Lemkos

LemkoLemko people LemkolemkiLemkianLemko communityŁemko
Lemkos (Lemko: Лeмкы, Lemkŷ; Лемки, Lemky; Łemkowie; sing. Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic group inhabiting Lemkivshchyna, a part of Transcarpathia (spanning Ukraine, Slovakia and Poland).wikipedia
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Carpathian Ruthenia

TranscarpathiaZakarpattiaCarpathia
Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic group inhabiting Lemkivshchyna, a part of Transcarpathia (spanning Ukraine, Slovakia and Poland).
It is an ethnically diverse region, inhabited by Ukrainian, Rusyn, Lemko, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Bulgarian and Russian populations.

Lemkivshchyna

homelandLemko RegionLemkovina
Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic group inhabiting Lemkivshchyna, a part of Transcarpathia (spanning Ukraine, Slovakia and Poland).
Lemkivshchyna or Lemkovyna (Łemkowszczyzna; /Lemkovyna; Лемківщина, Lemkivshchyna) is a region in Europe that is traditionally inhabited by the Lemko people.

Hutsuls

HutsulHutsul peoplea list of Hutsul people
Other ethnic groups identifying as Rusyn and/or Ukrainian include the Boykos and Hutsuls.
While they often have been officially designated as a subgroup of Ukrainians, however Hutsuls mostly regard themselves as a part of a broader Rusyn ethnicity, alongside two other groups from the cross-border region of Transcarpathia: the Boykos and Lemkos.

Rusyn language

RusynRuthenianCarpathian Rusyn alphabets
The spoken language of the Lemkos, which has a code of rue under ISO 639-3, has been variously described as a language in its own right, a dialect of Rusyn or a dialect of Ukrainian.
Poland (traditionally in the southeast, but now mainly scattered throughout the north and west ). The Rusyn variety of Poland is generally known as Lemko (лемківскій язык – lemkivskij jazyk), after the characteristic word лем ( lem ) meaning "only", "but" and "like"

Ukrainians

UkrainianUkraineethnic Ukrainians
Their affiliation with other ethnicities is controversial, although individual Lemkos generally self-identity as a sub-group of Rusyns and/or Ukrainians. Lemkos are/were neighbours with Slovaks, Carpathian Germans and Lachy sądeckie (Poles) to the west, Pogorzans (Poles) and Dolinians (a Rusyn subgroup) to the north, Ukrainians to the east, and Slovaks to the south.
Among them the most known are Hutsuls, Volhynians, Boykos and Lemkos (otherwise known as Rusyns – a derivative of Ruthenians), each with peculiar area of settlement, dialect, dress, anthropological type and folk traditions.

Operation Vistula

Action VistulaAkcja Wisłaconquered from Germany
Additional depopulation of these lands occurred during the forced resettlement, initially to the Soviet Union (about 90,000 people) and later to Poland's newly acquired western lands (about 35,000) in the Operation Vistula campaign of the late 1940s.
Operation Vistula (Akcja Wisła) was a codename for the 1947 forced resettlement of the Ukrainian minority including Boykos and Lemkos from the south-eastern provinces of post-war Poland, to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country.

Komancza Republic

Komancza
After World War I, Lemkos founded two short-lived republics, the Lemko-Rusyn Republic in the west of Galicia, which had a russophile orientation, and the Komancza Republic, with a Ukrainophilic orientation.
The Komancza Republic, also known as the Eastern Lemko Republic, is a short-lived microstate, an association of thirty three Lemko villages, seated in Komańcza in eastern Lemkivshchyna, that existed between 4 November 1918 and 24 January 1919.

Russophiles of Galicia

RussophileRussophilesGalician Russophiles
After World War I, Lemkos founded two short-lived republics, the Lemko-Rusyn Republic in the west of Galicia, which had a russophile orientation, and the Komancza Republic, with a Ukrainophilic orientation.
Russophilia has survived longer among the Rusyn minority, especially those in Carpathian Ruthenia, the Lemkos of south-east Poland, and those in Bukovina.

Rusyns

RusynCarpatho-RusynCarpatho-Rusyns
Their affiliation with other ethnicities is controversial, although individual Lemkos generally self-identity as a sub-group of Rusyns and/or Ukrainians. Lemkos are/were neighbours with Slovaks, Carpathian Germans and Lachy sądeckie (Poles) to the west, Pogorzans (Poles) and Dolinians (a Rusyn subgroup) to the north, Ukrainians to the east, and Slovaks to the south.
The 2006 mitochondrial DNA study of Carpathian Highlanders - Lemkos, Hutsuls and Boykos people - showed a common ancestry with other modern Europeans.

Poland

🇵🇱PolishPOL
Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic group inhabiting Lemkivshchyna, a part of Transcarpathia (spanning Ukraine, Slovakia and Poland). Up until 1945, this included the area from the Poprad River in the west to the valley of Oslawa River in the east, areas situated primarily in present-day Poland, in the Lesser Poland and Subcarpathian Voivodeships (provinces). Metodyj Trochanovskij developed a Lemko Primer ('Bukvar: Perša knyžečka dlja narodnŷch škol', 1935) and a First Reader ('Druha knyžečka dlja narodnŷch škol', 1936) for use in schools in the Lemko-speaking area of Poland.
Other minority national and ethnic groups in Poland include the Romani, Polish Jews, Lemkos, Lithuanians, Armenians, Vietnamese, Slovaks, Czechs, Russians, Greeks and Lipka Tatars.

Sanok

SanockieSanockaSanocki
Additional populations can be found in Mokre, Szczawne, Kulaszne, Rzepedź, Turzańsk, Komańcza, Sanok, Nowy Sącz, and Gorlice.
Once settled by Poles, Jews and Lemkos, the town's history goes back almost 1000 years when it was part of a medieval trade route.

