyed the benefit under Roman law.
A collegium (plural collegia, "gathered together"; English "college") was any association in ancient Rome with a legal personality.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality, created a permanent President of the European Council, the first of which was Herman Van Rompuy, and strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.