Lesotho

Kingdom of LesothoMosothoBasutolandLesothanBasothoSothoCulture of LesothoBasutoLS Kingdom of Lesotho
Lesotho, officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country within the border of South Africa.wikipedia
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Enclave and exclave

exclaveenclaveexclaves
Lesotho, officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country within the border of South Africa.
Vatican City and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are completely enclaved states.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
Lesotho, officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country within the border of South Africa.
It is bounded to the south by 2,798 km of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho.

Maseru

Maseru, Lesotho
Its capital and largest city is Maseru. Following the cession in 1869, the British transferred functions from Moshoeshoe's capital in Thaba Bosiu to a police camp on the northwest border, Maseru, until eventually the administration of Basutoland was transferred to the Cape Colony in 1871. According to a government statement, Moshoeshoe had set out at 1 am to visit his cattle at Matsieng and was returning to Maseru through the Maluti Mountains when his car left the road.
Maseru is the capital and largest city of Lesotho.

Moshoeshoe I

MoshoeshoeMosheshKing Moshoeshoe I
Modern Lesotho, then called Basutoland, emerged as a single polity under King Moshoeshoe I in 1822.
1786 – 11 March 1870) was born at Menkhoaneng in the northern part of present-day Lesotho.

San people

SanBushmenBushman
The original inhabitants of the area now known as Lesotho were the San people.
The San or Saan peoples, also known as the "Bushmen" (also Sākhoen, Sonqua, and in Afrikaans: Boesmans, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language), are members of various Khoesān-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer groups that are the first nations of Southern Africa, and whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa.

Basutoland

Territory of BasutolandResident Commissioner in BasutolandBritish Basutoland
Lesotho was previously the British Crown Colony of Basutoland, but it declared independence from the United Kingdom on 4 October 1966. Trekboers from the Cape Colony arrived on the western borders of Basutoland and claimed rights to its land, the first of which being Jan de Winnaar, who settled in the Matlakeng area in May–June 1838.
Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon its independence from the United Kingdom on 4 October 1966.

Mfecane

DifaqaneLifaqaneDifaqane wars
Between 1821 and 1823, he and his followers settled at the Butha-Buthe Mountain, joining with former adversaries in resistance against the Lifaqane associated with the reign of Shaka Zulu from 1818 to 1828.
The movement of people caused many tribes to try to dominate those in new territories, leading to widespread warfare; consolidation of other groups, such as the Matebele, the Mfengu and the Makololo; and the creation of states such as the modern Lesotho.

Butha-Buthe

Botha-Bothe
Between 1821 and 1823, he and his followers settled at the Butha-Buthe Mountain, joining with former adversaries in resistance against the Lifaqane associated with the reign of Shaka Zulu from 1818 to 1828.
Butha-Buthe is the capital city or camptown of the Butha-Buthe District in Lesotho.

Caledon River

CaledonMohokare RiverCaledon river valley
As more Boers were moving into the area they tried to colonise the land between the two rivers and even north of the Caledon, claiming that it had been abandoned by the Sotho people.
The Caledon River (Mohokare) is a major river located in central South Africa, rising in the Drakensberg Mountains on the Lesotho border, flowing southwestward and then westward before joining the Orange River near Bethulie in the southern Free State.

Commonwealth of Nations

CommonwealthBritish CommonwealthCommonwealth countries
It is now a fully sovereign state that is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
The position is symbolic, representing the free association of independent members, the majority of which (32) are republics, and five have monarchs of different royal houses (Brunei, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malaysia, and Tonga).

Southern African Development Community

SADCSouthern Africa Development CommunitySADC PF
It is now a fully sovereign state that is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
Its original members were Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, with Malawi and Seychelles joining later.

Morija

Missionaries invited by Moshoeshoe I, Thomas Arbousset, Eugène Casalis and Constant Gosselin from the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, placed at Morija, developed orthography and printed works in the Sesotho language between 1837 and 1855.
Morija is a town in western Lesotho, located 35 kilometres south of the capital, Maseru.

