Legio XII Fulminata

XII ''FulminataXII FulminataTwelfth LegionLegio XII ''FulminataLegio XII12th Legion12th Roman LegionLegio XII ''VictrixThundering Legion12th Legion "Fulminatrix
The Legio duodecima Fulminata ("Thunderbolt Twelfth Legion"), also known as Paterna, Victrix, Antiqua, Certa Constans, and Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.wikipedia
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Malatya

MeliteneMalatiaEmirate of Melitene
The unit was still guarding the Euphrates River crossing near Melitene at the beginning of the 5th century.
After the Kingdom's annexation by the Roman Empire in 17 AD, the settlement was re-established as Melitene in 72 AD on a different site, as the base camp of Legio XII Fulminata (which continued to be based there until at least the early 5th century according to Notitia Dignitatum).

Gallic Wars

Gallic Warconquest of GaulRoman conquest of Gaul
It was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC, and the legion accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC.
Upon arrival, he took command of the three legions which were in Aquileia and enrolled two new legions, the Legio XI and the Legio XII.

Roman Syria

SyriaSyrianByzantine Syria
During the latest part of Augustus' principality, XII Fulminata served in Syria, camping at Raphana.
In 66 AD, Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought the Syrian army, based on XII Fulminata, reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order in Judaea and quell the revolt.

First Jewish–Roman War

First Jewish-Roman WarGreat Jewish RevoltJewish Revolt
In 66, after a Zealot revolt had destroyed the Roman garrison in Jerusalem, the XII Fulminata, with vexillationes of IV Scythica and VI Ferrata, were sent to retaliate.
As it became clear the rebellion was getting out of control, Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought in the Syrian army, based on Legion XII Fulminata and reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt.

Battle of the Sabis

Battle against the NerviansBattle of Sabisattacked the approaching Roman column at the river Sabis
The Twelfth legion, as it is perhaps better known, fought in the Battle against the Nervians, and probably also in the Siege of Alesia.
Roman Republic – Julius Caesar's eight legions: VII, VIII, IX Triumphalis, X Equestris, XI, XII Victrix, XIII, XIV – Auxiliaries, archers and cavalry.

Battle of Pharsalus

PharsalusBattle of PharsaliaBattle of Pharsulus
The Twelfth fought at the Battle of Pharsalus (48 BC), when Caesar defeated Pompey.

Imperial Roman army

Roman Imperial armyRoman armyRomans
The Legio duodecima Fulminata ("Thunderbolt Twelfth Legion"), also known as Paterna, Victrix, Antiqua, Certa Constans, and Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
Legions often carried several titles, awarded after successive campaigns, normally by the ruling emperor e.g. XII Fulminata also boasted: paterna ("senior"), victrix ("victorious"), antiqua ("venerable"), certa constans ("reliable, steadfast") and Galliena ("(the emperor) Gallienus's favourite").

Vologases I of Parthia

Vologases IVologasesVologeses I
From his eastern Parthian Empire in present-day Iran and Iraq, King Vologeses I in 58 AD invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome.
Paetus was an incapable commander and suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Rhandeia in 62, losing the legions of XII Fulminata commanded by Calvisius Sabinus and IIII Scythica commanded by Lucius Funisulanus Vettonianus.

Ramana, Azerbaijan

RamanaRomanyRamanı
Some historians argue that the settlement of Ramana near Baku was possibly founded by the Roman troops of Lucius Julius Maximus from Legio XII Fulminata in circa 84-96 AD and derives its name from the Latin Romana.
The settlement was possibly founded by the Roman troops of Lucius Julius Maximus from Legio XII Fulminata in c. 84-96 AD, and may derive its name from the Latin Romana.

Legio IV Scythica

IV ''ScythicaFourth LegionLegio IV ''Scythica
Corbulo ordered Legion IV Scythica from Moesia, and along with the III Gallica and VI Ferrata defeated the Parthians, restoring Tigranes VI to the Armenian throne.
In 62, IIII Scythica and XII Fulminata, commanded by the new legate of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, were defeated by the Parthians at the Battle of Rhandeia and forced to surrender.

