Leptin

leptin resistanceLEPlectinOb gene
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin") is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells and enterocytes in the small intestine that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger, which in turn diminishes fat storage in adipocytes.wikipedia
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Enterocyte

enterocytescellsintestinal cells
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin") is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells and enterocytes in the small intestine that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger, which in turn diminishes fat storage in adipocytes.
Enterocytes also have a endocrine role, secreting hormones such as leptin.

Hunger (motivational state)

hungersatietycontrol of food intake
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin") is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells and enterocytes in the small intestine that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger, which in turn diminishes fat storage in adipocytes.
Leptin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue, acts as hunger suppressant.

Adipose tissue

adiposebody fatfat
;Function: The primary function of the hormone leptin is the regulation of adipose tissue mass through central hypothalamus mediated effects on hunger, food energy use, physical exercise and energy balance.
Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and cytokine (especially TNFα).

Hunger

hungrysatietyEnd hunger
;Function: The primary function of the hormone leptin is the regulation of adipose tissue mass through central hypothalamus mediated effects on hunger, food energy use, physical exercise and energy balance.
The hormones Peptide YY and Leptin can have an opposite effect on the appetite, causing the sensation of being full.

Leptin receptor

LEPRCD295db/db mouse
;Location of action: Leptin acts directly on leptin receptors in the cell membrane of different types of cells in the human body in particular, and in vertebrates in general.
LEP-R functions as a receptor for the fat cell-specific hormone leptin.

Energy homeostasis

energy balanceenergy expenditureenergy intake
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin") is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells and enterocytes in the small intestine that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger, which in turn diminishes fat storage in adipocytes. ;Function: The primary function of the hormone leptin is the regulation of adipose tissue mass through central hypothalamus mediated effects on hunger, food energy use, physical exercise and energy balance.
Hunger is regulated in part by the action of certain peptide hormones and neuropeptides (e.g., insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y, among others) in the hypothalamus.

Agouti-related peptide

agouti-related proteinAGRPAgouti related peptide
Leptin receptor activation inhibits neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and activates α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH).
The appetite-stimulating effects of AgRP are inhibited by the hormone leptin and activated by the hormone ghrelin.

Hypothalamus

hypothalamicanterior hypothalamushypothalamic hormones
Leptin acts on cell receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
In the case of prolactin and leptin, there is evidence of active uptake at the choroid plexus from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs (similar to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes), resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores and high levels of leptin.
This field of research had been almost unapproached until the leptin gene was discovered in 1994 by J. M. Friedman's laboratory.

Arcuate nucleus

infundibular nucleusNucleus arcuatusarcuate
Leptin acts on cell receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Leptin binds to neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons in the arcuate nucleus in such a way as to decrease the activity of these neurons.

Hyperemesis gravidarum

hyperemesisHyperemesis Graviderumsevere nausea and vomiting
Leptin plays a role in hyperemesis gravidarum (severe morning sickness of pregnancy), in polycystic ovary syndrome and hypothalamic leptin is implicated in bone growth in mice.
Leptin, a hormone that inhibits hunger, may also play a role.

Neuropeptide Y

NPYneuropeptide Y (NPY)neuropeptide-y
Leptin binds to neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons in the arcuate nucleus in such a way as to decrease the activity of these neurons.

Insulin

insulin geneINShuman insulin
In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs (similar to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes), resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores and high levels of leptin. Increased levels of melatonin causes a downregulation of leptin, however, melatonin also appears to increase leptin levels in the presence of insulin, therefore causing a decrease in appetite during sleeping.

Adipocyte

adipocytesfat cellsfat cell
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin") is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells and enterocytes in the small intestine that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger, which in turn diminishes fat storage in adipocytes.
White fat cells secrete many proteins acting as adipokines such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin.

Melatonin

CircadinmelatonergicN-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
Increased levels of melatonin causes a downregulation of leptin, however, melatonin also appears to increase leptin levels in the presence of insulin, therefore causing a decrease in appetite during sleeping.
During the night, melatonin regulates leptin, lowering its levels.

Peptide YY

PYYPYY 3-36 peptide YY 3-36
Leptin also reduces appetite in response to feeding, but obese people develop a resistance to leptin.

Kisspeptin

KISS1KissKiSS-1
Leptin along with kisspeptin controls the onset of puberty.

Insulin resistance

insulin sensitivityresistantinsulin resistant
These people show resistance to leptin, similar to resistance of insulin in type 2 diabetes, with the elevated levels failing to control hunger and modulate their weight.
Leptin, a hormone produced from the ob gene and adipocytes Its physiological role is to regulate hunger by alerting the body when it is full.

Lipodystrophy

partial lipodystrophyfat redistributionabnormal fat deposition
Leptin was approved in the United States in 2014 for use in congenital leptin deficiency and generalized lipodystrophy. The medicine is used in adults and children above the age of 2 years with generalised lipodystrophy (Berardinelli-Seip syndrome and Lawrence syndrome); and in adults and children above the age of 12 years with partial lipodystrophy (including Barraquer-Simons syndrome), when standard treatments have failed.
This condition is also characterized by a lack of circulating leptin which may lead to osteosclerosis.

Rudolph Leibel

In 1990 Rudolph Leibel and Jeffrey M. Friedman reported mapping of the db gene.
Leibel's co-discovery at Rockefeller University of the hormone leptin, and cloning of the leptin and leptin receptor genes, has had a major role in the area of understanding human obesity.

Metreleptin

An analog of human leptin metreleptin (trade names Myalept, Myalepta) was first approved in Japan in 2013, and in the United States in February 2014 and in Europe in 2018.
Metreleptin (trade names Myalept, Myalepta) is a synthetic analog of the hormone leptin used to treat diabetes and various forms of dyslipidemia.

Acquired generalized lipodystrophy

Lawrence syndromeLawrence–Seip syndrome
The medicine is used in adults and children above the age of 2 years with generalised lipodystrophy (Berardinelli-Seip syndrome and Lawrence syndrome); and in adults and children above the age of 12 years with partial lipodystrophy (including Barraquer-Simons syndrome), when standard treatments have failed.
The hallmark characteristics are widespread loss of subcutaneous fat, ectopic fat deposition, leptin deficiency, and severe metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance.

Jose F. Caro

J. F. CaroJ.F. Caro
In 1995, Jose F. Caro's laboratory provided evidence that the mutations in the mouse ob gene did not occur in humans.
The Institute for Scientific Information listed him the third most cited investigator in the world in the field of obesity research during the 1991-2000 period for his work on Leptin.

Jeffrey M. Friedman

Jeffrey Friedman
In 1990 Rudolph Leibel and Jeffrey M. Friedman reported mapping of the db gene.
His discovery of the hormone leptin and its role in regulating body weight has had a major role in the area of human obesity.

Douglas L. Coleman

Douglas Coleman
In the 1960s, a second mutation causing obesity and a similar phenotype was identified by Douglas Coleman, also at the Jackson Laboratory, and was named diabetes (db), as both ob/ob and db/db were obese.
His work predicted that the ob gene encoded the hormone leptin, later co-discovered in 1994 by Jeffrey Friedman, Rudolph Leibel and their research teams at Rockefeller University.