Zastron

Matlakeng
Trekboers from the Cape Colony arrived on the western borders of Basutoland and claimed rights to its land, the first of which being Jan de Winnaar, who settled in the Matlakeng area in May–June 1838.
Zastron is a small agricultural town in the Free State province of South Africa, some 30 km from the border of Lesotho.

Lesotho Liberation Army

LLA
BCP began a rebellion and then received training in Libya for its Lesotho Liberation Army (LLA) under the pretense of being Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) soldiers of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC).
The Lesotho Liberation Army (LLA) was a guerrilla movement in Lesotho, formed in the mid-1970s and connected to the anti-Apartheid Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA).

1970 Lesotho general election

general election19701970 election
In January 1970, the ruling Basotho National Party (BNP) lost the first post-independence general elections, with 23 seats to the Basutoland Congress Party's 36.
General elections were held in Lesotho on 27 and 28 January 1970, the first since independence in 1966.

Basotho National Party

Basotholand National PartyBasutoland National PartyBNP
In January 1970, the ruling Basotho National Party (BNP) lost the first post-independence general elections, with 23 seats to the Basutoland Congress Party's 36.
The Basotho National Party is a political party in Lesotho, founded in the 1959 as the Basutoland National Party by Leabua Jonathan.

Basuto Gun War

Gun WarBasuto WarBasutoland Gun War
In the early years of British rule between 1871 and 1884, Basutoland was treated similarly to other territories that had been forcibly annexed, much to the humiliation of the Basotho, leading to a Gun War in 1881.
The Gun War, also known as the Basuto War, was an 1880-1881 conflict in the British territory of Basutoland (present-day Lesotho) in Southern Africa, fought between Cape Colony forces and rebellious Basotho chiefs over the right of natives to bear arms.

Crown colony

British colonyBritish coloniesBritish Crown Colony
Lesotho was previously the British Crown Colony of Basutoland, but it declared independence from the United Kingdom on 4 October 1966.

Ntsu Mokhehle

Ntsu Clement Mokhehle
The campaign was severely compromised when BCP's leader, Ntsu Mokhehle, went to Pretoria.
Clement Ntsu Sejabanana Mokhehle (26 December 1918 – 6 January 1999) was a Lesotho politician.

Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho

Moshoeshoe IIKing Moshoeshoe II Moshoeshoe II
The Transitional Military Council that came to power granted executive powers to King Moshoeshoe II, who was until then a ceremonial monarch.
Moshoeshoe II (May 2, 1938 – January 15, 1996), previously known as Constantine Bereng Seeiso, was the paramount chief of Lesotho, succeeding paramount chief Seeiso from 1960 until the country gained full independence from Britain in 1966.

Thaba Bosiu

Thaba BosigoThaba-Bosiu
Following the cession in 1869, the British transferred functions from Moshoeshoe's capital in Thaba Bosiu to a police camp on the northwest border, Maseru, until eventually the administration of Basutoland was transferred to the Cape Colony in 1871.
It is located between the Orange and Caledon Rivers in the Maseru District of Lesotho, 24 km east of the country's capital Maseru.

Paris Evangelical Missionary Society

a French movementFrench Missionaries
Missionaries invited by Moshoeshoe I, Thomas Arbousset, Eugène Casalis and Constant Gosselin from the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, placed at Morija, developed orthography and printed works in the Sesotho language between 1837 and 1855.
The SMEP opened several areas of operation, notably in Africa (in particular, Lesotho) and Oceania.

Basutoland Congress Party

Basotho Congress PartyBasutoland African CongressBCP
Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan refused to cede power to the Basotho Congress Party (BCP), and instead declared himself Tona Kholo (Sesotho translation of prime minister), and imprisoned the BCP leadership.
The Basutoland Congress Party is a pan-africanist and left-wing political party in Lesotho.

San rock art

paintingsSan rock paintingrock art
Examples of their rock art can be found in the mountains throughout the area.
The Drakensberg and Lesotho is particularly well known for its San rock art.

Maloti Mountains

Maluti MountainsMalotiMaloti Range
According to a government statement, Moshoeshoe had set out at 1 am to visit his cattle at Matsieng and was returning to Maseru through the Maluti Mountains when his car left the road.
The Maloti Mountains are a mountain range of the highlands of the Kingdom of Lesotho.