Lucius Caesennius Paetus

CaesenniusCaesennius PaetusGaius Caesennius Paetus
In 62 AD, the XII Fulminata joined the IV Scythica, now commanded by the new Legate of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus.
In 62 however, Paetus, at the head of the legions XII Fulminata and IV Scythica suffered a catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Rhandeia against the Parthian and Armenian forces of King Tiridates I of Armenia.

Fulmen

The legion's emblem was a thunderbolt (on a shield fulmen).
Shields of the Legio XII Fulminata showed the spread fires of trident-shaped lightning bolts (Latin: trifida fulgures).

Roman–Parthian War of 58–63

Battle of RhandeiaRoman–Parthian Warcampaigns
Both legions were defeated by the Parthians and Armenians at the battle of Rhandeia; after surrendering, the legions were shamed and removed from this theater of war.
In response, Corbulo sent the legions IV Scythica and XII Fulminata to Armenia, while he detailed the three other legions under his command (III Gallica, VI Ferrata and XV Apollinaris) to fortify the line of the river Euphrates, fearing that the Parthians might invade Syria.

Raphana

Ancient Raphana
During the latest part of Augustus' principality, XII Fulminata served in Syria, camping at Raphana.
For a time the city was the base camp of the Roman legion Legio XII Fulminata.

Battle of Beth Horon (66)

Battle of Beth HoronBattle of Beth-HoronBeth Horon
On its way back, XII Fulminata was ambushed and defeated by Eleazar ben Simon in the Battle of Beth Horon, also losing its aquila.
Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, marched on Jerusalem with Legio XII Fulminata and auxiliary troops, with an aim of crushing the rebels and restoring order.

Eleazar ben Simon

Elazar ben Ya'ir
On its way back, XII Fulminata was ambushed and defeated by Eleazar ben Simon in the Battle of Beth Horon, also losing its aquila.
Historical evidence of Eleazar arises in 66 CE, when he participated in crushing Cestius Gallus' Legio XII Fulminata at Beit-Horon.

Aquila (Roman)

aquilaRoman eagleeagle
On its way back, XII Fulminata was ambushed and defeated by Eleazar ben Simon in the Battle of Beth Horon, also losing its aquila.

Marcomannic Wars

Marcomannic WarcampaignSecond Marcomannic War
Emperor Marcus Aurelius commanded the XII Fulminata in his campaign against the Quadi, a people inhabiting an area in modern-day Slovakia, and an episode of a miraculous rain and lightning saving a Twelfth subunit from defeat is reported by the sources.
According to Cassius Dio, the legio XII Fulminata was hemmed in by a superior Quadi force and almost forced to surrender because of the heat and thirst.

Forty Martyrs of Sebaste

40 Martyrs of SebasteForty MartyrsHoly Forty Martyrs
The Forty Martyrs of Sebaste or the Holy Forty (Ancient/Katharevousa Greek Ἃγιοι Τεσσεράκοντα; Demotic: Άγιοι Σαράντα) were a group of Roman soldiers in the Legio XII Fulminata (Armed with Lightning) whose martyrdom in 320 for the Christian faith is recounted in traditional martyrologies.

Roman legion

legionslegionRoman legions
The Legio duodecima Fulminata ("Thunderbolt Twelfth Legion"), also known as Paterna, Victrix, Antiqua, Certa Constans, and Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.

Julius Caesar

CaesarGaius Julius CaesarJulius Cæsar
It was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC, and the legion accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC.

Euphrates

Euphrates RiverRiver EuphratesFırat River
The unit was still guarding the Euphrates River crossing near Melitene at the beginning of the 5th century.

Thunderbolt

lightning boltlightning boltsThunderbolts
The legion's emblem was a thunderbolt (on a shield fulmen).

Battle of Alesia

AlesiaSiege of Alesiapan-Gallic rebellion of 52 BC
The Twelfth legion, as it is perhaps better known, fought in the Battle against the Nervians, and probably also in the Siege of Alesia.