Ukrainian language

Ukrainianukrukr.
The spoken language of the Lemkos, which has a code of rue under ISO 639-3, has been variously described as a language in its own right, a dialect of Rusyn or a dialect of Ukrainian.
Lemko is spoken by the Lemko people, whose homeland rests outside the borders of Ukraine in the Prešov Region of Slovakia along the southern side of the Carpathian Mountains, and in the southeast of modern Poland, along the northern sides of the Carpathians.

Haplogroup I (mtDNA)

Ihaplogroup I2I5
An analysis of maternal lineages found that Lemkos have the highest frequency of Haplogroup I (mtDNA) found to that date.
It is especially common among the El Molo and Rendille peoples of Kenya, various regions of Iran, the Lemko people of Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine, the island of Krk in Croatia, the department of Finistère in France and some parts of Scotland.

Maxim Sandovich

Maximus Sandovich
Through the efforts of the martyred priest Fr. Maxim Sandovich (canonized by the Polish Orthodox Church in the 1990s), in the early 20th century, Eastern Orthodoxy was reintroduced to many Lemko areas which had accepted the Union of Brest centuries before.
He is the protomartyr of the Lemko people.

Poles

PolishPoleethnic Poles
Lemkos are/were neighbours with Slovaks, Carpathian Germans and Lachy sądeckie (Poles) to the west, Pogorzans (Poles) and Dolinians (a Rusyn subgroup) to the north, Ukrainians to the east, and Slovaks to the south.
In the east, Lesser Polish Gorals have Ruthenian-speaking Gorals (Boykos, Lemkos, Hutsuls) and Rusyns as their neighbours.

Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church

Ruthenian Catholic ChurchRuthenianRuthenian Catholic
In Poland they belong to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church with a Roman Catholic minority, or to the Ruthenian Catholic Church (see also Slovak Greek Catholic Church) in Slovakia.
Most are descendants of Rusyns – including sub-groups like the Boikos, Hutsuls and Lemkos – but the descendants of other nationalities are also present such as Slovaks, Hungarians and Croats as well as those of non-Slavic and non-Eastern European ancestry.

Podkarpackie Voivodeship

SubcarpathianPodkarpackieSubcarpathia
Up until 1945, this included the area from the Poprad River in the west to the valley of Oslawa River in the east, areas situated primarily in present-day Poland, in the Lesser Poland and Subcarpathian Voivodeships (provinces).
Lemkos

Polish Uplanders

PogorzansPogórzanieUplanders
Lemkos are/were neighbours with Slovaks, Carpathian Germans and Lachy sądeckie (Poles) to the west, Pogorzans (Poles) and Dolinians (a Rusyn subgroup) to the north, Ukrainians to the east, and Slovaks to the south.
Polish Uplanders are neighbours with: Lachy sądeckie to the west; Krakowiacy and Rzeszowiacy to the north, and; Dolinians and Lemkos (both Rusyn subgroups) to the south.

Osława

OslawaOsława River
Up until 1945, this included the area from the Poprad River in the west to the valley of Oslawa River in the east, areas situated primarily in present-day Poland, in the Lesser Poland and Subcarpathian Voivodeships (provinces).
Before World War II, the Osława line, was designated as the wild frontier between Poles and Lemkos.

Nowy Sącz

SanzNeu Sandez14 – Nowy Sącz
Additional populations can be found in Mokre, Szczawne, Kulaszne, Rzepedź, Turzańsk, Komańcza, Sanok, Nowy Sącz, and Gorlice.
Briefly after the end of the war, it was associated with the short-lived independent Lemko Rusyn People's Republic, established by members of the Lemko (a subgroup of ethnic Rusyns native to the Beskid Niski).

Krynica-Zdrój

KrynicaBad KrynicaKrenitz
Within Lemkivshchyna, Lemkos live in the villages of Łosie, Krynica-Zdrój, Nowica, Zdynia, Gładyszów, Hańczowa, Zyndranowa, Uście Gorlickie, Bartne, Binczarowa and Bielanka.
Also, part of the inhabitants of Krynica belong to the Lemko minority who speak an Eastern Slavic language called Rusyn.

Metodyj Trochanovskij

Metodyj Trochanovskij developed a Lemko Primer ('Bukvar: Perša knyžečka dlja narodnŷch škol', 1935) and a First Reader ('Druha knyžečka dlja narodnŷch škol', 1936) for use in schools in the Lemko-speaking area of Poland.
Metodyj Trochanovskij (Методий Трохановский; May 5, 1885, Binczarowa - February 15, 1948, Wroclaw ), was a Lemko activist and teacher.

Komańcza

Additional populations can be found in Mokre, Szczawne, Kulaszne, Rzepedź, Turzańsk, Komańcza, Sanok, Nowy Sącz, and Gorlice.
The wooden village church, "Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary", is considered a pearl of Eastern Lemko architecture.

Gładyszów

Within Lemkivshchyna, Lemkos live in the villages of Łosie, Krynica-Zdrój, Nowica, Zdynia, Gładyszów, Hańczowa, Zyndranowa, Uście Gorlickie, Bartne, Binczarowa and Bielanka.
According to records, in 1881 the population of Gładyszów was 760, mostly Lemko villagers as well as the Polish manor with the estate forest nearby.

Andrij Savka

Andrij Savka aka Andrew Sawka, bandit, folk hero, Lemko "Robin Hood", led peasant revolution in 1651
Andrij Savka (transliterated)/Andrew Sawka (translated)/Андрій Савка (Ukrainian) is a Lemko bandit and folk hero from Dukla.