Leo Tolstoy

TolstoyLev TolstoyTolstoiCount TolstoyL. TolstoyL.N. TolstoyLeo TolstoiTolstoyanLeon Tolstoy Tolstoy
Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: Лев Николаевич Толстой, tr. ; ; 9 September 1828 20 November 1910), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time.wikipedia
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War and Peace

War & PeaceTolstoy's novelbook
Born to an aristocratic Russian family in 1828, he is best known for the novels War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1877), often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction.
War and Peace (pre-reform Russian: Война и миръ; post-reform Война и мир ) is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy.

Anna Karenina

novelnovel of the same namethe novel
Born to an aristocratic Russian family in 1828, he is best known for the novels War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1877), often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction.
Anna Karenina is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy, first published in book form in 1878.

Hadji Murat (novel)

Hadji Murata famous novellaHadji Murad
Tolstoy's fiction includes dozens of short stories and several novellas such as The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886), Family Happiness (1859), and Hadji Murad (1912).
Hadji Murat (or alternatively Hadji Murad, although the first spelling better captures the original title in Хаджи-Мурат [Khadzhi-Murat]) is a short novel written by Leo Tolstoy from 1896 to 1904 and published posthumously in 1912 (though not in full until 1917).

The Death of Ivan Ilyich

Ivan Ilyich
Tolstoy's fiction includes dozens of short stories and several novellas such as The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886), Family Happiness (1859), and Hadji Murad (1912).
The Death of Ivan Ilyich (Смерть Ивана Ильича, Smert' Ivána Ilyichá), first published in 1886, is a novella by Leo Tolstoy, considered one of the masterpieces of his late fiction, written shortly after his religious conversion of the late 1870s.

Christian anarchism

Christian anarchistChristian anarchistsanarchist
His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist.
Leo Tolstoy's The Kingdom of God Is Within You is often regarded as a key text for modern Christian anarchism.

Nonviolent resistance

passive resistancenon-violent resistancepeaceful protest
Tolstoy's ideas on nonviolent resistance, expressed in such works as The Kingdom of God Is Within You (1894), were to have a profound impact on such pivotal 20th-century figures as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Tolstoy also became a dedicated advocate of Georgism, the economic philosophy of Henry George, which he incorporated into his writing, particularly Resurrection (1899).
Major nonviolent resistance advocates include Mahatma Gandhi, Henry David Thoreau, Te Whiti o Rongomai, Tohu Kākahi, Leo Tolstoy, Alice Paul, Martin Luther King, Jr, Daniel Berrigan, Philip Berrigan, James Bevel, Václav Havel, Andrei Sakharov, Lech Wałęsa, Gene Sharp, Nelson Mandela, and many others.

The Kingdom of God Is Within You

Tolstoy's ideas on nonviolent resistance, expressed in such works as The Kingdom of God Is Within You (1894), were to have a profound impact on such pivotal 20th-century figures as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Tolstoy also became a dedicated advocate of Georgism, the economic philosophy of Henry George, which he incorporated into his writing, particularly Resurrection (1899).
The Kingdom of God Is Within You (pre-reform Russian: Царство Божіе внутри васъ; post-reform ) is a non-fiction book written by Leo Tolstoy.

Sevastopol Sketches

SevastopolThe Sebastopol Sketches
He first achieved literary acclaim in his twenties with his semi-autobiographical trilogy, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852–1856), and Sevastopol Sketches (1855), based upon his experiences in the Crimean War.
The Sevastopol Sketches, called in English translations the Sebastopol Sketches (pre-reform ; post-reform ), also published in English as Sevastopol, are three short stories written by Leo Tolstoy and published in 1855 to record his experiences during the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855).

Resurrection (novel)

Resurrectionnovellast novel
Tolstoy's ideas on nonviolent resistance, expressed in such works as The Kingdom of God Is Within You (1894), were to have a profound impact on such pivotal 20th-century figures as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Tolstoy also became a dedicated advocate of Georgism, the economic philosophy of Henry George, which he incorporated into his writing, particularly Resurrection (1899).
Resurrection (pre-reform Russian: Воскресеніе; post-reform ), first published in 1899, was the last novel written by Leo Tolstoy.

Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy

Pyotr TolstoyPeter TolstoiTolstoi
The Tolstoys were a well-known family of old Russian nobility who traced their ancestry to a mythical nobleman named Indris described by Pyotr Tolstoy as arriving "from Nemec, from the lands of Caesar" to Chernigov in 1353 along with his two sons Litvinos (or Litvonis) and Zimonten (or Zigmont) and a druzhina of 3000 people.
He was the ancestor of all the Counts Tolstoy, including the novelist Leo Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28], 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7], 1910) and Alexei Tolstoy the writer.

Boyhood (novel)

BoyhoodBoyhood'' (novel)
He first achieved literary acclaim in his twenties with his semi-autobiographical trilogy, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852–1856), and Sevastopol Sketches (1855), based upon his experiences in the Crimean War.
Boyhood (Отрочество, Otrochestvo) is the second novel in Leo Tolstoy's autobiographical trilogy, following Childhood and followed by Youth.

