Lemma (morphology)

lemmacitation formdictionary formlemmaslemmatacitationcitation formscanonical formdictionary formslemmatized
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).wikipedia
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Word

wordsverballexical
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).
Dictionaries categorize a language's lexicon (i.e., its vocabulary) into lemmas.

Lexeme

lexemeslexicallexical root
In English, for example, run, runs, ran and running are forms of the same lexeme, with run as the lemma.
One form, the lemma (or citation form), is chosen by convention as the canonical form of a lexeme.

Lemmatisation

lemmatizationlemmatizedlemmatiser
The process of determining the lemma for a given word is called lemmatisation.
Lemmatisation ([[American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C_-ize_.28-isation.2C_-ization.29|or]] lemmatization) in linguistics is the process of grouping together the inflected forms of a word so they can be analysed as a single item, identified by the word's lemma, or dictionary form.

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).
Generally, a lexeme is a set of inflected word-forms that is often represented with the citation form in small capitals.

Lexicography

lexicographerlexicographerslexicographical
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).

Infinitive

infinitivesinfinitivalto''-infinitive
For many languages, the citation form of a verb is the infinitive: French ', German ', Spanish .
In traditional descriptions of English, the infinitive is the basic dictionary form of a verb when used non-finitely, with or without the particle to.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
In languages with grammatical gender, the citation form of regular adjectives and nouns is usually the masculine singular.
Additionally, in many languages, gender is often closely correlated with the basic unmodified form (lemma) of the noun, and sometimes a noun can be modified to produce (for example) masculine and feminine words of similar meaning.

Markedness

unmarkedmarked(unmarked)
The form of a word that is chosen to serve as the lemma is usually the least marked form, but there are several exceptions, such as, for several languages, the use of the infinitive for verbs.

Principal parts

principal partprincipal parts of the ri-verbs
The lemma can be viewed as the chief of the principal parts, although lemmatisation is at least partly arbitrary.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
If the language additionally has cases, the citation form is often the masculine singular nominative.
The lemma form of words, which is the form chosen by convention as the canonical form of a word, is usually the most unmarked or basic case, which is typically the nominative, trigger, or absolutive case, whichever a language may have.

Root (linguistics)

rootrootsroot word
For example, chatters has the inflectional root or lemma chatter, but the lexical root chat.

Uninflected word

uninflectedindeclinablebase
If a word has an uninflected form, this is usually the form used as the lemma for the word.

Stress and vowel reduction in English

Weak and strong forms in Englishweak formReduced vowels
An example of the latter is the weak and strong forms of certain English function words such as some and but (pronounced, when stressed, but, when unstressed).
Since a word spoken in isolation, in citation form (as for example when a lexicographer determines which syllables are stressed) acquires this additional tonic stress, it may appear to be inherent in the word itself rather than derived from the utterance in which the word occurs.

Word stem

stemstemsverb stem
Lemmas or word stems are used often in corpus linguistics for determining word frequency.

Lexical Markup Framework

LMFISO 24613ISO standard Lexical Markup Framework (LMF)
The elements Lexical Resource, Global Information, Lexicon, Lexical Entry, Lemma, and Word Form define the structure of the lexicon.

Headword

head entrieslemmahead
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
In English, for example, run, runs, ran and running are forms of the same lexeme, with run as the lemma.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
Lemmas have special significance in highly inflected languages such as Arabic, Turkish and Russian.

Turkish language

TurkishModern TurkishTr
Lemmas have special significance in highly inflected languages such as Arabic, Turkish and Russian.

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
Lemmas have special significance in highly inflected languages such as Arabic, Turkish and Russian.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
For English, the citation form of a noun is the singular: e.g., mouse rather than mice.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
For English, the citation form of a noun is the singular: e.g., mouse rather than mice.

Possessive determiner

possessive adjectivepossessivespossessive adjectives
For multi-word lexemes that contain possessive adjectives or reflexive pronouns, the citation form uses a form of the indefinite pronoun one: e.g., do one's best, perjure oneself.

Reflexive pronoun

reflexiveHimselfHerself
For multi-word lexemes that contain possessive adjectives or reflexive pronouns, the citation form uses a form of the indefinite pronoun one: e.g., do one's best, perjure oneself.