Legislature

legislativeLegislative powerlegislative branchlegislative bodyseatlegislaturesAssemblylegislative bodiesseatslegislative powers
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.wikipedia
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Law

legallawslegal theory
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions.

Government

Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary.

Separation of powers

checks and balancesbranches of governmentdivision of powers
Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive.
The typical division is into three branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary, which is the trias politica model.

Democracy

democraticdemocraciesdemocratically
In a democracy, legislators are most commonly popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber.
In a direct democracy, the people directly deliberate and decide on legislature.

Election

electionselectedelectoral
In a democracy, legislators are most commonly popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber.
Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government.

Legislator

representativelawmakerlegislators
The members of a legislature are called legislators.
A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature.

Bicameralism

bicameralbicameral legislaturechambers
In a democracy, legislators are most commonly popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber.
A bicameral legislature has legislators in two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

Primary and secondary legislation

primary legislationsecondary legislationdelegated legislation
Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation.
In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government.

Parliament

parliamentary governmentparliamentslegislative assembly
Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", and "assembly", depending on country.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

National Assembly

Member of the National AssemblyassemblyMNA
Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", and "assembly", depending on country.
In politics, a National Assembly is either a unicameral legislature, the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or both houses of a bicameral legislature together.

Congress

Congressionalcongressescongressional system
Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", and "assembly", depending on country.
Subsequent to the use of congress as the name for the legislature of the U.S. federal government (beginning in 1789), the term has been adopted by many nations to refer to their national legislatures.

Parliamentary procedure

standing ordersrules of orderparliamentary law
Each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation.
Parliamentary procedure is the body of rules, ethics and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, organizations, legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies.

Italian Parliament

ParliamentParliament of ItalyMP
The German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, and the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly (since replaced by the Federal Parliament of Somalia) tied for least powerful.
It is a bicameral legislature with 945 elected members and a small number of unelected members (parlamentari).

House of Representatives (Myanmar)

Pyithu HluttawHouse of RepresentativesBurmese House of Representatives
The German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, and the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly (since replaced by the Federal Parliament of Somalia) tied for least powerful.
The House of Representatives (ပြည်သူ့ လွှတ်တော်, Pyithu Hluttaw) is the lower house of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the bicameral legislature of Myanmar (Burma).

Parliamentary sovereignty

parliamentary supremacylegislative supremacysovereignty of Parliament
Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution.
It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty and is supreme over all other government institutions, including executive or judicial bodies.

Parliamentary system

parliamentaryparliamentarismparliamentary democracy
In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

Committee

standing committeeexecutive committeesteering committee
Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are usually delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber(s).
A conference committee in a bicameral legislature is responsible for creating a compromise version of a particular bill when each house has passed a different version.

Presidential system

presidentialpresidential republicpresidentialism
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican government in which a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

Bundestag

German BundestagGerman Parliamentparliament
The German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, and the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly (since replaced by the Federal Parliament of Somalia) tied for least powerful.
Together with the Bundesrat, the Bundestag is the legislative branch of the German political system.

Judiciary

judicialjudicial branchjudicial system
Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive.
Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the judiciary generally does not make statutory law (which is the responsibility of the legislature) or enforce law (which is the responsibility of the executive), but rather interprets law and applies it to the facts of each case.

Semi-presidential system

semi-presidentialsemi-presidential republicsemi-presidential systems
In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a mostly ceremonial figurehead, and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.

Safe seat

safestrongholdsafest seats
By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a "seat", as, for, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat".
A safe seat is an electoral district (constituency) in a legislative body (e.g. Congress, Parliament, City Council) which is regarded as fully secure, for either a certain political party, or the incumbent representative personally or a combination of both.

Electoral district

constituencyconstituenciesdistrict magnitude
By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a "seat", as, for, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat".
An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.

Executive (government)

executiveexecutive branchExecutive power
Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial)—an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a single group of people.

Bill (law)

billbillslegislation
A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, and houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers.
A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.