Legislature

Palace of Westminster in February 2007
Map showing the terminology for each country's national legislature
The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010
The British House of Commons, its lower house
The German Bundestag, its theoretical lower house
The Australian Senate, its upper house

Assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

- Legislature
Palace of Westminster in February 2007

48 related topics

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John Locke

Separation of powers

Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

John Locke
Montesquieu
George Washington at Constitutional Convention of 1787, signing of U.S. Constitution

The typical division is into three branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary, which is sometimes called the trias politica model.

The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.

Parliamentary system

The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
The Reichstag Building in Berlin, Germany. The Consensus system is used in most Western European countries.
Parliament of Canada
Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban, parliament building of Bangladesh
Sansad Bhavan, parliament building of India
Council of Representatives of Iraq
Knesset of Israel in Jerusalem
Parliament of Malaysia
National Assembly of Armenia
The administrative building of the Albanian Parliament
The Congress of Deputies, the lower chamber of Spanish Parliament
Parliament of Australia
Parliament of New Zealand

A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the support ("confidence") of the legislature, typically a parliament, to which it is accountable.

The British Houses of Parliament are situated within the Palace of Westminster, in London

Westminster system

The British Houses of Parliament are situated within the Palace of Westminster, in London
Canadian Parliament at night
The Sansad Bhavan (Parliament House) building in New Delhi, India
Knesset Building, Jerusalem
The Australian Senate

The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature.

The Palace of Westminster, seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Bicameralism

The Palace of Westminster, seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The United States Capitol, seat of the United States Congress.
The Sansad Bhavan, seat of the Parliament of India.
The National Congress of Brazil, seat of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate
The federal bicameral Parliament of Canada, which contains a House of Commons and a Senate
The federal bicameral Parliament of Australia, which contains a House of Representatives and a Senate
The House of Lords chamber
Provincial legislatures in Argentina

Bicameralism is a type of legislature, one divided into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses, known as a bicameral legislature.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

Constitution

Aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

Aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Magna Carta
United States Constitution

The standard model, described by the Baron de Montesquieu, involves three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial.

Vanhanen II Cabinet in a session of Finnish Parliament in 2007.

Executive (government)

Part of government that enforces law, and has responsibility for the governance of a state.

Part of government that enforces law, and has responsibility for the governance of a state.

Vanhanen II Cabinet in a session of Finnish Parliament in 2007.

In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial)—an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a single group of people.

United Kingdom House of Commons

Lower house

United Kingdom House of Commons
Australian House of Representatives

A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

World administrative levels

Presidential system

World administrative levels

A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff (left) and South Korean president Park Geun-Hye (right) were both impeached and removed from office in 2016 and 2017 respectively.

Impeachment

Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff (left) and South Korean president Park Geun-Hye (right) were both impeached and removed from office in 2016 and 2017 respectively.
Lithuanian President Rolandas Paksas was the first European head of state to have been impeached.
Peru's president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski speaks about the impeachment process against him
Boris Yeltsin, as president of Russia, survived several impeachment attempts
The impeachment trial of United States president Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. The House managers are seated beside the quarter-circular tables on the left and the president's personal counsel on the right, much in the fashion of United States president Andrew Johnson's trial in 1868.
United States president Donald Trump was impeached by the House of Representatives in 2019, and then again in 2021, with one week left in office.

Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body or other legally constituted tribunal initiates charges against a public official for misconduct.

Unicameralism

Provincial legislatures in Argentina

Unicameralism (from uni- "one" + Latin camera "chamber") is a type of legislature, which consists of one house or assembly, that legislates and votes as one.