Yasnaya Polyana

Jasna Polana
Tolstoy was born at Yasnaya Polyana, a family estate 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) southwest of Tula, Russia, and 200 kilometers (120 mi) south of Moscow.
Yasnaya Polyana (, literally: "Bright Glade") is a writer's house museum, the former home of the writer Leo Tolstoy.

Family Happiness

Tolstoy's fiction includes dozens of short stories and several novellas such as The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886), Family Happiness (1859), and Hadji Murad (1912).
Family Happiness (pre-reform Russian: Семейное счастіе; post-reform ) is an 1859 novella written by Leo Tolstoy, first published in The Russian Messenger.

Childhood (novel)

ChildhoodChildhood'' (novel)
He first achieved literary acclaim in his twenties with his semi-autobiographical trilogy, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852–1856), and Sevastopol Sketches (1855), based upon his experiences in the Crimean War.
Childhood (pre-reform Russian: Дѣтство; post-reform ) is the first published novel by Leo Tolstoy, released under the initials L. N. in the November 1852 issue of the popular Russian literary journal The Contemporary.

Kazan Federal University

Kazan UniversityKazan State UniversityUniversity of Kazan
In 1844, he began studying law and oriental languages at Kazan University.
Among the university students and alumni there are outstanding scholars and famous people such as the founder of the Soviet Union Vladimir Lenin, writers Sergei Aksakov, Leo Tolstoy, Pavel Melnikov-Pechersky, Velimir Khlebnikov, composer Mily Balakirev, and painter Valery Yakobi.

Tirukkuṛaḷ

KuralKural literatureThirukkural
Tolstoy's concept of non-violence or Ahimsa was bolstered when he read a German version of the Tirukkural.
Authors influenced by the Kural include Ilango Adigal, Kambar, Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Schweitzer, Constantius Joseph Beschi, Karl Graul, George Uglow Pope, Alexander Piatigorsky, and Yu Hsi, many of whom have translated the work into their languages.

A Letter to a Hindu

Letter to a Hindu
He later instilled the concept in Mahatma Gandhi through his A Letter to a Hindu when young Gandhi corresponded with him seeking his advice.
"A Letter to a Hindu" (also known as "A Letter to a Hindoo") was a letter written by Leo Tolstoy to Tarak Nath Das on 14 December 1908.

Tolstoy family

TolstoyCount TolstoyCounts Tolstoy
The Tolstoys were a well-known family of old Russian nobility who traced their ancestry to a mythical nobleman named Indris described by Pyotr Tolstoy as arriving "from Nemec, from the lands of Caesar" to Chernigov in 1353 along with his two sons Litvinos (or Litvonis) and Zimonten (or Zigmont) and a druzhina of 3000 people.
Alexander Griboyedov satirized him in Woe from Wit, and his cousin Leo Tolstoy — who called him an "extraordinary, criminal, and attractive man" — fictionalized him as Dolokhov in War and Peace.

Democratic education

democratic schooldemocraticfree school
However, as a direct forerunner to A.S. Neill's Summerhill School, the school at Yasnaya Polyana can justifiably be claimed the first example of a coherent theory of democratic education.
While Locke and Rousseau were concerned only with the education of the children of the wealthy, in the 19th century Leo Tolstoy set up a school for peasant children.

Sophia Tolstaya

Sofya TolstoySophiaS. A. Tolstaya
On 23 September 1862, Tolstoy married Sophia Andreevna Behrs, who was 16 years his junior and the daughter of a court physician.
Countess Sophia Andreyevna Tolstaya (née Behrs; Со́фья Андре́евна Толста́я, sometimes Anglicised as Sophia Tolstoy; 22 August 1844 – 4 November 1919), was a Russian diarist, and the wife of Russian writer Leo Tolstoy.

A Confession

Confession
In the 1870s Tolstoy experienced a profound moral crisis, followed by what he regarded as an equally profound spiritual awakening, as outlined in his non-fiction work A Confession (1882).
A Confession (pre-reform Russian: Исповѣдь; post-reform ), or My Confession, is a short work on the subject of melancholia, philosophy and religion by the acclaimed Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy.

Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55)

Siege of SevastopolSebastopolSiege of Sebastopol
Tolstoy served as a young artillery officer during the Crimean War and was in Sevastopol during the 11-month-long siege of Sevastopol in 1854–55, including the Battle of the Chernaya.
The Siege of Sevastopol was the subject of Crimean soldier Leo Tolstoy's Sebastopol Sketches and the subject of the first Russian feature film, Defence of Sevastopol.

Sermon on the Mount

literal interpretation of the Sermon on the MountThe Sermon on the Mount5:15
His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist.
Various religious and moral thinkers (e.g. Tolstoy and Gandhi) have admired its message, and it has been one of the main sources of Christian pacifism.

Viktoria Tolstoy

Among them are Swedish jazz singer Viktoria Tolstoy and the Swedish landowner Christopher Paus, whose family owns the major estate Herresta outside Stockholm.
She is the daughter of Erik Kjellberg and the great-great-granddaughter of Russian writer Leo Tolstoy.

Tatiana Sukhotina-Tolstaya

Tatyana TolstayaCountess Tatyana Lvovna Tolstaya
Countess Tatyana Lvovna Tolstaya (1864–1950), wife of Mikhail Sergeevich Sukhotin
She is the second child and oldest daughter of Russian writer Leo Tolstoy.